The Wright-Giemsa stain - Secrets revealed

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.
Clinics in Laboratory Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.37). 04/2002; 22(1):15-23. DOI: 10.1016/S0272-2712(03)00065-9
Source: PubMed


The colorful story of the development of the Wright-Giemsa stain is retold. Dramas are replayed, secrets are exposed, and laurels are properly returned to scientists long forgotten. The delicately balanced chemical composition of the stain, once enigmatic, is defined. Finally, an attempt is made to unshroud some of the mystery surrounding the staining method; tried-and-true procedures and useful snippets of laboratory lore are provided. Scientific explanations and reliable methods aside, however, the stain continues to possess a certain mystique, seemingly consisting of equal parts technical expertise, art, and magic.

411 Reads
  • Source
    • "A wild-caught caiman lizard (Dracaena guianesis, a member of the family Teiidae) imported to the United States from Peru (Jacobson et al., 2001) was examined as part of a routine quarantine protocol in a zoological collection, and blood was drawn for evaluation. Blood smears were stained using Wright-Giemsa staining (Woronzoff-Dashkoff, 2002). Whole blood was fixed in buffered gluteraldehyde and processed routinely for thinsection transmission electron microscopy. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rhabdoviruses infect a variety of hosts, including non-avian reptiles. Consensus PCR techniques were used to obtain partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene sequence from five rhabdoviruses of South American lizards; Marco, Chaco, Timbo, Sena Madureira, and a rhabdovirus from a caiman lizard (Dracaena guianensis). The caiman lizard rhabdovirus formed inclusions in erythrocytes, which may be a route for infecting hematophagous insects. This is the first information on behavior of a rhabdovirus in squamates. We also obtained sequence from two rhabdoviruses of Australian lizards, confirming previous Charleville virus sequence and finding that, unlike a previous sequence report but in agreement with serologic reports, Almpiwar virus is clearly distinct from Charleville virus. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis revealed that most known rhabdoviruses of squamates cluster in the Almpiwar subgroup. The exception is Marco virus, which is found in the Hart Park group.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Veterinary Microbiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transplantation of human islets has been successful clinically. Since human islets are scarce, we are studying microencapsulated porcine islet xenografts in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. We have evaluated the cellular immune response in NOD mice with and without dual costimulatory blockade. Alginate-poly-L-lysine-encapsulated adult porcine islets were transplanted i.p. in untreated diabetic NODs and NODs treated with CTLA4-Ig to block CD28/B7 and with anti-CD154 mAb to inhibit CD40/CD40-ligand interactions. Groups of mice were sacrificed on subsequent days; microcapsules were evaluated by histology; peritoneal cells were analyzed by FACS; and peritoneal cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Controls included immunoincompetent NOD-Scids and diabetic NODs given sham surgery or empty microcapsules. Within 20 days, encapsulated porcine islets induced accumulation of large numbers of macrophages, eosinophils, and significant numbers of CD4 and CD8 T cells at the graft site, and all grafts were rejected. During rejection, IFNgamma, IL-12 and IL-5 were significantly elevated over sham-operated controls, whereas IL-2, TNFalpha, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1beta and TGFbeta were unchanged. Treatment with CTLA4-Ig and anti-CD154 prevented graft destruction in all animals during the 26 days of the experiment, dramatically inhibited recruitment of host inflammatory cells, and inhibited peritoneal IFNgamma and IL-5 concentrations while delaying IL-12 production. When two different pathways of T cell costimulation were blocked, T cell-dependent inflammatory responses were inhibited, and survival of encapsulated islet xenografts was significantly prolonged. These findings suggest synergy between encapsulation of donor islets and simultaneous blockade of two host costimulatory pathways in prolonging xenoislet transplant survival.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Transplantation
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Routine staining of blood films usually entails staining with Wright-Giemsa stain; however, some modifications of the standard Wright-Giemsa stain have been performed. The field stain or dip method is an example of these modifications. The authors created a new modification of Wright-Giemsa stain and performed a study to compare our modified stain with Wright-Giemsa stain and field stain. Three experts in microscopy were used in performing this comparative study. The average grading score from each stain method from all 3 experts was set as a basic parameter for comparison. We found that the field stain, which was created for field work, had a lower grading score in staining than the other 2 staining methods in many studied aspects (analysis of variance test, P < .05). In addition, we can demonstrate that the 3 experts presented similar decisions on the blood smear evaluation. Conclusively, we found that our modified method can give staining results similar to the standard Wright-Giemsa stain. In addition, our modification can decrease the staining time.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Laboratory Hematology
Show more