There is a high incidence of perioperative morbidity and mortality in patients with obstructive jaundice due to sepsis. Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-alpha) is considered a crucial mediator in inducing and processing the inflammatory cascade. We hypothesize that obstructive jaundice leads to an increased endotoxin-induced TNF-alpha production and that intestinal bile acid replacement can prevent this phenomenon. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to three groups of 12 animals each. Group 1 underwent common bile duct ligation (CBDL) with oral intestinal bile acid (deoxycholic acid 5 mg/100 g body weight/3 times daily) replacement (CBDL + bile acid); group 2 underwent common bile duct ligation with the same amount of normal saline replacement orally (CBDL + saline); and group 3 underwent a sham operation (sham control). After 2 days, endotoxin was given to the animals, and after 90 minutes, tissues (liver and lung) and blood were collected for checking the TNF-alpha levels and biochemical analyses. Comparisons among these three groups were performed and recorded. While serum and tissue (liver and lung) TNF-alpha levels of group 2 (CBDL + saline) were significantly increased after endotoxin challenge, these elevations were reduced to control levels (sham control) following oral replacement of intestinal bile acid (CBDL + bile acid). Obstructive jaundice leads to an increased endotoxin-induced TNF-alpha production and intestinal bile acid replacement can inhibit this phenomenon.