Article

Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni Evolves Rapidly in Chickens Treated with Fluoroquinolones

Division of Animal and Food Microbiology, Center for Veterinary Medicine, US Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, Maryland 20708, USA.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6). 04/2002; 185(6):837-40. DOI: 10.1086/339195
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Fluoroquinolones are commonly used to treat gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter species. Domestically acquired fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter infection has been documented recently in the United States. It has been proposed that the increase in resistance is due,
in part, to the use of fluoroquinolones in poultry. In separate experiments, the effects of sarafloxacin and enrofloxacin
treatment of Campylobacter jejuni-infected chickens on the development of ciprofloxacin resistance were measured. Fecal samples were collected before and after
treatment and were cultured for C. jejuni. When enrofloxacin or sarafloxacin was used at US Food and Drug Administration-approved doses in broiler chickens, resistance
developed rapidly and persisted in C. jejuni. MICs of ciprofloxacin increased from a base of 0.25 µg/mL to 32 µg/mL within the 5-day treatment time frame. These results
show that the use of these drugs in chickens rapidly selects for resistant Campylobacter organisms and may result in less effective fluoroquinolone therapy for cases of human campylobacteriosis acquired from exposure
to contaminated chicken.

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    • "These enzymes are associated with bacterial transcription, replication, and chromosome condensation and segregation (Smith and Fratamico, 2010). Resistance to fluoroquinolones has developed primarily as a result of mutations in the gyrA gene (McDermott et al., 2002; Zhang et al., 2003). Among such mutations, Thr86Ile is the most prevalent (Perez-Boto et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: This review gives an overview on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in the food chain in the European Union. The main emphasis is on two important food pathogens, Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. Furthermore, antibiotic residues reported in food commodities in the EU during 2008-2012, as well as the current legal framework regarding antibiotic use in the EU are discussed. In addition, the review also presents alternatives for the antibiotic treatment of food of animal origin.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods
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    • "These enzymes are associated with bacterial transcription, replication, and chromosome condensation and segregation (Smith and Fratamico, 2010). Resistance to fluoroquinolones has developed primarily as a result of mutations in the gyrA gene (McDermott et al., 2002; Zhang et al., 2003). Among such mutations, Thr86Ile is the most prevalent (Perez-Boto et al., 2014). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review gives an overview on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in the food chain in the European Union. The main emphasis is on two important food pathogens, Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. Furthermore, antibiotic residues reported in food commodities in the EU during 2008-2012, as well as the current legal framework regarding antibiotic use in the EU are discussed. In addition, the review also presents alternatives for the antibiotic treatment of food of animal origin.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods
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    • "The increasing resistance to antibiotics, particularly the high level of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter isolates in broilers, is a concern also in the EU (EFSA, 2014b). The use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals has been associated with the development of resistance in both C. jejuni and C. coli (McDermott et al., 2002; Luangtongkum et al., 2009; Juntunen et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined for 805 domestic Campylobacter jejuni isolates obtained from broilers (n = 459), bovines (n = 120), human patients (n = 95), natural waters (n = 80), wild birds (n = 35) and zoo animals/enclosures (n = 16) with known multilocus sequence types (MLST) for 450 isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for erythromycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, gentamicin and the quinolones ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid were determined with the VetMIC method. MICs were compared with MLST types to find possible associations between sequence type and resistance. The proportions of resistant isolates were 5% (broilers), 6.3% (natural waters), 11.4% (wild birds), 11.6% (human patients), 16.7% (bovines) and 31.3% (zoo). The most common resistance among the human and bovine isolates was quinolone resistance alone while resistance to streptomycin alone was most often detected among the broiler isolates and tetracycline resistance was most commonly observed in the wild bird, water and zoo isolates. No or negligible resistance to erythromycin or gentamicin was detected. In all data, 12/26 of the tetracycline-resistant isolates were also resistant to streptomycin (P < 0.001) and the clonal complex (CC) ST-1034 CC showed a high proportion of 75% (9/12) of tetracycline-resistant isolates, most originating from the zoo and broilers with closely associated MLST types from these sources. No association between quinolone resistance and MLST type was seen. The low percentage of resistant isolates among the domestic Campylobacter infections is most probably due to the long-term controlled use of antimicrobials. However, the higher percentage of tetracycline resistance observed among the zoo isolates could present a risk for zoo visitors of acquisition of resistant C. jejuni. The resistance pattern of tetracycline and streptomycin most often found in ST-1034 CC could indicate a common resistance acquisition mechanism commonly present in this CC. Overall, MLST typing was found to be a useful method in recognition of potential genetic lineages associated with resistance. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Zoonoses and Public Health
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