Species variations in the biliary and urinary excretion of arsenate, arsenite and their metabolites

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, University of Pécs, Medical School, Szigeti út 12, H-7643 Pécs, Hungary.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.3). 04/2002; 131(3):355-65. DOI: 10.1016/S1532-0456(02)00018-2
Source: PubMed


In most mammalian species, inorganic arsenicals are extensively biotransformed and excreted both in unchanged form and as metabolites. In the bile of rats receiving arsenate (AsV) or arsenite (AsIII) we have identified monomethylarsonous acid (MMAsIII), purportedly the most toxic metabolite of inorganic arsenic. As rats are not commonly accepted for studying arsenic metabolism, we carried out a comparative investigation on the excretion of AsV, AsIII and their metabolites in five animal species in order to determine whether they also form MMAsIII from AsV and AsIII. Anaesthetised bile duct-cannulated rats, mice, hamsters, rabbits, and guinea pigs were injected with AsV or AsIII (50 micromol/kg, i.v.) and their bile and urine was collected for 2 h. Arsenic in bile and urine was speciated by HPLC-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry and the excretion rates of AsV, AsIII, monomethylarsonic acid (MMAsV), MMAsIII and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAsV) were quantified. All species injected with AsV excreted arsenic preferentially into urine, whereas all animals receiving AsIII, except rabbits, delivered more arsenic into bile than urine. Bile contained almost exclusively trivalent arsenic (i.e. AsIII and/or MMAsIII), whereas AsV, AsIII and DMAsV appeared in urine. Except for guinea pigs, which do not methylate arsenic, the other species formed MMAsIII and excreted it into bile. Having excreted as much as 8% of the dose of AsIII or AsV in 2 h as MMAsIII, rats were by far the most efficient producers of this supertoxic metabolite. Thus, although the rat is not a good model for studying long-term arsenic disposition, this species appears especially valuable in studies on AsIII methyltransferase and in vivo formation of MMAsIII.

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Available from: Iván L Csanaky, Mar 07, 2014
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    • "Acetyl-CoA was synthesized according to methods described previously (Simon and Shemin, 1953; Srere et al., 1963). The sources of chemicals used in arsenic speciation have been given elsewhere (Csanaky et al., 2003; Németi and Gregus, 2002). All other chemicals were of the highest purity commercially available. "
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    ABSTRACT: Enzymes catalyzing the phosphorolytic cleavage of their substrates can reduce arsenate (AsV) to the more toxic arsenite (AsIII) via the arsenolytic substrate cleavage in presence of a reductant, as glutathione or dithiotreitol (DTT). We have shown this for purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), glycogen phosphorylase-a (GPa), and phosphotransacetylase (PTA). Using a multidisciplinary approach, we explored the mechanism whereby these enzymes mediate AsV reduction. It is known that PNP cleaves inosine with AsV into hypoxanthine and ribose-1-arsenate. In presence of inosine, AsV and DTT, PNP mediates AsIII formation. In this study, we incubated PNP first with inosine and AsV, allowing the arsenolytic reaction to run, then blocked this reaction with the PNP inhibitor BCX-1777, added DTT and continued the incubation. Despite inhibition of PNP, large amount of AsIII was formed in these incubations, indicating that PNP does not reduce AsV directly but forms a product (i.e., ribose-1-arsenate) that is reduced to AsIII by DTT. Similar studies with the other arsenolytic enzymes (GPa, GAPDH, and PTA) yielded similar results. Various thiols that differentially supported AsV reduction when present during PNP-catalyzed arsenolysis (DTT approximately dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonic acid > mercaptoethanol > DMSA > GSH) similarly supported AsV reduction when added only after a transient PNP-catalyzed arsenolysis, which preformed ribose-1-arsenate. Experiments with progressively delayed addition of DTT after BCX-1777 indicated that ribose-1-arsenate is short-lived with a half-life of 4 min. In conclusion, phosphorolytic enzymes, such as PNP, GAPDH, GPa, and PTA, promote thiol-dependent AsV reduction because they convert AsV into arsenylated products reducible by thiols more readily than AsV. In support of this view, reactivity studies using conceptual density functional theory reactivity descriptors (local softness, nucleofugality) indicate that reduction by thiols of the arsenylated metabolites is favored over AsV.
    Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Toxicological Sciences
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    • "( 2003 ) demonstrated that thioarsenicals were produced not in organs , such as the liver , but in the intestinal tract by intestinal flora . However , it is unlikely that the intestinal flora is the direct source of urinary thioarsenicals , because dimethylated arsenicals ( DMA ) were not detected in the intestine when rats were orally administered inorganic arsenicals ( iAs III and iAs V ) ( Csanaky and Gregus , 2002 ) . Although the excreted form of arsenic from the liver is supposed to be DMA III , the major urinary metabolite is its oxidized form , DMA V . "
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    ABSTRACT: The bladder and skin are the primary targets for arsenic-induced carcinogenicity in mammals. Thioarsenicals dimethylmonothioarsinic (DMMTA(V)) and dimethyldithioarsinic (DMDTA(V)) acids are common urinary metabolites, the former being much more toxic than non-thiolated dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) and comparable to dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII) in epidermoid cells, suggesting that the metabolic production of thioarsenicals may be a risk factor for the development of cancer in these organs. To reveal their production sites (tissues/body fluids), we examined the uptake and transformation of the four dimethylated arsenicals by incubation with rat and human red blood cells (RBCs). Although DMA(V) and DMDTA(V) were not taken up by either type of RBCs, DMAIII and DMMTA(V) were taken up by both (more efficiently by rat ones), though DMMTA(V) was taken up slowly, and then the arsenic transformed into DMDTA(V) was excreted from both types of animal RBCs. On the other hand, although DMA(III) taken up rapidly by rat RBCs was retained in the RBCs, that taken up by human RBCs was immediately transformed into DMMTA(V) and then excreted into the incubation medium without being retained in the RBCs. In a separate experiment, arsenic remaining in primary rat hepatocytes after incubation with 1.5 microM DMAIII was recovered from the incubation medium in the forms of DMA(V) and DMMTA(V) in the presence of human RBCs, but not in the presence of rat RBCs (in which the arsenic was bound to hemoglobin). Thus, DMMTA(V) was detected in the medium only in the presence of human RBCs and increased with incubation time. It was proposed that arsenic is excreted from hepatocytes into the bloodstream in the form of DMAIII and then taken up by RBCs in humans, where it is transformed into DMMTA(V) and then excreted again into the bloodstream.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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    • "Initially these hypotheses appear to have been supported by three lines of evidence. First, researchers had extensively characterized arsenic biotransformation in a diverse array of animal species and noted marked interspecies differences in arsenic biotransformation (Vahter, 1999; Csanaky and Gregus, 2002). Second, within humans, differences were reported in arsenic biotransformation that were associated with either geographical locale or ethnicity (Hopenhayn-Rich et al., 1996; Concha et al., 1998; Loffredo et al., 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: The complexity of arsenic toxicology has confounded the identification of specific pathways of disease causation. One focal point of arsenic research is aimed at fully characterizing arsenic biotransformation in humans, a process that appears to be quite variable, producing a mixture of several arsenic species with greatly differing toxic potencies. In an effort to characterize genetic determinants of variability in arsenic biotransformation, a genetic association study of 135 subjects in western Sonora, Mexico was performed by testing 23 polymorphic sites in three arsenic biotransformation candidate genes. One gene, arsenic 3 methyltransferase (AS3MT), was strongly associated with the ratio of urinary dimethylarsinic acid to monomethylarsonic acid (D/M) in children (7-11 years) but not in adults (18-79 years). Subsequent analyses revealed that the high D/M values associated with variant AS3MT alleles were primarily due to lower levels of monomethylarsonic acid as percent of total urinary arsenic (%MMA5). In light of several reports of arsenic-induced disease being associated with relatively high %MMA5 levels, these findings raise the possibility that variant AS3MT individuals may suffer less risk from arsenic exposure than non-variant individuals. These analyses also provide evidence that, in this population, regardless of AS3MT variant status, children tend to have lower %MMA5 values than adults, suggesting that the global developmental regulation of arsenic biotransformation may interact with genetic variants in metabolic genes to result in novel genetic effects such as those in this report.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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