Georgiou, N. A. et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication inhibition by the bidentate iron chelators CP502 and CP511 is caused by proliferation inhibition and the onset of apoptosis. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 32 (Suppl. 1), 91-96

Department of Internal Medicine and Eijkman-Winkler Institute for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Inflammation, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands.
European Journal of Clinical Investigation (Impact Factor: 2.73). 04/2002; 32 Suppl 1(s1):91-6. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2362.2002.0320s1091.x
Source: PubMed


BACKGROUNd: The iron chelators deferoxamine (DF) and deferiprone (CP20) have been shown to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The orally active bidentate chelators CP502 and CP511, which also belong to the 3-hydroxypyridin-4-one family, but with higher affinities for iron than CP20, were monitored for their antiviral properties by checking for p24 antigen production and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation, and their ability to induce apoptosis.
Human PBLs were isolated from HIV-1 seronegative donors and subsequently infected with HIV-1(Ba-L) for 2 h. After 5 days' incubation, HIV-1 replication was monitored by p24 antigen production. Cellular proliferation as well as caspase-3 activity were monitored in uninfected cells after a period of 5 days and after 1 day infection, respectively. NF-kappaB activity was also monitored by electromobility shift assays (EMSA) performed on nuclear extracts of Jurkat cells treated with the different chelators for 4 h.
CP502 and CP511 decrease HIV-1 replication by decreasing cellular proliferation in a similar manner to DF and CP20. CP511 seemed to be more potent than either CP502 or CP20. Due to the reduction in cellular proliferation, there was an increase in caspase-3 activity after 24 h incubation. NF-kappaB activity was not affected by any of the chelators.
Iron chelators with high affinities for iron, which are under development for the treatment of iron overload, could contribute to the reduction of HIV-1 replication in infected patients by cellular proliferation inhibition rather than by a direct antiviral action.

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Available from: Joannes J M Marx, Jan 25, 2014
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    • "Iron chelation therapy has been considered for the control of various infections such as those mediated by protozoa or intracellular pathogens (Hershko, 1994). Several studies have demonstrated the potential of iron chelators in inhibiting HIV replication (Georgiou et al., 2000, 2002; Traoré and Meyer, 2004). In cultured T cells, excess iron stimulates HIV-1 viral replication, whereas iron chelation with desferrioxamine (DFO) lowers viral replication, as measured by decreased p24 levels and reverse transcriptase (RT) activity (Traoré and Meyer, 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 transcription is activated by HIV-1 Tat protein, which recruits cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9)/cyclin T1 and other host transcriptional coactivators to the HIV-1 promoter. Tat itself is phosphorylated by CDK2, and inhibition of CDK2 by small interfering RNA, the iron chelator 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (311), and the iron chelator deferasirox (ICL670) inhibits HIV-1 transcription. Here we have analyzed a group of novel di-2-pyridylketone thiosemicarbazone- and 2-benzoylpyridine thiosemicarbazone-based iron chelators that exhibit marked anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:7670-7675, 2006; J Med Chem 50:3716-3729, 2007). Several of these iron chelators, in particular 2-benzoylpyridine 4-allyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Bp4aT) and 2-benzoylpyridine 4-ethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Bp4eT), inhibited HIV-1 transcription and replication at much lower concentrations than did 311 and ICL670. Neither Bp4aT nor Bp4eT were toxic after a 24-h incubation. However, longer incubations for 48 h or 72 h resulted in cytotoxicity. Analysis of the molecular mechanism of HIV-1 inhibition showed that the novel iron chelators inhibited basal HIV-1 transcription, but not the nuclear factor-κB-dependent transcription or transcription from an HIV-1 promoter with inactivated SP1 sites. The chelators inhibited the activities of CDK2 and CDK9/cyclin T1, suggesting that inhibition of CDK9 may contribute to the inhibition of HIV-1 transcription. Our study suggests the potential usefulness of Bp4aT or Bp4eT in antiretroviral regimens, particularly where resistance to standard treatment occurs.
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    • "This lack of inhibition is consistent with its lack of clinical antiretroviral activity [78]. Several other chelators have been reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication via various possible mechanisms [58,79-82], among them the biologically distinct tridentate drug deferasirox (ICL670) [83]. Agent P2, a bidentate chelation homolog of CPX lacking its hydrophobic cyclohexyl group, displayed little or no activity in our cell-based assays. "
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    ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5A has been implicated in HIV-1 replication. This protein contains the apparently unique amino acid hypusine that is formed by the post-translational modification of a lysine residue catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH). DOHH activity is inhibited by two clinically used drugs, the topical fungicide ciclopirox and the systemic medicinal iron chelator deferiprone. Deferiprone has been reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication in tissue culture. Ciclopirox and deferiprone blocked HIV-1 replication in PBMCs. To examine the underlying mechanisms, we investigated the action of the drugs on eIF5A modification and HIV-1 gene expression in model systems. At early times after drug exposure, both drugs inhibited substrate binding to DOHH and prevented the formation of mature eIF5A. Viral gene expression from HIV-1 molecular clones was suppressed at the RNA level independently of all viral genes. The inhibition was specific for the viral promoter and occurred at the level of HIV-1 transcription initiation. Partial knockdown of eIF5A-1 by siRNA led to inhibition of HIV-1 gene expression that was non-additive with drug action. These data support the importance of eIF5A and hypusine formation in HIV-1 gene expression. At clinically relevant concentrations, two widely used drugs blocked HIV-1 replication ex vivo. They specifically inhibited expression from the HIV-1 promoter at the level of transcription initiation. Both drugs interfered with the hydroxylation step in the hypusine modification of eIF5A. These results have profound implications for the potential therapeutic use of these drugs as antiretrovirals and for the development of optimized analogs.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Retrovirology
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    • "Treatment of monocyte-derived macrophages and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) with DFO or deferiprone (CP20) reduced expression of p24 and also cellular proliferation (Georgiou et al., 2000). The orally active bidentate chelators CP502 and CP511 decreased HIV-1 replication and cellular proliferation in a manner similar to DFO and CP20 (Georgiou et al., 2002). Reduction of HIV-1 replication by DFO or by hydroxypyridinone bidentate chelators may be through inhibition of cellular proliferation rather than by a direct antiviral action. "
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 replication is induced by an excess of iron and iron chelation by desferrioxamine (DFO) inhibits viral replication by reducing proliferation of infected cells. Treatment of cells with DFO and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (311) inhibit expression of proteins that regulate cell-cycle progression, including cycle-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). Our recent studies showed that CDK2 participates in HIV-1 transcription and viral replication suggesting that inhibition of CDK2 by iron chelators might also affect HIV-1 transcription. Here we evaluated the effect of a clinically approved orally effective iron chelator, 4-[3,5-bis-(hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-benzoic acid (ICL670) and 311 on HIV-1 transcription. Both ICL670 and 311 inhibited Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription in CEM-T cells, 293T and HeLa cells. Neither ICL670 nor 311 induced cytotoxicity at concentrations that inhibited HIV-1 transcription. The chelators decreased cellular activity of CDK2 and reduced HIV-1 Tat phosphorylation by CDK2. Neither ICL670A or 311 decreased CDK9 protein level but significantly reduced association of CDK9 with cyclin T1 and reduced phosphorylation of Ser-2 residues of RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain. In conclusion, our findings add to the evidence that iron chelators can inhibit HIV-1 transcription by deregulating CDK2 and CDK9. Further consideration should be given to the development of iron chelators for future anti-retroviral therapeutics.
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