When ETS transcription factors meet their partners
Institut de Biologie de Lille, Lille, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France BioEssays
(Impact Factor: 4.73).
04/2002; 24(4):362-70. DOI: 10.1002/bies.10068
Ets proteins are a family of transcription factors that regulate the expression of a myriad of genes in a variety of tissues and cell types. This functional versatility emerges from their interactions with other structurally unrelated transcription factors. Indeed, combinatorial control is a characteristic property of Ets family members, involving interactions between Ets and other key transcriptional factors such as AP1, SRF, and Pax family members. Intriguingly, recent molecular modeling and crystallographic data suggest that not only the ETS DNA-binding domain, but also the DNA recognition helix alpha3, are often directly required for Ets partner's selection. Indeed, while most DNA-binding proteins appear to exploit differences within their DNA recognition helices for sites selection, the Ets proteins exploit differences in their surfaces that interact with other transcription factors, which in turn may modify their DNA-binding properties in a promoter-specific fashion. Taken together, the gene-specific architecture of these unique complexes can mediate the selective control of transcriptional activity.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "However, the percentage for ELK4 association with SRF peaks was relatively lower (44.7%, 350 out of 783), indicating that ELK4 may have other functions independent of SRF and could have other co-regulators . "
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ABSTRACT: Serum response factor (SRF) is a widely expressed transcription factor involved in multiple regulatory programs. It is believed that SRF can toggle between disparate programs of gene expression through association with different cofactors. However, the direct evidence as to how these factors function on a genome-wide level is still lacking.
In the present study, I explored the functions of SRF and its representative cofactors, megakaryoblastic leukemia 1/2 (MKL1/2) and ETS-domain protein 4 (ELK4), during fungal infection challenge in macrophages. The knockdown study, combined with gene expression array analysis, revealed that MKL1/2 regulated SRF-dependent genes were related to actin cytoskeleton organization, while ELK4 regulated SRF-dependent genes were related to external stimulus responses. Subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) suggested that many of these regulations were mediated directly in cis.
I conclude that SRF utilizes MKL1/2 to fulfill steady state cellular functions, including cytoskeletal organization, and utilizes ELK4 to facilitate acute responses to external infection. Together, these findings indicate that SRF, along with its two cofactors, are important players in both cellular homeostasis and stress responses in macrophages.
Available from: Pernilla Stridh
- "Transcripts in gene network A (Supplementary Material, Table S7) included multiple genes associated with autoimmune diseases (Cd6, Ets1, Tcf7 and Themis) (2, 36–38). The Cd6 MS susceptibility allele is associated with alterations in T cell proliferation (39) and the transcription factor Ets1 participates in important aspects of early thymocyte development (40, 41). Several genes, including Lef1, Lck, Crtam and Itk, have previously been linked to functions of the adaptive immune system. "
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ABSTRACT: The experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system commonly used to study multiple sclerosis (MS). We combined clinical EAE phenotypes with genome-wide expression profiling in spleens from 150 backcross rats between susceptible DA and resistant PVG rat strains during the chronic EAE phase. This enabled correlation of transcripts with genotypes, other transcripts and clinical EAE phenotypes and implicated potential genetic causes and pathways in EAE.We detected 2285 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). Sixty out of 599 cis-eQTLs overlapped well-known EAE QTLs and constitute positional candidate genes, including Ifit1 (Eae7), Atg7 (Eae20-22), Klrc3 (eEae22) and Mfsd4 (Eae17). A trans-eQTL that overlaps Eae23a regulated a large number of small RNAs and implicates a master regulator of transcription.We defined several disease-correlated networks enriched for pathways involved in cell-mediated immunity. They include C-type lectins, G protein coupled receptors, mitogen-activated protein kinases, transmembrane proteins, suppressors of transcription (Jundp2 and Nr1d1) and STAT transcription factors (Stat4) involved in interferon signaling. The most significant network was enriched for T cell functions, similar to genetic findings in MS, and revealed both established and novel gene interactions. Transcripts in the network have been associated with T cell proliferation and differentiation, the TCR signaling and regulation of regulatory T cells. A number of network genes and their family members have been associated with MS and/or other autoimmune diseases.Combining disease and genome-wide expression phenotypes provides a link between disease risk genes and distinct molecular pathways that are dysregulated during chronic autoimmune inflammation.
Available from: Ivan V Kulakovskiy
- "The demonstration that ETS-family TFs have distinct functions (9) even though they share the same DNA recognition motifs raised an important question about what determines the specificity of TF-mediated transcriptional activity. The expression pattern of the ETS factors and the tissue-specific expression of cooperating factors (6,10) contribute to this specificity. It has been shown that distinct cooperative partnership dictates the specificity of the transcriptional regulation by two different ETS TFs, ETS1 and GABPα, expressed in the same cell type (11,12). "
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ABSTRACT: Acute leukemias are characterized by deregulation of transcriptional networks that control the lineage specificity of gene expression. The aberrant overexpression of the Spi-1/PU.1 transcription factor leads to erythroleukemia. To determine how Spi-1 mechanistically influences the transcriptional program, we combined a ChIP-seq analysis with transcriptional profiling in cells from an erythroleukemic mouse model. We show that Spi-1 displays a selective DNA-binding that does not often cause transcriptional modulation. We report that Spi-1 controls transcriptional activation and repression partially through distinct Spi-1 recruitment to chromatin. We revealed several parameters impacting on Spi-1-mediated transcriptional activation. Gene activation is facilitated by Spi-1 occupancy close to transcriptional starting site of genes devoid of CGIs. Moreover, in those regions Spi-1 acts by binding to multiple motifs tightly clustered and with similar orientation. Finally, in contrast to the myeloid and lymphoid B cells in which Spi-1 exerts a physiological activity, in the erythroleukemic cells, lineage-specific cooperating factors do not play a prevalent role in Spi-1-mediated transcriptional activation. Thus, our work describes a new mechanism of gene activation through clustered site occupancy of Spi-1 particularly relevant in regard to the strong expression of Spi-1 in the erythroleukemic cells.
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