Article

Assessment and management of acute poisoning by petroleum products

Imperial College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom
Human & Experimental Toxicology (Impact Factor: 1.75). 12/2001; 20(11):551-62. DOI: 10.1191/096032701718620918
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Petroleum products are highly complex chemical mixtures consisting predominantly of hydrocarbons. Their composition varies with source and intended use of the product. Virtually all are blended products that come into contact with man in a wide range of circumstances. Their toxicity for man is generally low and the use of additives rarely affects the toxicity of the final product. Because products are blended to meet performance, and not chemical specifications, their composition varies significantly. Management of toxicity benefits from simplified guidelines that consider the product by its type. Management in most cases is symptomatic, but the doctor needs to be aware of the potential for development of sequelae such as aspiration pneumonia and central nervous system (CNS) depression. Local and systemic effects of exposure to hydrocarbons are reviewed, as are immediate assessment and recommended management of acute exposure to petroleum products. Because of the large scope of this subject, this paper limits itself to acute toxicity of petroleum products encountered inthe public domain. It does not address topics such as chronic toxicity, solvent abuse, petrochemicals, or pesticides.

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    • "Several methods of GI decontamination that can be used alone or in combination include gastric lavage, whole bowel irrigation, administration of activated charcoal, and endoscopic or surgical removal of the ingested poison (Albertson et al., 2011;Garcia et al., 2015b). Whole bowel irrigation has a very limited impact in the treatment of human poisoning, and therefore should not be used routinely in the management of the poisoned patient (Albertson et al., 2011;Santi et al., 2012;Seymour and Henry, 2001). Gastric lavage is most useful if attempted within 1 h after the ingestion of a potentially life threatening poison (Vale, 1997), while it is contraindicated in patients with loss of airway protective reflexes, such as in a patient with a depressed state of consciousness, and in patients who are at risk of hemorrhage or gastrointestinal perforation, as well as in patients that underwent recent surgery or have other medical conditions such as coagulopathy (Vale et al., 2004). "
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    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Archives of Toxicology
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    • "Several methods of GI decontamination that can be used alone or in combination include gastric lavage, whole bowel irrigation, administration of activated charcoal, and endoscopic or surgical removal of the ingested poison (Albertson et al., 2011;Garcia et al., 2015b). Whole bowel irrigation has a very limited impact in the treatment of human poisoning, and therefore should not be used routinely in the management of the poisoned patient (Albertson et al., 2011;Santi et al., 2012;Seymour and Henry, 2001). Gastric lavage is most useful if attempted within 1 h after the ingestion of a potentially life threatening poison (Vale, 1997), while it is contraindicated in patients with loss of airway protective reflexes, such as in a patient with a depressed state of consciousness, and in patients who are at risk of hemorrhage or gastrointestinal perforation, as well as in patients that underwent recent surgery or have other medical conditions such as coagulopathy (Vale et al., 2004). "
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