Cyclin D1 gene polymorphism is associated with increased risk of urinary bladder cancer
Cyclin D1 is believed to play an important role in the genesis and/or progression of transitional cell cancer (TCC) of the urinary bladder. Cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) mRNA is alternatively spliced to produce two transcripts, and the splicing pattern may be modulated by a G to A single nucleotide polymorphism within the splice donor site of exon 4. This study was conducted to explore the association between the polymorphism and the susceptibility to and disease status of TCC of the bladder in 222 cases and 317 native Japanese controls. The relationship between the CCND1 polymorphism and the mRNA splicing pattern in TCC cells was evaluated by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. The CCND1 A allele was more frequently observed in the TCC group than the control group (P = 0.032) with a significant difference in the genotype frequency between the two groups (P = 0.029). The AA genotype was associated with a significantly higher risk of TCC compared with the AG+GG genotypes (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09-2.84, P = 0.022). This association was observed more significantly in nonsmoking cases (aOR = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.28-4.51, P = 0.008). Looking at tumor grade, the presence of the A allele was associated with higher grade (= grade 3) tumors with a gene dosage effect (aOR = 1.77, CI = 1.16-2.69, P = 0.008). In tumor stage, although not significant, the AA + AG genotypes tended to be more frequently observed in cases with T1-4 tumors than those with Ta tumors (aOR = 1.94, 95% CI = 0.98-3.82, P = 0.057). The genotype seemed to influence the two alternatively spliced forms of the CCND1 mRNA because the ratio of the CCND1 transcript-b/transcript-a was significantly higher in cases with the AA genotype compared with those with the AG + GG genotypes. These data suggest that the CCND1 variant A allele may be associated with an increased risk of TCC of the bladder, especially in men without a history of smoking, and it may also have an effect on its disease status.