Article

Breastfeeding is associated with reduce perceived stress and negative mood in mothers

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Abstract

Two studies examined the effects of breast-feeding on maternal stress and mood. In Experiment 1, perceived stress in the past month was compared between 28 breast-feeding and 27 bottle-feeding mothers. Breast-feeding mothers reported less perceived stress, after controlling for demographic confounds. In Experiment 2, mood ratings were assessed in the same 24 mothers both before and then after 1 breast-feeding and 1 bottle-feeding session. Breast-feeding was associated with a decrease in negative mood, and bottle-feeding was associated with a decrease in positive mood from pre- to postfeeding. Results indicated that breast-feeding buffers negative mood. These effects appeared to be attributable to the effects of breast-feeding itself and not solely to individual-differences factors.

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... Mothers with poor mental or emotional health are less likely to exclusively breastfeed [21,22]. Besides, breastfeeding has a positive psychological impact on the mother, improving her well-being, increasing her self-efficacy and her interaction with the infant [23][24][25][26][27]. On the other hand, early EBF cessation was associated with an increased risk of postpartum depression [9,28], although this association needs to be further explored. ...
... The link between EBF and maternal mental health may derive from psychosocial and biological factors [29]. Evidence suggests that breastfeeding practices have effects on the mother by reducing her anxiety and stress [25,27]. Breastfeeding attenuates neuroendocrine responses to stress and may operate to improve maternal mood [25,26]. ...
... Evidence suggests that breastfeeding practices have effects on the mother by reducing her anxiety and stress [25,27]. Breastfeeding attenuates neuroendocrine responses to stress and may operate to improve maternal mood [25,26]. It is also possible that only a subset of women with hormone sensitivity are at risk for depressive symptoms related to breastfeeding cessation. ...
Article
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Early breastfeeding cessation is a major public health problem. Several factors can affect breastfeeding pattern, and psychological aspects have been poorly explored. We hypothesize that psychological factors and breastfeeding pattern have a relationship. We have assessed in mothers during the first six months of lactation if breastfeeding pattern is associated with maternal stress, postpartum depression, and dispositional optimism, and if these psychological factors play a role on breastfeeding adherence. In total, 711 women participated, answering online the following questionnaires: sociodemographic, perceived stress scale, Edinburgh postpartum depression scale, life orientation test, and breastfeeding adherence score. Women were categorized according to infant feeding practices as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) or mixed breastfeeding (MBF). The EBF group had a lower score of perceived stress compared to those giving MBF (first month: EBF = 1.5 [1.1; 1.9], MBF = 1.8 [1.5; 2.0]; p-Value = 0.030; third month: EBF = 1.6 [1.2; 2.0], MBF = 1.8 [1.5; 2.4]; p-Value = 0.038) and also had a lower score of postpartum depression (third month: EBF = 8.0 [6.0; 11.0], MBF = 11.0 [9.0; 15.0]; p-Value = 0.001). The breastfeeding adherence score showed a positive correlation with maternal perceived stress (first month: ρ = 0.27; p-Value = 0.018), and postpartum depression (third month: ρ = 0.30; p-Value < 0.001), and a negative correlation with maternal dispositional optimism (second month: ρ = −0.20; p-Value = 0.028). MBF was positively associated with breastfeeding adherence score (odd ratio (OR) = 1.4 [1.2-1.6]; p-Value < 0.001) and with postpartum depression (OR = 1.1 [1.0; 1.1]; p-Value = 0.020). In the third month of breastfeeding, women with MBF exhibited higher perceive stress and postpartum depression compared to those with EBF and no difference in dispositional optimism. The maternal psychological aspects are associated with breastfeeding pattern. Evaluation of maternal psychological concerns and providing support to lactating mothers may help improving breastfeeding adherence.
... The biological mechanism of breastfeeding has been shown to reduce stress and depressive symptoms (Field, 2008;Figueredo et al., 2013). Hormonal conditions are reported to influence breastfeeding through increased oxytocin and prolactin (Mezzacappa & Katkin, 2002) and reduced cortisol (Heinrichs et al., 2001). Heinrichs, Neumann, and Ehlert (2002) proposed that breastfeeding reduces mothers' stress response, resulting in better outcomes, even at distant time points. ...
... In one of the first studies to examine both breastfeeding and bottle-feeding mothers, Mezzacappa and Katkin (2002) examined the associations among breastfeeding, negative mood and perceived stress. The sample included 28 breastfeeding and 27 ...
... Breastfeeding was associated with a decrease in negative mood, and less perceived stress in breastfeeding mothers, whereas bottle feeding was associated with a decrease in positive mood after feedings (Mezzacappa & Katkin, 2002). The findings indicated that breastfeeding buffers mood and is associated with reduced perceived parenting stress (Mezzacappa & Katkin, 2002). ...
Research
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This dissertation explores the extent to which breastfeeding duration predicts maternal and paternal mental, physical health and parenting stress.
... Similar results were obtained in a large study carried out on Islandic population of 734 mothers ( Thome et al., 2006 ): exclusively breastfeeding mothers had lower mean scores of depressive symptoms as compared with partially breastfeeding mothers (mixed nutrition). Mezzacappa and Katkin (2002 ) results give further support to the hypothesis that breastfeeding decreases postpartum depressive symptoms: a decrease in negative mood can be observed almost immediately from pre-feeding to post-feeding! Moreover, bottle-feeding mothers experienced a decrease in positive mood from pre-feeding to post-feeding. ...
... Moreover, bottle-feeding mothers experienced a decrease in positive mood from pre-feeding to post-feeding. Mezzacappa and Katkin (2002 ) highlighted that breastfeeding may offer both strong and long-term ameliorating effects on postpartum depression. While Davey et al. (2011 ) indicated that breastfeeding intervention can help mothers to continue breastfeeding to protect maternal mental health and the quality of relationship in a mother-child dyad. ...
Article
Objective: Maternal self-efficacy in breastfeeding may be undermined by common mental health difficulties in the postpartum, leading to an early breastfeeding cessation. The relationship may also be the opposite: problems with effective breastfeeding and breastfeeding cessation may increase the postpartum mental health difficulties. The purpose of this study was the assessment of the effectiveness of lactation consultations in strengthening the breastfeeding self-efficacy and maternal postpartum mental health. Design and participants: 160 Polish women (90 consultation participants and 70 controls) completed a structured interview, the General Health Questionnaire, and the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale twice: before lactation consultation and one month later. Setting: Research was conducted in the city of Gdańsk, Poland. Findings: Study revealed that women seeking lactation support exhibited greater mental health difficulties while their breastfeeding self-efficacy was similar to the control group. Initial breastfeeding self-efficacy was negatively correlated with the severity of the postpartum mental health problems. One month after lactation consultations, a significant increase in the breastfeeding self-efficacy and significantly reduced symptoms of mental health difficulties (somatic symptoms, functional disorders, and anxiety and insomnia) were observed among mothers. Key conclusions: Women willing to benefit from the lactation consultations may exhibit symptoms of mental health difficulties that may be associated with difficulties in breastfeeding. Strengthening the breastfeeding confidence during lactation consultations, may reflect in the improvement of the woman's mental health. Implications for practice: Midwives and lactation consultants can make a difference in the mental health promotion by offering breastfeeding interventions which address the emotional needs of a mother.
... Current professional associations, including the WHO, recommend starting breastfeeding, ideally, within 1 h after delivery and recommend that it last for at least 6 months [3,4]. While breastfeeding is a protective factor against physical illness during childhood and later life and may reduce negative mood in mothers [5], a growing body of research indicates that maternal stress in gestation, known to be associated with other adverse perinatal outcomes (i.e. infants small for their gestational age, preterm birth, and maternal depression…), is also a risk factor for impaired lactogenesis [6]. ...
... The relationship between stressful life events and risk of depression symptoms is likely complex and is perhaps bidirectional (i. e. peripartal depressive symptomatology might causally contribute to failed breastfeeding goal and/or breastfeeding might contribute to reduce postpartum depressive symptomatology) [5,20]. ...
Article
Objective Limited information is available regarding barriers to breastfeeding during the COVID-19 lockdown. Study design This study was designed as a non-concurrent case-control study on breastfeeding initiation practices, defined according to WHO, in women giving birth during lockdown, between March 8 and May 18, 2020, in the COVID-19 ‘hotspot’ in Northeastern Italy (study group), with an antecedent puerperae-matched group (control group). Exclusive, complementary, and formula feeding practices were collected from maternal charts at hospital discharge, on the second day post-partum, when puerperae filled out the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Results The COVID-19 study group presented significantly lower exclusive breastfeeding rates than the control group who members gave birth the previous year (−15%, p = 0.003), as a consequence of the significantly higher prevalence of complementary feeding practices in the former (+20%, p = 0.002). Conversely, the COVID-19 study group showed significantly higher EPDS scores (8.03 ± 4.88 vs. 8.03 ± 4.88, p < 0.005) and higher anhedonia (0.56 ± 0.65 vs. 0.18 ± 0.38, p < 0.001) and depression (0.62 ± 0.60 vs. 0.39 ± 0.44, <0.001) subscale scores. In the general linear model analysis, women practicing exclusive breastfeeding showed significantly lower EPDS scores in comparison with those practicing complementary (p = 0.003) and formula feedings (p = 0.001). Furthermore, the highest EPDS scores were observed in women adopting formula feeding, mainly during the COVID-19 quarantine (p = 0.019). Conclusion This study indicates that hospital containment measures adopted during lockdown in the ‘hotspot’ COVID-19 epidemic area of Northeastern Italy have a detrimental effect on maternal emotions and on breastfeeding exclusivity practices.
... This hormonal resetting is characterized by anxiolytic, antidepressant, and mood-stabilizing properties, in part due to a shift in neurotransmitter signaling (NORE, noradrenaline; DOPA, dopamine; 5-HT, serotonin) as well as the activation of unique hormonal pathways independent from neurotransmitter function. These lactation-specific processes interact at multiple levels with genetic (e.g., individual or family history of reproductive psychiatric disorders such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD); postpartum depression (PPD); and perimenopausal depression and anxiety (PMD)) and environmental risk factors to ultimately determine postpartum mental health vulnerability and individual "sensitivity" to the psychological benefits of breastfeeding breastfeeding cessation and further psychological complications postpartum [19][20][21]. ...
... Oxytocin has been shown to have anxiolytic and antidepressant effects, especially during nursing [21]. Several maternal bonding behaviors, including cognitive attachment and positive affect toward newborns, have been associated with oxytocin concentrations [55]. ...
Article
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While correlational studies suggest that lactation may confer a certain level of protection from mental illness, this benefit is not uniformly expressed in all women who choose to breastfeed. We propose here that the neuroendocrine “resetting” induced by lactation may predispose toward positive affect states in a subset of hormone-sensitive mothers, with hormone-gene and hormone-environment interactions determining the ultimate psychological outcome. We find evidence to suggest that higher secretion of prolactin/oxytocin as well as lower secretion of vasopression/androgens in lactating mothers may protect against postpartum depression and anxiety, decrease levels of irritability, and optimize stress responses. On the other hand, while the abrupt withdrawal of estradiol/progesterone in the immediate postpartum period tends to be associated with adverse psychological outcomes, the chronic suppression of estrogens/progestogens induced by lactation may have antidepressant and anxiolytic effects over time. Finally, the hypo-cortisolemic state seen in lactating mothers appears to be associated with improved stress reactivity and circadian rhythms. We also discuss hormone-gene and hormone-environment interactions likely to modulate any potential psychological benefits related to lactation and focus on those factors that are either easy to screen for or known to be modifiable. In sum, neuroendocrine alterations induced by lactation may play a key role in determining reproductive psychiatric risk in a subset of hormone-sensitive women. Using these neuroendocrine factors as an individualized index of risk can help in devising targeted programs to support these women in pursuing lactation or, for those not able or willing, accessing psychological interventions in a timely manner.
... Factors associated with alleviating parental stress, including job security and support from a husband or partner, have received focused attention (Austin et al., 2018;Stroud & Petersen, 2012). Prior research has also suggested that breastfeeding may be protective against maltreatment by supporting the maternal-child relationship; buffering effects of maternal stressors and other risk factors (Groer, 2005;Kremer & Kremer, 2018;Mezzacappa & Katlin, 2002;Strathearn et al., 2009;Tharner et al., 2012;Weaver et al., 2018). However, a number of risk factors for early breastfeeding cessation are also risk factors for child maltreatment, including maternal stress, lack of social support and economic resources, and mental health challenges (Austin et al., 2018;Dozier et al., 2012;Taylor et al., 2009). ...
... Prior research suggests that a longer breastfeeding duration may be protective against child maltreatment Note. Presented as unweighted counts and sample weighted incidence proportions IP w = sample weighted incidence proportion; CI = confidence interval; IPV = intimate partner violence; NICU = neonatal intensive care unit a Includes prenatal use of alcohol, marijuana, cigarettes, and/or chewing tobacco * maternal-report (Kremer & Kremer, 2018;Strathearn et al., 2009), possibly through sustained production of oxytocin in mothers (Matthiesen et al., 2001), decreased maternal stress (Groer, 2005;Mezzacappa & Katlin, 2002) and depressive symptoms (Hahn-Holbrook et al., 2013;Kendall-Tackett et al., 2013), and greater maternal sensitivity sustained during childhood (Weaver et al., 2018). Since we did not observe elevated risk of maltreatment report among infants never breastfed in this study, our results do not support a complete protective role of breastfeeding that can be attributable to biological and behavioral mechanisms alone. ...
Article
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Research suggests that breastfeeding may reduce child maltreatment risk. Alaska has high rates of both breastfeeding initiation and maltreatment reports to Child Protective Services (CPS). The present study assessed any and exclusive breastfeeding duration and child maltreatment reports to CPS among Alaskan mother-infant dyads, controlling for demographics and shared risk factors. We used a prospective, population-representative dataset linking 2009–2011 Alaska Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data with 2009–2016 Alaska CPS and administrative state data (n = 3,459). Breastfeeding duration was derived from PRAMS breastfeeding questions and categorized as never, < 1 weeks, 1—9 weeks, and ≥ 10 weeks. Age at first report of maltreatment to Alaska CPS included physical or sexual abuse, neglect, or mental injury. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for confounders. There was no increase in risk of maltreatment report among children never breastfed compared to those breastfed for ≥ 10 weeks. Risk of maltreatment report during the observation period was 1.7 times as high among children breastfed for < 1 week (CI: 1.06, 2.73), and 1.5 times as high among those breastfed for 1–9 weeks (CI: 1.17, 1.80), compared to those breastfed for ≥ 10 weeks. Estimates were attenuated for exclusive breastfeeding. Feeding method did not predict maltreatment reports in this population. Among mothers who initiated breastfeeding, shorter duration was associated with elevated risk of maltreatment reports. Addressing factors that facilitate or prohibit sustained breastfeeding may reduce risk of child maltreatment reports.
... Formula-feeding mothers report experiencing less positive mood states, less emotional equanimity, and greater anxiety than breastfeeders [43], [33], [44], [45], [41]. These differences withstand after statistically accounting for likely confounding factors such as maternal age, income, health behaviours, and employment status [46], [47], [48]. ...
... Breastfeeding triggers the release of oxytocin, and higher oxytocin levels have been found in mothers without depression than in those with depression [84]. Consistent with the notion that momentary increases in oxytocin triggered by breastfeeding might suppress negative affect, mothers who feed their infants both breast milk and formula self-report lower levels of negative mood immediately following breastfeeding than after formula feeding [48]. Regardless of whether these benefits are mediated by oxytocin, breastfeeding is robustly associated with reduced stress [36], which is one of the biggest risk factors for postpartum depression [85]. ...
... Maternity care providers can also assist in the early caregiver-infant bonding process after childbirth. Birth bonding, or bonding practices post-birth, can be promoted through skin-to-skin kangaroo care and early and continued breastfeeding 2 Birth and Attachment and by keeping mother (and father or other primary caregiver) and baby in close contact in the first hours and days after birth (Feldman, Weller, Leckman, Kvint, & Eidelman, 1999;Hodnett et al., 2004;Kennell & McGrath, 2005;Mezzacappa & Katlin, 2002;Valizadeh, Ajoodaniyan, Namnabati, Zamanzadeh, & Layegh, 2013). Kangaroo care, for example, has been shown to strengthen attachment relationships and has lasting positive effects (Valizadeh et al., 2013); it is protective against developmental delays for the infant (Tessier, Cristo, Velez, et al., 2003) and increases milk production and feelings of connectedness for the mother (Nagorsky-Johnson, 2007). ...
... The WHO/UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (2009) promotes increased breastfeeding through early mother-infant contact, suckling within the first hour after birth, and rooming-in throughout the hospital stay. Beyond the benefits of oxytocin release, breastfeeding is also linked to lower perceived levels of stress, fewer depressive symptoms, increased parasympathetic nervous system modulation, and superior vascular stress response in the postpartum period (Groër, 2005;Mezzacappa & Katlin, 2002). Additionally, linkages have been found between breastfeeding and greater responsiveness to infant cues in brain regions associated with mother-infant bonding and empathy, which may increase maternal sensitivity and mother-infant interaction (Kim et al., 2011). ...
Chapter
Attachment to caregivers plays a critical role in the social and emotional development of children. The foundation of the caregiver-infant relationship begins before birth and continues to develop after birth. There are both threats to prenatal and neonatal attachment and factors that promote early bonding and social and emotional development during this time. This chapter focuses on the early relationships between infants and caregivers and is divided into three sections reflecting distinct periods (prenatal, childbirth, and postnatal). Descriptions of social and emotional development and attachment, contextual influences, and assessments are highlighted in each section.
... Breastfeeding is more than just the delivery of the optimal infant nutrition, and offers a wide range of psychological benefits for both the infant and the mother, providing one of the earliest opportunities to facilitate maternal awareness of her infant needs and vice versa (17). The act of breastfeeding, in fact, promotes hormonal processes that induce the release of oxytocin, an important hormone related to maternal bonding, and attenuates the cortisol response to stress which when consistently high, is one of the strongest risk factors for the development of psychiatric disorders (17). ...
... Breastfeeding is more than just the delivery of the optimal infant nutrition, and offers a wide range of psychological benefits for both the infant and the mother, providing one of the earliest opportunities to facilitate maternal awareness of her infant needs and vice versa (17). The act of breastfeeding, in fact, promotes hormonal processes that induce the release of oxytocin, an important hormone related to maternal bonding, and attenuates the cortisol response to stress which when consistently high, is one of the strongest risk factors for the development of psychiatric disorders (17). Moreover, breastfeeding supports the regulation of sleep and wake patterns for both mother and infant and sustains and improves maternal self-efficacy (1). ...
... Another Norwegian study also showed that early discharge with ambulant check-up within the first week after birth (standard care) was associated with lack of breastfeeding guidance and a feeling of vulnerability in the mothers (5). As breastfeeding could be a way of reducing maternal stress and enhancing motherinfant bonding (6)(7)(8), it may also decrease the risk of postpartum depression (6,8,9). ...
... Another Norwegian study also showed that early discharge with ambulant check-up within the first week after birth (standard care) was associated with lack of breastfeeding guidance and a feeling of vulnerability in the mothers (5). As breastfeeding could be a way of reducing maternal stress and enhancing motherinfant bonding (6)(7)(8), it may also decrease the risk of postpartum depression (6,8,9). ...
Article
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Background In most maternity wards in Norway, early discharge (<48 hour) is the norm. To monitor newborns’ and women's health during the first week after delivery, most maternity wards offer early check‐ups, where families return to the hospital (standard care). However, a few municipalities offer home visits by midwives (domiciliary care) to ensure seamless services for the family. Aim The primary aim of this study was to explore whether different follow‐up strategies were differently associated with maternal depression and breastfeeding habits, 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. The secondary aim was to investigate whether families at risk of postpartum depression were included in the home visiting programme in the municipality that offered both follow‐up strategies. Method This study draws on data from the ‘Little in Norway’ (LIN) study, which followed families from pregnancy until the child was 18 months. This study used data from two different well‐baby clinics in two municipalities, where one offered standard care (n = 95) and the other domiciliary (n = 64) and standard care (n = 17). The Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to measure maternal depression. Breastfeeding habits were measured using a self‐report questionnaire. The Life Stress subscale of the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) was used to identify women at risk of postpartum depression. Results There were no differences in maternal depressive symptoms or breastfeeding habits at neither 6 weeks nor 6 months postpartum between women who received standard or domiciliary care in the two municipalities. Within the municipality that offered both follow‐up strategies, a higher number of women scoring high on prenatal life stress were included in domiciliary – compared to standard care. Conclusion Differential follow‐up strategies in the first week after birth did not impact on maternal depression or breastfeeding habits. However, domiciliary care seems to be regarded as supportive and nonstigmatising for women at risk of postpartum depression.
... In addition, childbirth trauma negatively affects initiation and continuation of breastfeeding [19,20], and a strong association exists between perinatal depression and reduced breastfeeding intention, exclusivity, and duration [21]. Research has also shown that not engaging in breastfeeding or having a negative breastfeeding experience may increase the risk of postpartum depressive symptoms [22][23][24], while engaging in breastfeeding may protect against or ameliorate these symptoms [25,26]. Given these associations, it has generally been accepted that the relationship between maternal mental health and breastfeeding is bidirectional, whereby mental health disorders may impede breastfeeding success and difficulty with or absence of breastfeeding may predict postpartum depression and anxiety [17,21,22,24,26]. ...
... Research has also shown that not engaging in breastfeeding or having a negative breastfeeding experience may increase the risk of postpartum depressive symptoms [22][23][24], while engaging in breastfeeding may protect against or ameliorate these symptoms [25,26]. Given these associations, it has generally been accepted that the relationship between maternal mental health and breastfeeding is bidirectional, whereby mental health disorders may impede breastfeeding success and difficulty with or absence of breastfeeding may predict postpartum depression and anxiety [17,21,22,24,26]. Shared risk factors (e.g., self-efficacy, lack of social support, disrupted sleep) and overlapping neuroendocrine mechanisms (e.g., regulation of oxytocin, prolactin, serotonin, and cortisol) of mental health disorders and breastfeeding are thought to explain this bidirectional relationship [27,28]. ...
Article
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Background Despite extensive benefits and high intentions, few mothers breastfeed exclusively for the recommended duration. Maternal mental health is an important underlying factor associated with barriers and reduced rates of breastfeeding intent, initiation, and continuation. Given evidence of a bidirectional association between maternal mental health and breastfeeding, it is important to consider both factors when examining the efficacy of interventions to improve these outcomes. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the literature on the efficacy of behavioral interventions focused on both maternal mental health and breastfeeding outcomes, examining the intersection of the two. Methods This systematic review was completed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines. Studies were selected if they were available in English, used primary experimental design, and used a behavioral intervention type to examine maternal mental health and breastfeeding outcomes. Articles were identified from PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO from database inception to 3 March 2022. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Results were synthesized by intervention success for 1. Mental health and breastfeeding, 2. Breastfeeding only, 3. Mental health only, and 4. No intervention effect. PROSPERO CRD42021224228. Results Thirty interventions reported in 33 articles were identified, representing 15 countries. Twelve studies reported statistically significant positive effect of the intervention on both maternal mental health and breastfeeding; most showing a decrease in self-report depressive and/or anxiety symptoms in parallel to an increase in breastfeeding duration and/or exclusivity. Common characteristics of successful interventions were a) occurring across pregnancy and postpartum, b) delivered by hospital staff or multidisciplinary teams, c) offered individually, and d) designed to focus on breastfeeding and maternal mental health or on breastfeeding only. Our results are not representative of all countries, persons, experiences, circumstances, or physiological characteristics. Conclusions Interventions that extend the perinatal period and offer individualized support from both professionals and peers who collaborate through a continuum of settings (e.g., health system, home, and community) are most successful in improving both mental health and breastfeeding outcomes. The benefits of improving these outcomes warrant continued development and implementation of such interventions. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42021224228.
... Religiosity and self-esteem are related to women's mental health. Mothers who are happy are healthier than others who are not, and this can affect breastfeeding (29,33). ...
Article
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Background: Many studies have discussed the relationship between breastfeeding and certain social, psychological and demographic variables. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of social, psychological and demographic variables on breastfeeding among Kuwaiti mothers. Methods: The total of 712 married women were selected who answered a questionnaire. Questions were asked about duration of breastfeeding and bottle feeding, degree of spousal relationship, religious sect and background. Religiosity, family stability and general health self-rating scales were used. Results: Women who came from urban roots and consanguineous marriages had a higher mean duration of breastfeeding than those who came from Bedouin roots and nonconsanguineous marriages. There was a significant difference among the three maternal age groups in the duration of breastfeeding. A significant relationship was found between the duration of breastfeeding and all social, psychological and demographic variables except general health. Correlations were found between the duration of breastfeeding and maternal and paternal education, maternal occupation, years of marriage, age at marriage, family stability scale, self-esteem scale, and socioeconomic variables. The duration of artificial feeding, number of abortions, degree of religiosity, family stability scale, age, and socioeconomic scale related to the duration of the mother's breastfeeding. Conclusions: Education plays an important role in affecting women's health in general and breastfeeding practice in particular.
... Breast-feeding is the best food for newborns, both babies born enough months (matur) and less months (premature). Various research results show that breast-feeding provides many physiological (Heinig, & Dewey, 1997;Heinig, & Dewey, 1996;Heinig, 2001;De Carvalho, Hall, & Harvey, 1981;Field, 2005;Hanson, 1998;Oddy, 2002) and emotional benefits both for mother and infant (Mezzacappa & Katkin, 2002;Dennis & McQueen, 2009;Strathearn, Mamun, Najman, & O'Callaghan, 2009). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breast-feeding for at least the first 6 months, and similar recommendations are also supported by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine, as well as the Indonesian Pediatrician Association . ...
Article
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The high rates of neonatal, infant and children mortality in Indonesia indicate that the MDGs 2017 target has not been fully achieved. One of the prevention measures for mortality is exclusive breastfeeding. In Indonesia, the breast-feeding coverage has not reached the expected target because one of the factors is working mothers. Most working mothers stop breastfeeding or start mixing baby feeding before the baby is 6 months old. Here, the commitment of company managers in implementing government policies will increase exclusive breast-feeding coverage. This type of research uses descriptive analysis with documentation study methods, observation, interviews and questionnaires in 4 textile companies in Semarang City, Semarang Regency and Pekalongan. The number of respondents 99 people consists of women workers, administrators of workplaces and health workers in the workplace. The results of the study show that 49.5% of companies are committed to supporting government policies by facilitating leave and that there are arrangements for working hours that are in accordance with the rules, and that 50.5% do not support this matter and do not fully support government policy. Furthermore, the results of this study are complemented by interviews with HRD and management related to breastfeeding policy and working conditions.
... Menurut Groër, et al (2002) menyusui bisa melindungi kesehatan mental ibu, mengurangi stres dan menimbulkan kete-nangan. Para peneliti juga menemukan bahwa menyusui bisa menurunkan mood negatif (Mezza cappa dan Katkin, 2002). Menyusui juga menganugerahkan banyak manfaat kesehatan untuk ibu dan bayi, sementara depresi akan memberikan pengaruh negatif bagi ibu dan bayi (Bogen et al, 2010). ...
... Hormones also play a role in the association between postpartum depression and breastfeeding cessation. Milk ejection triggers the release of oxytocin, a hormone linked to stress reduction (Uvnas-Moberg & Eriksson 1996;Light et al., 2000;Nissen, Gustavsson, Widstrom & Uvnas-Moberg, 1998;Skrundz, Bolten, Nast, Hellhammer & Meinlschmidt, 2011;Mezzacappa & Katlin 2002). Additionally, mother-infant skin contact elevates 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 maternal oxytocin levels and facilitates bonding between mothers and their infants (Nissen, Lilja, Widstrom & Uvnas-Moberg, 1995). ...
Article
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Objective While much is known about breastfeeding and postpartum depression, little is known about breast milk pumping's impact on postpartum depression among mothers with infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods Thirty-two mothers of infants admitted to a Level III NICU between February and July 2017 were screened for postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). They were also surveyed for current breastmilk pumping activities and demographic factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the associations between postpartum depression and breast milk pumping, adjusting for confounding variables. Results After controlling for confounding variables, mothers who did not pump breast milk (relative to mothers who did) were 11 times more likely to have lower EPDS depression scores indicative of probable postpartum depression (OR = 11.7, p-value .05). Conclusions Our results suggest a significant reduction in probable postpartum depression among NICU mothers who express breastmilk.
... 27 In the present study, the influence of the sacred hour in traumatic childbirth significantly decreased the mean depression scores at 4-6-week and 3-month intervals in the intervention group, which accords with the finding of Bigelow who studied the effect of skin to skin contact on reducing postnatal depression and stress three months after the childbirth. 26 Breastfeeding can also reduce negative mood in mothers who feed their babies through their milk 28 and mothers who have difficulty, breastfeeding and lactation should be examined for signs of postnatal depression. 16 One of the most important strengths of this study is the prevention of postpartum depression. ...
Article
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Introduction: the implementation of the baby’s nine instinctive stages as a sacred hour after birth is very effective in starting breastfeeding. About half of newly delivered mothers have reported a traumatic childbirth experience often associated with mental health problems. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the sacred hour on the depression in traumatic childbirths. Methods: In this clinical trial, 84 mothers who had experienced a traumatic childbirth were randomly allocated into the intervention (n = 42) and control (n = 42) groups. The intervention group received sacred hour (baby’s nine instinctive responses), but the control group received only the routine care. Postnatal depression was evaluated as primary outcome at 2 week, 4-6 week and 3 month intervals after the delivery. The data were analyzed using t test, chi-square test and the repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: The results showed that the marginal total mean (SD: standard deviation) scores of depression in the intervention and control groups were 7.5 (2.6) and 9.6 (2.6); therefore, the mean difference (95% CI) between the groups (-2.1, (-3.2,-0.95)) was significant. Conclusion: The implementation of the sacred hour is recommended as a preventive approach to reduce the postnatal depression in women with a traumatic childbirth experience.
... 43 Moreover, it agrees with the study by Mezzacappa, who found breastfeeding softened the negative mood. 44 Sexton's study showed the role of childhood trauma on the postpartum mental health of mothers and it was found that flexibility of the mothers to stress reduces the psychological problems and improves the well-being of mothers and, as a result, a healthier perinatal period is experienced. 45 Since more than 50% of mothers suffer from postpartum mental health problems, 46 it seems that other factors may have a positive impact on the mental health of the mother, among which is the mother's perceived social support; so that poor social support and younger age reduce mental health, and natural delivery was associated with improved postpartum mental health. ...
Article
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Background: Providing and sustaining the mental health of mothers who have experienced a traumatic childbirth have significant impact on the health of the mother, family and society. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of early skin-to-skin contact in the first hour of birth on the mental health of mothers with traumatic childbirth. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted in 2015 on 82 mothers who, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V-TR) criteria, had experienced a traumatic childbirth. After randomly assigning mothers into groups, the intervention group received early skin-to-skin contact in the first hour after birth, and the control group received the routine procedures. The mental health as an outcome of this study was evaluated using the Persian version of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results: The results showed that the mean score of mental health of mothers in the intervention and control groups was significantly different (P < 0.001) and with the passage of time, the mental health status in the intervention group appeared better than that of the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Early skin contact in the first hour of birth not only in normal deliveries but also in traumatic births can have an important and effective role in improving the mental health of the mother.
... As part of the nurturing experience, breastfeeding is an important factor that could lead to plastic changes in mothers' psychological processing. Previous studies have shown that breastfeeding buffers psychological stress and anxiety [2][3][4] and enhances positive feelings when mothers see their infants' facial expressions [5]. Similarly, a recent study showed that long-lasting breastfeeding is related to perceptual reduction of negative facial expressions and sensitive identification of positive facial expressions [6]. ...
Article
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Breastfeeding behaviours can significantly change mothers' physiological and psychological states. The hormone oxytocin may mediate breastfeeding and mothers' emotion recognition. This study examined the effects of endogenous oxytocin fluctuation via breastfeeding on emotion recognition in 51 primiparous mothers. Saliva oxytocin was assessed before and after the manipulation (breastfeeding or holding an infant), and emotion recognition tasks were conducted. Among mothers who breastfed daily, mothers with more increased levels of oxytocin after breastfeeding showed more reduced negative recognition and enhanced positive recognition of adult facial expressions. These oxytocin functions accompanying breastfeeding may support continued nurturing behaviours and also affect the general social cognition of other adults beyond any specific effect on infants.
... The study emphasizes that most international students experienced anxieties, and English fluency is among the predictors of university students' academic stress. It is these anxieties that contribute to the factors that elevate academic stresses (Leyva, 2003;Mezzacappa & Katkin, 2002). These anxieties have caused students' self-confidence to decrease to a low level. ...
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The study is aimed at further describing psychological factors inducing academic stresses of the students of the English Education Department, Yogyakarta State University (EED-YSU). The study is a continuation of a previous study that identifies sources of academic stress of students of EED-YSU. Data collection is conducted by an on-line survey technique. A confirmatory factor analysis is used for the data analyses. The results show six factors that become sources of students’ academic stresses; namely academic demands, parent-child relationship, traumatic experiences during childhood, peer pressures, financial matters, and self-expectancy. It is expected that other studies involving other factors of students’ academic stresses be conducted to give further information on the topic.
... Mütter, die Säuglingsmilchnahrung füttern, berichten über weniger positive Stimmungslagen, eine geringere emotionale Gelassenheit und stärkere Ängste als stillende Mütter [43], [33], [44], [45], [41]. Diese Unterschiede bleiben auch nach statistischer Bereinigung um wahrscheinliche Störfaktoren (Confounder) wie Alter, Einkommen, Gesundheitsverhalten und Beschäftigungsstatus der Mutter bestehen [46], [47], [48]. ...
... Regardless of the reason, the slowed weight gain is of clinical concern. The psychological and attachment benefits of direct breast feeding for mother and infant are well documented [12,35]. It has also been shown that earlier initiation of, and therefore longer experience and practice with direct breast feeding results in earlier establishment of full breast feeding [22,36,37]. ...
Article
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Protein intakes of preterm infants are frequently below recommendations, but few studies report accurate intakes due to the difficulty of analysing human milk clinically. This observational analysis from a randomised trial of infants born <31 weeks’ gestation, investigating two levels of protein fortification, reports protein intakes compared with requirements and determines the association of direct breastfeeding on growth. Ninety-two infants (median gestational age 28 weeks, Interquartile range (IQR) 26–29; mean birth weight 1040 g, SD 300 g) were studied. Infants born weighing <1000 g were underfed protein compared with recommendations (median (IQR) intake of 3.0 (2.0–3.7) g/kg/day in week 2 versus recommendation of 4–4.5 g/kg/day), while those born weighing ≥1000 g met recommended protein intakes after the first week of life (median (IQR) intake of 3.7 (3.0–4.0) g/kg/day in week 2 versus recommendation of 3.5–4.5 g/kg/day). A moderate, negative correlation between the mean number of breast feeds and change in rate of weight gain (r = −0.37, p = 0.001) was found. Protein intakes of infants <1000 g did not meet recommendations and all infants were underfed protein and energy in the first week of life. Current protein fortification is inadequate for infants born <1000 g. Exploratory analysis showed faltering rate weight gain associated with increasing number of breast feeds and these results warrant confirmation.
... Pozitivní efekt kojení na snížení stresu, mí ry anxiety a depresivních symptomů u matky byl opakovaně popsán v experimentálních i observačních studiích (8,9). Během kojení se prohlubuje psychologická vazba mezi matkou a dítětem. ...
Article
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Transition to parenthood is accompanied by psychosocial changes in both new mother and father. There is a higher risk of exacer-bation or new onset of mental disorders in this period. Early attachment and healthy parent-child bond are determinants of infant´s undisturbed neurobehavioral development. Breastfeeding plays an important role in this process. The presence of untreated mental disorder affects early parent-child relationship in a negative way. Therefore, early and effective treatment intervention is essential. Psychotropic drugs with safe profile during lactation should be chosen, so the mother should be able to breastfeed her infant. Data on safety profile of psychotropic drugs are based on small observational studies or meta-analyses. This information is not available for most of the psychotropic drugs, thus, their safety profiles are just estimated. Sertraline, paroxetine and nortriptyline are listed in the current guidelines as relatively safe antidepressants in lactation. Published data suggests that benzodiazepines and Z-hypnotics pass into maternal milk minimally and oxazepam, alprazolam, and zolpidem have the safest profile in lactation. Methylphenidate, used for treatment of ADHD, also appears to be compatible with breastfeeding.
... Even in non-emergency situations nonbreastfed infants are at increased risk of maternal abuse and neglect (Strathearn et al. 2009) and hospital practices known to discourage breastfeeding are associated with increased abandonment rates (Lvoff et al. 2000). However, breastfeeding supports maternal and infant physiological and psychological resilience to trauma and stress (Altemus et al. 1995;Groer et al. 2002;Mezzacappa and Katlin 2002) and contributes to greater maternal responsiveness in infant caregiving (Gribble 2006;Gribble and Gallagher 2014). ...
Chapter
In emergencies, women and children are among the most vulnerable to multiple forms of violence and exploitation as well as illness and death. Displacement during humanitarian crises has a profound impact on maternal and child health, particularly during the perinatal period, with significant consequences for maternal and infant health across the life course. Emergencies disproportionately affect women’s access to medical, social, cultural, and familial support systems; barriers to perinatal and psychosocial care are associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality among mothers and infants. In this chapter we discuss breastfeeding in the context of the reproductive health continuum and intergenerational health. We use this background to elucidate the critical importance of infant and young child feeding practices in emergencies, an aspect of humanitarian response that is often neglected and poorly executed. Drawing upon a review of the literature as well as presentation of case studies drawn from our own field research, we highlight the importance of prioritizing perinatal maternal and child health in policies, protocols, and humanitarian response.
... The work of examining the impact of the interventions on the maternal brain is currently very limited, and much more work is needed. Breastfeeding has been linked to reduced reactivity to stress and more positive mood states (Heinrichs et al., 2001;Mezzacappa and Katlin, 2002;Mezzacappa et al., 2005). Breastfeeding has also been associated with elevated brain response to infant cry sounds among first-time new mothers (Kim et al., 2011a). ...
Article
Research shows that a woman’s brain and body undergo drastic changes to support her transition to parenthood during the perinatal period. The presence of this plasticity suggests that mothers’ brains may be changed by their experiences. Exposure to severe stress may disrupt adaptive changes in the maternal brain and further impact the neural circuits of stress regulation and maternal motivation. Emerging literature of human mothers provides evidence that stressful experience, whether from the past or present environment, is associated with altered responses to infant cues in brain circuits that support maternal motivation, emotion regulation, and empathy. Interventions that reduce stress levels in mothers may reverse the negative impact of stress exposure on the maternal brain. Finally, outstanding questions regarding the timing, chronicity, types, and severity of stress exposure, as well as study design to identify the causal impact of stress, and the role of race/ethnicity are discussed.
... It has been shown that the rising levels of inflammation markers during the third trimester of gestation constitute a risk factor for PMD [25,26]. Breastfeeding may intervene to counterbalance this situation via down-regulation of both stress and inflammatory response systems [27][28][29][30]. ...
Article
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Background Emotional distress in mothers inhibits the let-down reflex, thus affecting breastfeeding self-efficacy. A breastfeeding mother may have to cope with both physical discomfort and psychological distress. However, literature on initiatives to improve breastfeeding rates has focused mainly on providing community-based peer support, or social policies. The aim of this review is to assess evidence on the effectiveness of a broad range of psychological interventions to facilitate breastfeeding for mothers facing difficulties around the time of delivery. Methods The review of the literature is derived from a search on Cochrane Library, PubMed, EBSCOhost, and PsycINFO for papers published since 1980. The approach was to explore quantitative and qualitative parameters. Quantitative parameters included breastfeeding initiation, duration, and composition. Qualitative parameters recorded the evaluation of maternal perceptions on breastfeeding success. The high heterogeneity of the studies led to a narrative review; 20 selected papers that report on breastfeeding outcomes and psychological programs met the inclusion criteria. Results The evidence on breastfeeding support through psychotherapy is heterogeneous and scant. Out of the included studies, 11 were randomized controlled trials, two were non-randomised trials, and two used a quasi-experimental design. None of the studies reported an increase in adverse breastfeeding outcomes. Three studies failed to report an association between psychological procedures and improved breastfeeding outcomes. A literature review showed that 17 (85%) analyses support stress-releasing techniques to facilitate breastfeeding. Conclusions This review suggests that relaxation interventions carefully tailored to address perinatal emotional distress may lead to important health benefits, including improvement in breastfeeding outcomes. There is also some indication that psychotherapy support while breastfeeding may have more impact than routine counselling. Conversely, this review did not find an association between self-hypnosis and breastfeeding outcomes. Data from this study can be used in designing prevention programs and future research with appropriate theoretical underpinning.
... The trajectory that could justify our ndings is related to an anxiolytic feature of endogenous OT in the reduction of maternal fear and anxiety. Increasing number of human and animal studies (23,24) support the role of endogenous OT in attenuating fear-related anxiety through inhibition of the stress-induced activation of the HPA axis and the reduction of the amygdala activity (25). Infusing OT receptor antagonists into the central amygdala resulted in an anxiogenic behavior in pregnant rats (26). ...
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Background:The evidence on long-lasting effects of certain specific aspects of birth circumstances on the maternal mental health later during pregnancy in offspring is scares. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the association between birth circumstances and prenatal maternal mental health in offspring. Method: In this retrospective survey, 380 pregnant women completed the Hungarian translation of Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire A, Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form, Beck Anxiety Inventory to measure prenatal fear of childbirth (FOC), depression, and anxiety, respectively. Information on peri and postnatal events were obtained from participants’ biological mothers through Mother’s Birth Circumstances Questionnaire. This included questions regarding mode of birth, administered medical interventions during labor, early life care, and breastfeeding during infancy. Multiple Linear regression was performed for statistical analysis. Results: After adjusting for potencial confounders, administration of Oxytocin (OT) induction during labor was significantly associated with higher levels of prenatal FOC (β= 0.14; 95% CI, 0.59, 14.70), depression (β= 0.18; 95% CI, 0.47, 2.73), and anxiety (β= 0.15; 95% CI, 0.50, 6.95). Moreover, being breast fed for more than 12 months was significantly associated with lower level of prenatal FOC in offspring (β= -0.12; 95% CI, -18.42, -1.36). Conclusion: Poor prenatal mental health might be rooted in administered OT induction as a common medical practice during labor while long duration of breast feeding can have a positive effect on improving prenatal maternal mental health in offspring. Further studies of prospective design are on demand to explore the biological trajectories of these findings in humans.
... Maternal benefits of nursing include decreased risk of breast cancer and type 2 diabetes [17][18][19]. BF has also been associated with improved mother-child interaction such as heightened maternal sensitivity and reduced maternal perceived stress and negative mood [20,21]. Due to the short-and long-term benefits of exclusive BF for both mother and child, continued effort should be invested to support exclusive BF during the first 6 months of life. ...
Article
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‘Mixed Milk Feeding’ (MMF), whereby infants are fed with both breastmilk and infant formula during the same period, is a common feeding practice. Despite its high prevalence, knowledge regarding MMF practices and their association with (health) outcomes is limited, potentially because MMF behaviours are highly variable and difficult to standardise longitudinally. In this paper, we applied a statistical clustering algorithm on individual infant feeding data collected over the first year of life from two clinical trials: ‘TEMPO’ (n = 855) and ‘Venus’ (n = 539); these studies were conducted in different years and world regions. In TEMPO, more than half of infants were MMF. Four distinct MMF clusters were identified: early exclusive formula feeding (32%), later exclusive formula feeding (25%), long-term MMF (21%), and mostly breastfeeding (22%). The same method applied to ‘Venus’ resulted in comparable clusters, building trust in the robustness of the cluster approach. These results demonstrate that distinct MMF patterns can be identified, which may be applicable to diverse populations. These insights could support the design of future research studying the impact of infant feeding patterns on health outcomes. To standardise this in future research, it is important to establish a unified definition of MMF.
... The relationship between maternal mental health and HM feeding outcomes is bidirectional; mental health disorders can make HM feeding more challenging, and difficulty with HM feeding may predict depression and anxiety [18][19][20][21][22]. Therefore, it is important to consider both when designing interventions to improve these outcomes. ...
Article
Background: Mothers who identify as Black or African American are more likely to report depressed moods in late pregnancy and early postpartum and have the lowest rates of human milk feeding compared with all other racial groups in the United States. Internet interventions offer the potential to extend preventative and supportive services as they address key barriers, particularly for those navigating the complex and vulnerable early postpartum period. However, there is limited evidence on the feasibility of such interventions for preventing perinatal mental health disorders and improving human milk feeding outcomes in Black mothers. Objective: This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility and preliminary findings of a web-based cognitive behavioral therapy-based internet intervention, with and without human milk feeding education and support, to prevent perinatal depression and promote human milk feeding in Black mothers. Methods: Participants were Black-identifying individuals between 20 and 28 weeks of pregnancy with human milk feeding intention and mild to moderate depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire scores 5-14). Participants were randomized to either Sunnyside, a 6-week cognitive behavioral therapy-based web-based intervention, or Sunnyside Plus, which included additional education and support to promote human milk feeding. Assessments occurred at baseline, third trimester (end of antenatal treatment), 6 weeks postpartum (end of postpartum treatment), and 12 weeks postpartum. The primary focus of this randomized pilot trial was the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of mental health and human milk feeding. Results: A total of 22 tertiary-educated participants were randomized. The mean number of log-ins was 7.3 (SD 5.3) for Sunnyside and 13.8 (SD 10.5) for Sunnyside Plus. Scores of depression and anxiety measures remained below the clinical threshold for referral to treatment in both groups. All the participants initiated human milk feeding (18/18, 100%). Most participants reported at least some human milk feeding at both 6 and 12 weeks postpartum (6/7, 86%; 11/11, 100%, or 10/10, 100%, for Sunnyside and Sunnyside Plus, respectively). Conclusions: The results suggest that tertiary-educated Black mothers at risk for perinatal depression and who intended to human milk feed were receptive to and satisfied with a web-based cognitive behavioral therapy-based internet intervention, with and without human milk feeding education and support. Preliminary findings indicate that both Sunnyside and Sunnyside Plus interventions have the potential to affect symptoms of depression, anxiety, and human milk feeding outcomes. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04128202; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04128202.
... Menyusui dapat memberikan efek perbaikan baik dalam jangka pendek maupun panjang pada depresi post partum. 14 Kelompok responden yang mendapatkan dukungan keluarga yang kurang sebanyak 100% menunjukkan gejala depresi post partum. Sedangkan kelompok yang mendapat dukungan keluarga yang baik, hanya sebesar 18% yang mengalami gejalanya. ...
Article
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Depresi post partum dapat dialami oleh ibu nifas sejak 2 minggu sampai dengan 1 tahun setelah melahirkan. Kondisi ini jika dideteksi sejak awal dan dapat penanganan yang tepat, akan dapat mencegah masalah lebih lanjut. Identifikasi gejala depresi dan faktor risiko terjadinya depresi post partum penting dilakukan. Kuesioner Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS)sudah sangat umum digunakan di seluruh dunia untuk mendeteksi adanya depresi post partum dengan tingkat sensitivitas sebesar 80% dan spesifitas 84,4%. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghitung prevalensi kejadian depresi post partum di Kota Denpasar Tahun 2019, mengetahui faktor risiko yang berhubungan dengan kejadian depresi post partu dan menganalisis hubungan antara faktor risiko yang ditemukan. Penelitian ini merupakan jenis penelitian observasional dengan desain cross sectional. Penelitian dilaksanakan di 3 (tiga) puskesmas rawat inap yaitu Puskesmas I Denpasar Timur, IV Denpasar Selatan dan II Denpasar Barat. Responden berjumlah 67 orang. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah kuesioner EPDS, kuesioner faktor yang terkait dengan kehamilan, persalinan dan nifas, dan kuesioner faktor sosial. Analisis univariat dengan menghitung proporsi, analisis bivariat dengan menggunakan uji Chi Square dan analisis multivariate dengan menggunakan regresi logistic. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan prevalensi kejadian depresi post partum sebesar 25,4%. Faktor risiko yang berhubungan secara bermakna dengan kejadian depresi post partum antara lain : jenis keluarga, nutrisi untuk bayi dan dukungan keluarga. Sedangkan faktor risiko usia, pendidikan, pekerjaan, penghasilan keluarga, paritas, status kehamilan, komplikasi persalinan dan jenis kelamin bayi tidak menunjukkan adanya hubungan yang signifikan. Hasil regresi logistik menunjukkan nutrisi untuk bayi memiliki hubungan yang paling kuat dengan kejadian depresi post partum. Post partum depression can be experienced by postpartum mothers from 2 weeks to 1 year after giving birth. This condition, if detected early and can be handled properly, will be able to prevent further problems. Identification of depressive symptoms and risk factors for post partum depression is important. The Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) questionnaire has been very commonly used worldwide to detect post partum depression with a sensitivity level of 80% and a specificity of 84.4%. This study aims to calculate the prevalence of post partum depression events in Denpasar City in 2019, determine the risk factors associated with the incidence of post partum depression and analyze the relationship between risk factors found. This research is an observational research with cross sectional design. The study was conducted in 3 (three) inpatient puskesmas, namely Puskesmas I Denpasar Timur, IV Denpasar Selatan and II Denpasar Barat. Respondents numbered 67 people. The instruments used were EPDS questionnaire, factor questionnaire related to pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium, and social factor questionnaire. Univariate analysis by calculating proportions, bivariate analysis using the Chi Square test and multivariate analysis using logistic regression.The results showed the prevalence of post partum depression was 25.4%. Risk factors significantly related to the incidence of post partum depression include: type of family, nutrition for infants and family support. While risk factors for age, education, occupation, family income, parity, pregnancy status, complications of childbirth and sex of the baby did not show a significant relationship. Logistic regression results show that nutrition for infants has the strongest association with the incidence of post partum depression.
With rare exception, breastfeeding is the optimal way to feed infants, and has special benefits for women and infants with perinatal opioid exposure. Infants breastfed and/or fed their mother's own breastmilk experience less severe opioid withdrawal symptoms, have shorter hospital stays, and are less likely to be treated with medication for withdrawal. The specific impact of mothers' milk feeding on opioid withdrawal may be related to the act of breastfeeding and associated skin-to-skin contact, qualities of breastmilk, healthier microbiome, small amounts of opioid drug in breastmilk, or a combination of these. Women with opioid use disorder face significant breastfeeding obstacles, including psychosocial, behavioral, concomitant medications, and tobacco use and thus may require high levels of support to achieve their breastfeeding goals. They often don't receive information to make informed infant feeding decisions. Hospital practices such as prenatal education, rooming-in and having a policy that minimizes barriers to breastfeeding are associated with increased breastfeeding rates.
Article
La théorie de l'attachement dans sa perspective évolutionniste et sa conceptualisation des soins apportés au bébé (cargiving) peut-elle apporter un éclairage à la réflexion autour de l'allaitement long et du sevrage tardif et proposer une autre compréhension de la dynamique relationnelle de ces dyades spécifiques. Il n'est pas ici question d'entrer dans le débat au sujet de l'allaitement, mais plutôt d'utiliser le cadre de la théorie de l'attachement pour penser les questions suivantes : est il nécessaire pour l'être humain d'être allaité et si oui, combien de temps ? Quels sont les effets possibles de l'allaitement et de sa durée sur le développement de la relation mère-enfant, enfant /environnement, notamment au niveau des compétences sociales ? Y a t il des méfaits à l'allaitement prolongé pour le développement de l'enfant ? Après une brève présentation des points de vue existants et de l'état de la recherche, nous proposerons une réflexion sur la possible fonction « attachement » de l'allaitement et ses implications pour la pratique clinique.
Chapter
This chapter reviews the role of responsive feeding in supporting breastfeeding, as well as the ways in which breastfeeding can reinforce responsive feeding. First, the demand and supply nature of lactation is outlined as a foundation for understanding the role of responsive feeding in supporting breastfeeding success. Next, connections between perceived insufficient milk supply and responsive feeding are elucidated. Finally, effects of breastfeeding on mothers’ responsiveness to infant cues via hormonal, neural, and behavioral mechanisms are discussed. Overall, this chapter highlights the importance of promoting caregivers’ engagement in responsive feeding during the perinatal period as a critical support for breastfeeding and the benefits of breastfeeding for infant feeding and weight outcomes.
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Maternal-infant bonding is important for children’s positive development. Poor maternal-infant bonding is a risk factor for negative mother and infant outcomes. Although researchers have examined individual predictors of maternal-infant bonding, studies typically do not examine several concurrent and longitudinal predictors within the same model. This study aimed to evaluate the unique and combined predictive power of cross-sectional and longitudinal predictors of maternal-infant bonding. Participants were 372 pregnant women recruited from an Australian hospital. Data were collected from mothers at antenatal appointments (T0), following their child’s birth (T1), and at a laboratory assessment when their child was 5-11-months-old (T2). Poorer bonding at T2 was predicted at T0 by younger maternal age, higher education, and higher antenatal depressive symptoms. Poorer bonding at T2 was predicted at T1 by younger maternal age, higher education, and higher postnatal depressive symptoms. Poorer bonding at T2 was predicted at T2 by younger maternal age, higher education, higher postnatal depression symptoms, higher concurrent perceived social support, and more difficult infant temperament, when controlling for child age at T2. To promote positive maternal-infant bonding, global and targeted interventions in the perinatal period may benefit from targeting maternal psychopathology, perceived lack of social support, and coping with difficult infant temperament.
Article
Objective To examine the psychosocial factors of intention to breastfeed, perceived stress, social support, self-efficacy and their ability to predict the duration of breastfeeding in first-time mothers up to six months postnatally. Design Cross-sectional, quantitative study using a retrospective online survey. Setting Women across West Yorkshire, in the north of the United Kingdom. Participants First-time mothers (n=98) who had given birth in the past six months. Measures An online survey included three established survey instruments measuring the main study variables: The Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen et al., 1983), the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (Zimet et al., 1988) and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwarzer and Jerusalem, 1995). The fourth variable was Intention to breastfeed and was measured using a single question. The survey was structured into five main sections 1) During pregnancy, 2) Once the baby was born, 3) Support to feed my baby, 4) Psychosocial factors and 5) Demographics. Open text responses allowed women to elaborate on their infant feeding experiences. Findings 80% of the sample said they had intended to breastfeed their baby. Although 96% initiated breastfeeding while in hospital, this decreased to 82% at one week and 75% at six weeks. By six months, the rate had dropped to below 50%. Survival Analysis using Cox's Regression found no significant predictors of duration of breastfeeding at one week and six weeks. However, a significant negative correlation between perceived stress and self-efficacy suggests that greater perceived stress is linked to lower self-efficacy. Other findings included 91% of mothers decided how they would feed their baby before they were pregnant (57%) or during pregnancy (34%) and the majority answered that breastfeeding support was most useful straight after the birth and up to one week. Key conclusions The findings from this sample of new mothers showed that although many intended to breastfeed, a considerable number of them had stopped by the time their baby was six weeks old. The content analysis highlighted the multiple challenges new mothers can experience with breastfeeding and furthers understanding of the support needs of this group of women. Implications for practice Many of the mothers had already decided how to feed their baby before the baby was born. In this sample, a quarter of those who intended to breastfeed or thought they might breastfeed had stopped by six weeks. In order to increase breastfeeding duration, new mothers with high intention to breastfeed need to be better prepared for potential breastfeeding challenges and given more support with breastfeeding shortly after their baby is born.
Article
Noworodek ma tylko trzy wymagania. Potrzebuje ciepła w ramionach matki, pokarmu z piersi i bezpieczeństwa płynącego z wiedzy o jej obecności. Karmienie piersią spełnia wszystkie trzy. Grantly Dick-Read Przemoc wyrządza ogromne szkody, szczególnie gdy dotyczy okresu wczesnodziecięcego. Noworodek czy niemowlę zależne od matki, posługujące się płaczem jako główną formą komunikacji, staje się często obiektem jej agresji. Naturalnym elementem tworzenia więzi w diadzie matka-dziecko jest karmienie piersią. Przynosząc ukojenie matce, łagodząc jej reakcje na stres, karmienie naturalne zaspakaja podstawowe potrzeby dziecka i tworzy mu bezpieczną przestrzeń do rozwoju zarówno fizyczne-go, jak i psychicznego. Karmienie piersią stanowi element wzmacniający kompetencje matki i jest czynnikiem chroniącym dziecko przed krzywdzeniem rodzicielskim. Słowa kluczowe: karmienie piersią, oksytocyna, przemoc wobec dziecka, przywiązanie Wprowadzenie Krzywdzenie dzieci ma wielorakie uwarunkowania. Niektórych czynników ryzyka krzywdzenia można upatrywać po stronie rodziców, a niektórych-po stronie dziecka. Inne można rozpatrywać w szerszej perspektywie społecznej i kulturowej. Obok czynników ryzyka i mechanizmów je warunkujących współistnieją też czynniki ochronne, działające protekcyjnie. Chociaż z powodu złożoności etiologii nie można podać jednego, konkretnego powodu krzywdzenia dziecka, to wyniki
Article
Objectives: Lingual frenotomies for the purpose of improving infant breastfeeding remain controversial, whereas maxillary frenotomies are even more so given the scant data and differing opinions on the matter. This study aimed at further elucidating the effect that maxillary frenula have on breastfeeding difficulties in infants. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on infants approximately aged 0-3 months who presented to a tongue tie/breastfeeding clinic from January to December of 2019. All analyzed infants had both lip and tongue ties classified by a clinician. Data on pre-frenotomy pain scores, lingual Coryllos classification, maxillary Kotlow classification, post-frenotomy complications, and breastfeeding success were captured. Results: Of the 316 infants, 224 underwent their first procedure at the tongue tie/breastfeeding clinic. Two hundred eleven out of 224 infants received a lingual frenotomy only, whereas the remaining 13 (5.8%) underwent both lingual and maxillary frenotomy procedures. Of the group of 211, 207 (98.1%) had successful feeding after 1 procedure; the remaining 4 underwent revision procedures to achieve successful feeding. All maxillary frenulum releases (n = 13) led to successful feeding without the need for revision procedures. Coryllos and Kotlow classification scores were significantly higher in the infants receiving both a maxillary and lingual frenulum release as compared with those receiving solely a lingual frenulum release. Conclusions: The majority (98.1%) of infants receiving a lingual frenulum release alone had successful feeding after only one procedure, and only 5.8% of all infants receiving any intervention required a maxillary frenulum release for successful feeding, calling into question the relative necessity of performing maxillary frenulum releases for breastfeeding difficulties.
Article
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common condition affecting 11%-20% of all postpartum women. Depression can have significant consequences for both mother and infant. There are many risk factors associated with PPD, all of which contribute to an inflammatory response in the mother. An inverse relationship exists between PPD and breastfeeding; women with PPD are less likely to have a positive breastfeeding experience which can lead to early weaning, while long-term exclusive breastfeeding is associated with decreased rates of PPD. A multi-disciplinary approach to managing PPD, including strong breastfeeding support, will lead to improved mental health outcomes for women and their children.
Article
Purpose Despite recommendations from the World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics to exclusively breastfeed infants for their first 6 months of life, 75% of women do not meet exclusive breastfeeding guidelines, and 60% do not meet their own breastfeeding goals. Numerous observational studies have linked maternal psychological distress (eg, perceived stress, anxiety, and depression) with nonoptimal breastfeeding outcomes, such as decreased proportion and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. The physiological mechanisms underlying these associations, however, remain unclear. Methods For this narrative review, we evaluated the evidence of relationships between maternal psychological distress and lactation and breastfeeding outcomes in pregnancy and post partum and the possible physiological mechanisms that facilitate these relationships. We searched PubMed using the following terms: stress, anxiety, depression, breastfeeding, and lactation. Additional search by hand was conducted to ensure a thorough review of the literature. Findings Among the studies examined, methods used to assess maternal psychological distress were not uniform, with some studies examining perceived distress via a variety of validated tools and others measuring biological measures of distress, such as cortisol. Evidence supports a role for psychological distress in multiple breastfeeding outcomes, including delayed secretory activation and decreased duration of exclusive breastfeeding. One physiological mechanism proposed to explain these relationships is that psychological distress may impair the release of oxytocin, a hormone that plays a critical role in milk ejection during lactation. Continued impairment of milk ejection may lead to decreased milk production because of incomplete emptying of the breast during each feed. Maternal distress may also yield elevated levels of serum cortisol and decreased insulin sensitivity, which are associated with decreased milk production. The relationship between psychological distress and breastfeeding is likely to be bidirectional, however, in that breastfeeding appears to reduce maternal distress, again possibly via effects on the pleasure or reward pathway and calming effects of oxytocin on the mother. This finding suggests that interventions to support lactation and breastfeeding goals in women who score high on measures of psychological distress would be beneficial for both maternal and infant well-being. Implications Evidence to date suggests that maternal psychological distress may impair lactation and breastfeeding outcomes, but stronger study designs and rigorous assessment methods are needed. A better understanding of the physiological mechanisms leading to impaired lactation may assist in the development of early interventions for mothers experiencing distress. In addition, stress-reducing programs and policies should be investigated for their potential to improve breastfeeding outcomes.
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This study aimed to investigate the emotional experience of breastfeeding mothers; to compare their emotions during the day and night; and to identify predictors of maternal emotional states. 107 breastfeeding women completed daytime and nighttime online surveys. Mothers reported a more positive emotional experience during the daytime breastfeeding session. During the day, positive emotional state was most strongly predicted by perceived degree of family’s support, followed by mother’s mental health, overall sleep quality, child’s age, mother’s age and the mother’s immigrant status. In contrast, more positive experience during the nighttime was only associated with better subjectively rated mental health Our results suggest that maternal emotional experience needs to be understood as an interplay between mental health and social context.
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This chapter offers evolutionary developmental psychology models of caregiving and attachment as species-wide features of infant–maternal relationships. We explain that 3 years of breastfeeding were compelled by the leading causes of infant mortality in ancestral settings—infection and malnutrition-related disease—and discuss how it underpinned lactation-based caregiving and a biobehavioral bond, lactation-based cohesion, with fitness payoffs for infants: (1) protection against malnutrition and morbidity; (2) preservation of the inter-birth interval (IBI) as a haven against competition with a newborn sibling; and (3) psychological benefits of steady and enduring exposure to a profoundly satisfying manner of proximal contact with a caregiver. We theorize that lactation-based caregiving and cohesion satisfied infants’ physical and psychological needs, and in doing so laid the foundation of a psychological adaptation, child-to-mother attachment, an affectional bond able to withstand being untethered to lactation by infants’ third year. The timing of the transition from lactation-based cohesion to attachment coincided with attenuated dependence on breast milk due to maturation of infants’ digestive and immune systems, and with the eruption of infants’ molar teeth, which prompted mothers to bring breastfeeding to conclusion. At this juncture, mothers transitioned to caring for weanlings (rather than nurslings), which meant an end to maternal caregiving being upheld by biobehavioral features of lactation. We argue that absent such support, the costliness of caregiving of weanlings compelled an adapted psychological mechanism, mother-to-child attachment, defined as an affectional bond between ancestral mothers and their former nurslings that was anchored in 3 years of lactation-based caregiving and cohesion.
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Breastfeeding could be considered as a vulnerable period, rising the risk to shift from optimism to pessimism. Preterm delivery is an event that increases postpartum maternal stress and depression, which can have a negative impact on breastfeeding and maternal–filial wellbeing. The adherence to healthy habits may have a positive influence on this vulnerable population. We aimed to analyze the impact of prematurity on maternal psychological aspects during postpartum and to study if adherence to the Healthy Food Pyramid influences psychological variables. Fifty-five breastfeeding women being attended in the Hospital Clínico San Carlos (Madrid, Spain) were recruited during the first day postpartum. The medical data were collected from the obstetrical records. The women answered an auto-administered questionnaire with several sections: sociodemographic characteristics, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Life Orientation Test (LOT), at 14 days and 6 months postpartum, Adherence to the Healthy Food Pyramid Questionnaire (AP-Q) at 28 days postpartum and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) at 6 months postpartum. The PSS and LOT scores were not statistically different in mothers with preterm compared to term delivery either at 14 days or at 6 months postpartum. Longitudinally, the PSS did not show significant differences, but the LOT score was lower at 6 months compared to 14 days postpartum (p-Value = 0.046). A higher EPDS score was significantly found in mothers with preterm delivery (9.0 ± 4.7) than those with a term delivery (5.4 ± 4.2; p-value = 0.040). A significant and positive correlation was observed between the AP-Q score and LOT both at 14 days and 6 months postpartum. Conclusively, maternal optimism decreases during the postpartum period, women with preterm delivery being at risk of postpartum depression. Furthermore, there is a relationship between optimism and adherence to healthy habits. Healthcare professional counseling is essential during the entire breastfeeding period, particularly in vulnerable mothers with preterm delivery.
Article
Lactation contributes to the recovery of the mother after pregnancy and can affect many aspects of maternal health later in life. The short-term benefits of breastfeeding are associated with faster postpartum psychological and emotional recovery. In the long term, lactation reduces the risk of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer, as well as a number of other diseases, more if exclusive breastfeeding continues for six months or more. Inappropriate nutrition of a nursing mother is one of the most destructive factors for her health. It is also important to remember that the amount of milk depends on the frequency of breastfeeding, and there is no evidence for foods, herbs or medications to prolong lactation or increase milk volume. A varied, balanced diet, including natural and specialized foods for nursing mothers, as well as dietary supplements, sources of vitamins and minerals, can ensure that the mother is consuming enough nutrients for both herself and her baby.
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In the United States, roughly one in four births occurs in a certified Baby-Friendly hospital. This paper offers a multidisciplinary perspective on the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), including empirical, normative, and historical perspectives. Our analysis is novel in tracing how medical practices of “quality improvement,” which have received little attention in breastfeeding literature, may have shaped the BFHI. Ultimately, we demonstrate that a rich understanding of the BFHI can be obtained by tracing how norms of gender/motherhood interact with, and are supplemented by, other normative, historical, and institutional realities. We conclude with suggestions for practical revisions to the BFHI.
Article
Objective: In the popular and scientific literature an association between breastfeeding and attachment is often supposed although this has not been systematically investigated. This is the first review that provides a systematic overview of the current state of research on the association between breastfeeding and attachment. The objective is to determine whether breastfeeding is associated with child attachment as well as if maternal attachment is associated with breastfeeding behaviour. Design: A systematic electronic literature search for English language articles published from 1963 to 2019 using the databases Web of Science, PubMed, PsycInfo, and PsycArticles was conducted. Studies were included if (1) the association between breastfeeding and attachment of the child or maternal attachment style and breastfeeding was investigated, (2) participants were mothers or mother-child dyads, and (3) quantitative measures of breastfeeding and attachment were used. Study quality was rated using the NIH Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Participants: Studies examining mothers or mother-child dyads were reviewed. Sample sizes varied between N = 60 and N = 8900 participants. On average, mothers were between 27.56 and 32.50 years old. Findings: Eleven studies were eligible for inclusion. Of seven studies examining breastfeeding and child attachment, four found that a longer duration of breastfeeding was significantly associated with higher levels of attachment security after controlling for various covariates. No significant differences in attachment security between breastfeeding and bottle-feeding were reported, but one study found higher levels of attachment disorganization for bottle-feeding, although mean levels were below a clinically relevant level. The initiation of breastfeeding directly after childbirth was not related to child attachment. Of four studies examining maternal attachment and breastfeeding, three found a significant association between secure attachment of the mother and breastfeeding behaviour. Secure attached mothers initiated breastfeeding more often and preferred breast- over bottle-feeding than insecure attached mothers. Mixed results were found for breastfeeding duration. Most studies had limitations regarding adequate sample size, and valid and reliable measurement of breastfeeding. Key conclusions: The findings provide some evidence that breastfeeding might contribute to child attachment security. Furthermore, maternal attachment style might play a role in breastfeeding behaviour. However, more prospective studies are needed to draw a solid conclusion. Implications for practice: With regard to breastfeeding recommendations, health professionals should be aware of and communicate towards clients that the effect of breastfeeding on child attachment might be rather small. Screening of maternal attachment style as a part of maternity practice could be useful to support insecure attached mothers experiencing breastfeeding difficulties.
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Background Early termination of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and postpartum depression (PPD) are both recognized as global health problems. Recent literature reviews demonstrate a notable link between PPD and breastfeeding outcomes, however, the underlying mechanisms linking the two remain unclear. Objectives The aim of the study is to: 1) explore the comparative risk for PPD among new mothers who terminated EBF before the 6-month mark, compared to those who did not; and 2) test whether maternal stress and social support operate to mediate and/or moderate the relationship between EBF and PPD. Methods Between October 2015 and January 2016, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 426 new mothers of Bangladesh who were six months postpartum. Results Based on the multivariate logistic regression model, non-exclusively breastfeeding mothers were 7.58-fold more likely to experience PPD (95% CI [3.94, 14.59]) than exclusively breastfeeding mothers. Additionally, maternal stress and social support not only partially mediate the relationship between EBF and PPD but also substantially moderate this relationship. Specifically, the odds of PPD are significantly higher among mothers who had early EBF interruption in conjunction with increased stress levels and limited social support. Conclusions Current evidence suggests that concurrent screening for EBF difficulties and maternal stress are important red flags that might hint at complications even before mother’s screen positive for PPD. Support and care from family members can provide assistance in overcoming this issue.
Article
Oxytocin (OXT) is thought to have antidepressant/anxiolytic effects in postpartum women. Primiparous women tend toward an attenuated lactation compared with multiparous women. However, so far, little is known about the relationship between OXT and autonomic nervous activity (ANA) in perinatal women and whether it may be different in primiparous and multiparous women. Therefore, the objective of this study was to answer this question by determining both ANA and salivary OXT levels in primiparous and multiparous perinatal women. In 18 primiparous and 18 multiparous women, who underwent a physical and physiological examination, ANA measurement by heart rate variability and saliva sampling were performed during the perinatal period. Saliva OXT concentration was determined by a highly sensitive ELISA. OXT release into saliva was obtained from multiplying saliva OXT concentration by saliva flow rate. In the postpartum period, multiparous women had higher parasympathetic nervous activity (PNA) and lower physical stress index (PSI) compared with primiparous women. Furthermore, multiparous postpartal women had higher OXT compared with primiparous or multiparous prepartal women. In addition, in multiparous perinatal women, OXT correlated positively with PNA, but negatively with PSI. These results suggest that after parturition, multiparous mothers may switch over to the "feed and bread" system more quickly due to increased OXT compared with primiparous mothers. Our findings support antidepressant/anxiolytic and anti‐stress effects of OXT. In postpartal women exposed to synthetic OXT, ANA measurement may provide a clue to clarify the effects of exogenous OXT on postpartum psychiatric disorders.
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The decision to trust is the foundation for proper functioning in technology, work, and social environments. For this reason, it is of critical interest to understand and investigate the brain mechanisms involved in human trust for the neuroergonomics community. This chapter seeks to review the current understanding of the neurotransmitters and different neural correlates involved in the decision to trust compared to the decision not to trust. The neurotransmitters with these multifaceted behaviors are Oxytocin and Testosterone. While previously dubbed, the “love hormone” oxytocin is now believed to have an impact on the brain’s encoding of prediction error, and therefore its ability to modify preexisting beliefs. Testosterone, which was thought of as an inhibitor of trust, only shows decreases of trust only in men and a subgroup of women who displayed social naivety. The structural correlates involved in trust/distrust identified are the prefrontal cortex (PFC) (specifically the ventromedial PFC and orbitofrontal cortex), the insula, caudate, amygdala, and anterior paracingulate cortex (PCC). The caudate and anterior paracingulate cortex are currently thought to be involved with the positive decision to trust, whereas the prefrontal cortex, insula, and amygdala seem to have higher correlations with the negative decision to distrust. The academic literature used to determine these correlates methodology included lesion studies, intranasal administration, fMRI imaging of the trust game, and transcranial direct stimulation studies.
Article
Postpartum blues is the onset of mental disorders in mothers postpartum, which in turn can adversely affect the mother and the baby. One of the factors triggering postpartum the difficulty breastfeeding which can increase the risk of depression. 7 contacts lactation counseling done from the beginning that since the mother's womb 28 weeks old after birth is not expected to happen later breastfeeding difficulties that can lead to postpartum blues. This has encouraged the devotees to carry out the Community Service (Pengabmas) dissemination of research results in the form of seven contacts influence on the incidence of postpartum lactation counseling blues at the Village Karangjati City District Blora Blora. Service to the community is intended to provide education to pregnant women in order to prepare for the postpartum period to be able to provide exclusive breastfeeding to reduce the risk of postpartum blues. Community service activities are carried out at 7 meetings in PKD Karangjati using methods lectures, discussion, and demonstration. This activity begins with the pre-test and post-test ends with the result is increased knowledge after being given counseling with a lecture and demonstration. The conclusion form the community service is an increased knowledge of pregnant women about the benefits of seven contacts lactation counseling can reduce the risk of postpartum blues.
Article
Background Postpartum depression (PPD) is a disorder that has a severe impact on a woman's mental state and mood after birth. Research has shown that postnatal levels of family adversity and maternal psychopathology are associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This paper is intended to examine the association among maternal PPD and the risk of ADHD in the offspring. Methods Keyword search was conducted for PsycINFO, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Embase up to Feb 28, 2021; studies in English were deemed eligible. Random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis took place. Subgroup analyses by study design, geographical region, level of adjustment and study setting were performed. Results Nine cohort studies and two case-control studies published from 2003 to 2019 were included in the qualitative synthesis; among them, eight studies were synthesized in the meta-analysis. Overall, maternal PPD was associated with an increased risk of ADHD in the offspring (pooled relative risk, RR = 1.69, 95%CI: 1.27–2.26). Significant associations were noted in the subsets of cohort studies, studies implementing multivariate analyses and registry-based surveys. Limitations Overall, a larger number of studies of the field are needed. Data collection relied on self-report and attrition bias limited the validity of eligible studies. Studies from developing countries were underrepresented. There was significant publication bias (p = 0.035, Egger's test). Conclusions The relationship between PPD and ADHD in children was found to be significant in this systematic review and meta-analysis and reveals the need for further investigation in various geographical regions.
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This study investigated the proposition that breastfeeding facilitates mother-infant interaction in a context beyond feeding. The free-play behaviors of 11 mother-infant pairs in which infants were currently breastfed were compared to 16 bottlefeeding dyads. Coded maternal behaviors included positive instances of play, touch, vocalizations and affect directed towards the infants, and positive vocalizations, reaching and affect by the infants to their mothers. Analyses revealed that currently breastfed mother-infant pairs displayed more maternal touch and less infant vocalizing, but more fussiness. However, breastfed males and bottlefed females exhibited the most optimal behaviors, suggesting a sex by feeding interaction effect. The results are discussed with respect to the developing mother-infant relationship.
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Data suggest that both cancer history and psychosocial stress may be associated with reductions in natural killer cell activity (NKA). Therefore, we tested whether individual differences in cancer history, chronic/perceived stress, and their interactions would be associated with decreased levels of NKA. We tested these hypotheses in 80 spouse caregivers of victims of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) (persons known to report high levels of psychosocial stress) and in 85 age- and sex-matched spouses of non-demented controls. Participants were assessed at study entry (Time 1) and 15–18 months later (Time 2). Individuals with cancer histories (N=43) had not been treated with immune altering medications within the last year. At both Times 1 and 2, cross-sectional main effects were weak or absent for cancer history, perceived stress (e.g. high hassles, low uplifts), and caregiver status; however, interactions occurred between cancer history and perceived stress, such that persons with cancer histories and high hassles/low uplifts had the lowest NKA values (p<.05). These results occurred even after controlling for age, gender, beta-blocker use, hormone replacement therapy, alcohol, and exercise. At Time 1, an interaction also occurred between caregiver status and cancer history—caregivers with cancer histories had lower NKA than did controls with cancer histories and caregivers/controls without cancer histories (p<.05). At Time 2, this interaction only showed a trend (p<.08), primarily because caregivers with cancer histories experienced increases in NKA (p<.05) from Time 1 to Time 2, whereas in the other three groups NKA did not change. Importantly, in caregivers with cancer histories, high perceived stress at Time 1 predicted low NKA at Time 2 (p<.05). This research suggests that the combinations of biological vulnerabilities and chronic/perceived stress may have interactive effects resulting in reduced NKA.
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The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of academic examination stress on leukocyte subset distribution in university students. Thirty-eight university students had repeated blood collections for white blood cell differentiation and flow cytometric assay of lymphocytic subsets a few weeks before and after (i.e. two baseline conditions) as well as the day before a difficult academic examination (i.e. stress condition). Flow cytometry was used to determine the number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In students, who were reactors to psychological stress (criterion based on changes in the Perceived Stress Scale, PSS), but not in stress non-reactors, a significant increase in the number of neutrophils, monocytes, CD8(+), CD2(+)CD26(+), and CD2(+)HLA-DR+ T cells and CD19(+) B cells, and significant reductions in the CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell ratio were observed in the stress condition. There were significant and positive relationships between the stress-induced changes in perceived stress (PSS scale) and number of leukocytes, neutrophils, CD2(+), CD2(+)CD26(+) and CD2(+)HLADR+ T cells, and CD19(+) B cells. There were significant and negative relationships between the stress-induced changes in the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio and the stress-induced changes in the PSS scale. Female students taking oral contraceptives showed significantly higher stress-induced responses in number of leukocytes, neutrophils and CD19(+) B cells than male and female students without use of oral contraceptives. The results suggest that academic examination stress induces changes in the distribution of PBMC, which indicate immune activation and which are probably orchestrated by a stress-induced production of cytokines.
Article
Endocrine responses to noise stress and anxiety-related behaviors were measured in groups of ovariectomized, estradiol-treated female rats given central infusions of oxytocin. Control animals receiving isotonic saline showed a large increase in plasma corticosterone concentrations in response to 10 min of white noise. This response to noise stress was significantly and dose dependently decreased by oxytocin administered intracerebroventricularly at 10 or 100 ng/h for 5 days. Oxytocin also significantly decreased rearing behavior during this stress. When a second noise stress was given 3 days after cessation of oxytocin infusion, corticosterone responses did not differ between the control and previously oxytocin-infused animals. Administration of vasopressin had no significant effect on either the corticosterone or behavioral responses to noise stress. Anxiety-related behaviors were measured on the elevated plus-maze. No significant differences were seen in maze exploration between saline- and oxytocin-treated animals when housed and tested in the same environment. However, when animals were mildly stressed by testing in an unfamiliar environment, oxytocin-treated animals showed a higher proportion of open arm entries and spent significantly more time in the open arms of the maze. Thus, oxytocin exerts a central anxiolytic-like effect on both endocrine and behavioral systems and could play a role in moderating behavioral and physiological responses to stress.
Article
Depressed (N = 11) and non depressed (N = 19) women who had recently given birth were compared on several life stress measures and indices of structural and qualitative characteristics of their social networks. We predicted that depressed subjects diagnosed on the basis of Research Diagnostic Criteria would have experienced more stressful life events since the beginning of pregnancy and since delivery. We also predicted that depressed subjects would have fewer confidants and receive less instrumental and emotional support from their network members. These predictions were largely confirmed, except that the two groups did not differ on number of confidants. The social support provided by spouses appeared to be especially important. Implications of these findings for life events and social network research are discussed.
Article
The aim of the present investigation was to explore whether the personality characteristics of women who have recently given birth differ from those of a control group of similar aged women and if so, whether such deviations are related to the pregnancy- and lactation-associated hormones oxytocin and prolactin which in animal experiments have been shown to play a role in maternal behavior. Thereforethe Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) were used in 50 women 4 days postpartum and in addition 18 blood samples were drawn in connection with breastfeeding. Oxytocin and prolactin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The women investigated scored lower in Muscular Tension (p < 0.05), in Monotony Avoidance (p < 0.001) and Psychasthenia (p < 0.01) and higher in Social Desirability (p < 0.001) than a reference material. Plasma levels of oxytocin and prolactin rose as expected in response to breastfeeding. When the average prolactin and oxytocin levels obtained at the 18 different timepoints of each woman were correlated with the scores obtained in the various KSP items, some significant relationships were found. Significant positive correlations were found between prolactin and the KSP dimensions Social Desirability and Inhibited Aggression and negative correlations with Psychasthenia. Significant inverse relationships between oxytocin and several Anxiety and Aggression variables, Guilt in particular, were also found. Correlations with oxytocin and prolactin levels were as a rule particularly clear in samples collected during breastfeeding. The data obtained are discussed from a biological point of view in relation to the specific 'maternal behavior' described in other mammals. It is suggested that subtle psychological and behavioral changes occur in women during motherhood and that these changes may in part be related to prolactin and oxytocin.
Article
The great majority of women evidence few significant problems during the puerperium. Mild affective distress lasting a few hours to a few days and known as the post-partum blues is common but has little effect beyond the first week or two after delivery. Post-partum depression, which has a prevalence of 10-15% is more serious in that it may last for several months and impair a woman's ability to function in her many roles. Clinically and with respect to causal factors post-partum depression appears to resemble depression occurring at other times. Post-partum psychosis is a disabling disorder occurring once in every 1000 deliveries. Intensive treatment, usually on an inpatient basis, is required. Women with previous psychosis or a family history of psychosis are at increased risk. Discussion of the consequences of these patterns of post-partum adjustment and recommendations for treatment and future research are presented. © 1987 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two studies examined the effects of breast-feeding on maternal cardiovascular function. In the first experiment, groups of breast-feeding and bottle-feeding women were compared on preejection period (PEP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) recorded for 1-min periods before and during standard laboratory stressors. Compared with bottle-feeders, breast-feeders had higher CO throughout the session, and greater decreases in CO and increases in TPR during cold pressor. In the second experiment, HR and blood pressure (BP) were compared before and after one breast-feeding and one bottle-feeding session in a within-subjects design. Both feeding methods increased BP but decreased HR, and systolic BP was higher for the breast-feeding than the bottle-feeding condition. Both studies support the notion that breast-feeding alters maternal cardiovascular function, possibly through the actions of oxytocin.
Article
Thirty-two primiparous mothers with their neonates, 20 breast-fed and 12 bottle-fed, were videotaped during feeding longitudinally (at 3, 10 days, 1 and 3 months) in order to investigate whether patterns of mother-infant interaction observed during breast- and bottle-feeding differ also for behavior not directly related to sucking. Infant state, sucking behavior, mother behavior and mother-infant interaction were analyzed by both sequential and non sequential analysis. Results suggest that the method of feedings affects mother-infant interaction observed during and just after feeding also for some behavior not directly related to sucking. The percentage of mutual touch, tactile stimulation and mother's gaze to infant was significantly more elevated during breast-feeding. Independently of the feeding mode, significant sequential dependencies between infant state of alertness and auditory stimulation, and auditory stimulation and mutual gaze were found.
Article
Environmental cues associated with drug use become capable of eliciting withdrawal symptoms, craving and relapse to drug self-administration. The phenomenon, although noted almost 150 years ago, has repeatedly been confirmed in epidemiological and experimental studies. Drug tolerance, which is closely correlated with withdrawal symptoms and craving, is also modulated by drug-associated environmental cues. The contribution of predrug cues to withdrawal and tolerance is emphasized in a Pavlovian conditioning analysis of drug administration. Drug-induced disturbances are modulated by homeostatic responses elicited by pharmacological stimulation. According to the conditioning analysis, we learn to anticipate the drug effect; corrective response (conditional compensatory responses) occur in the presence of situations and events that have been associated with the drug in the past. These conditional responses, seen in anticipation of drugs, importantly contribute to drug tolerance, failures of tolerance (enigmatic overdoses), and withdrawal symptoms. I review evidence indicating that a complete analysis of drug withdrawal and tolerance requires an appreciation of the contribution of Pavlovian conditioning.
Article
In this prospective, longitudinal study, 42 first-time mothers, recruited through prenatal classes, were assessed on variables predictive of postpartum depressive symptoms. Using a causal modelling structural analysis, it was found that prenatal depression, partners' support, and infant-related factors all contributed to the development of depression following childbirth.
Article
Many studies have investigated the relationship between psychosocial factors and the susceptibility to infectious diseases. Fewer studies have investigated the relationship between stress and the immunologic response to vaccines. A follow-up study was designed to investigate the relationships between stress, distress, and the antibody response to a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Eighty-one seronegative medical students received a standard immunization protocol of a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Six months after the first dose, corresponding to the induction phase of immunization, each subject completed both the Survey of Life Experiences and the Symptom Distress Check List to assess levels of stress and distress during that period. Three months after the third dose, corresponding to the booster phase of immunization, each subject completed the same questionnaires and was also tested for a quantitative hepatitis B surface antibody titer. Correlations were statistically analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and stepwise multifactorial regression analysis. Higher levels of negatively perceived stress, irascibility, depression, and anxiety during the induction phase of immunization were significantly associated with higher peak antibody titers. Together these psychosocial factors accounted for 5.8% of the variance, and were as strong a determinant of peak antibody titer as was age. In addition to the known vaccine-related and biological factors, psychosocial factors appear to affect the immune response to a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. The positive direction of the correlation raises the question of whether the effect of psychosocial factors on antibody formation is different from their effect on antibody function.
Article
Self-perceived psychological stress as a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) was evaluated in a general population study comprising 6,935 men aged 47 to 55 years at baseline without previous myocardial infarction. In 1970 to 1973, the men answered a question about psychological stress defined as a feeling of tension, irritability or anxiety, or as having sleeping difficulties as a result of conditions at work or at home. Psychological stress was graded as follows: (1) never experienced stress; (2) greater than or equal to 1 period of stress; (3) greater than or equal to 1 period of stress during the last 5 years; (4) several periods of stress during the last 5 years; and (5 to 6) permanent stress during the last year or the last 5 years. After a mean follow-up of 11.8 years, 6% of the men with the lowest 4 stress ratings (n = 5,865) had either developed a nonfatal myocardial infarction or died from CAD, with no increase in risk from grade 1 to 4. The corresponding figure among the men with the highest 2 stress ratings (n = 1,070) was 10%; the odds ratio was 1.5 (95% confidence interval 1.2-1.9) after controlling for age and other risk factors. Similar, independent associations were seen with stroke, and with death from cardiovascular disease and from all causes, but not with death from cancer. With respect to CAD, no decrease in the effect of stress at baseline could be seen over time. No relation between life events and self-perceived psychological stress was found in another sample of 732 fifty-year-old men.
Article
Demographic, psychiatric, social, cognitive, and life stress variables were used to determine the etiology of depression in childbearing (CB; n = 182) and nonchildbearing (NCB; n = 179) women. Hormonal variables in postpartum depression were also evaluated. In the CB group predictors of depression diagnosis were previous depression, depression during pregnancy, and a Vulnerability (V) x Life Stress (LS) interaction; predictors of depressive symptomatology were previous depression, depressive symptoms during pregnancy, life events, and V x LS. Only estradiol was associated with postpartum depression diagnosis. In the NCB group V X LS was the only predictor of depression diagnosis; depressive symptoms during pregnancy and life events were predictors of depressive symptomatology. Previous findings about depression vulnerability were replicated. The significant V x LS interactions support the vulnerability-stress model of postpartum depression.
Article
We examined the role of a number of psychosocial variables in the onset of postpartum depression and in recovery from depression that occurs during pregnancy. Women (N = 730) were recruited during pregnancy and were followed through 1 month postpartum. They were assessed on demographic variables and on measures of depressive symptomatology and diagnostic status, perceived stress, marital satisfaction, perceptions of their own parents, dysfunctional cognitions, and coping style. Onset of depression in the postpartum was predicted by the levels during pregnancy of depressive symptomatology and perceived maternal and paternal care during childhood. In contrast, recovery in the postpartum from depression during pregnancy was not predicted by the variables examined in this study. These results are discussed with reference to previous investigations that have examined depression that occurs outside the context of childbirth.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine whether race (black v white) and perceived stress were independent factors affecting the diurnal blood pressure variation of normal women. The 110 women studied (age = 29.7 +/- 7.2 years, range 20 to 50) were all employed in technical and clerical occupations from the same worksite. They were divided into four groups based on race and how they perceived work stress on the day of study. The results showed that there were no daytime differences in blood pressure levels in blacks or whites, but women who perceived greater stress at work on the day of study had higher pressures during work (123/78 v 115/74; p less than .01). Blacks, however, had higher pressures during sleep than whites, independent of the perception of work stress (109/65 v 104/60; P less than .01). These results suggest that the smaller drop in pressure during sleep in blacks is not related to perceived work stress, but that the effects of perceived stress on daytime pressures is independent of race.
Article
A sample of 115 primiparous women was assessed during pregnancy and the postpartum to identify the predictors and correlates of postpartum depression. The variables considered were marital adjustment, attributional style, life stress, maternal expectations for and perceptions of infant behavior, and blues symptoms. The data obtained at each assessment were submitted to principal-components analyses to identify variable clusters or constructs, which were used to predict both depressive symptom levels and a diagnosis of depression. Concurrently, symptoms and diagnosis were related to mothers' perceptions of their infants as temperamentally difficult. Prospectively, depressive symptomatology was predicted by low marital adjustment and depressed mood during pregnancy, optimistic expectations for infants, prepartum life stress, and early postpartum symptoms of anxiety and cognitive impairment. Although diagnostic status was related to a subset of these variables, results indicate that depressive symptom levels and diagnosis are not synonymous measures of the construct "postpartum depression."
Article
The dramatic endocrinologic changes that occur after childbirth and the coincident affective disturbances that range from "maternity blues" to major depression have stimulated much theorizing and some study. The role of breast-feeding and weaning has received remarkably little attention both in the more biologically oriented studies and in epidemiologic work. This paper reviews endocrinologic data which support the thesis that postpartum psychiatric disorders have a hormonal basis and discusses the possible psychiatric effects of breast-feeding and weaning. The cases of four patients who developed major depressions in close temporal association with weaning are presented and discussed.
Article
The benefits of breastfeeding for the infant are well known. Much less is known, however, about how the woman's choice of feeding method is related to her maternal role adjustment during the initial weeks postpartum. Mother-infant mutuality and maternal anxiety scores of 60 first time mothers were examined using analysis of variance techniques. Method of infant feeding (breast, bottle, or combination) was found to be responsible for a significant amount of the variance in both scores. At one month postpartum, women who breastfed their infants had scores indicating less anxiety and more mutuality than the women bottle feeding their infants. An interpretation of the results using role theory concepts provides a possible explanation of the relationships found. Differences in the character of interactions involved with breast and bottle feeding may influence other aspects of maternal role transitions.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented.
Article
In the behavioral despair test in mice, oxytocin, i.p. injected 60 min before testing, significantly reduced the duration of immobility at doses of 0.250-1.0 mg/Kg; the effect being similar to that of imipramine (7.5-30 mg/Kg i.p.). A more powerful effect was obtained with a 10-day treatment schedule. In the learned helplessness test, oxytocin (0.500 mg/Kg/day i.p. for 8 days) significantly reduced the escape failures and the latency to escape, the effect being even more intense than that of imipramine (20 mg/Kg/day i.p. for 8 days). These results show a new behavioral effect of oxytocin, and further support its role of CNS regulatory peptide.
Article
A review of the literature suggests that there are 3 types of postpartum dysphoric mood states: the maternity blues (a fairly common, transient disorder), postpartum affective psychosis (relatively rare), and postpartum depression (as many as 20% of postpartum women may develop mild to moderate depression). The etiology of postpartum depression remains unclear, although numerous biological, psychological, and sociopsychological factors have been proposed as etiologically relevant. There is some empirical support for these notions, but methodological and conceptual problems hinder the development of a coherent theoretical framework for understanding the etiology, course, and treatment of the disorder. Recent data indicate a relation between stress and depression; future research into postpartum depression is needed to determine the contribution of psychosocial factors (e.g., life events and social support). Medical complications during pregnancy, infant variables, and the effect on the infant–mother relationship also need to be studied. (3 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
99 women (mean age 26.5 yrs) were followed from the 2nd trimester of pregnancy until about 6 mo postpartum. Depression diagnostic and severity assessments were conducted during pregnancy and after delivery. Instruments included the Beck Depression Inventory and an interview adapted from the Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Depression severity decreased steadily from the 2nd trimester until 9 wks postpartum. Approximately 9% of the Ss during pregnancy and 12% of the Ss during the postpartum period were diagnosed as having a major or minor depression. A model of depression was constructed to account for both postpartum depression symptomatology and the syndrome of postpartum depression. Predictor variables (e.g., prepartum depression symptomatology, obstetric risk factors) accounted for about 50% of the variance in depressive symptomatology. Predictor variables (e.g., depression history, stressful childcare events) accounted for about 30% of the variance in diagnostic status. Findings underscore the importance of studying changes in depression diagnostic status as well as changes in level of depressive symptomatology in prospective studies. (43 ref)
Article
85 1st-time mothers (18–35 yrs old) were followed from the 3rd trimester of pregnancy through the 2nd mo after childbirth. Initial attributional style was assessed (Attributional Style Questionnaire; ASQ) as well as causal attributions for a range of naturally occurring stressful events. Ss were assessed for level of depression with the Beck Depression Inventory and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression at 3 points. Pregnancy scores on the ASQ predicted level of postpartum depression among Ss who were not depressed during pregnancy. However, among Ss who were depressed during pregnancy, the ASQ was not a significant predictor of postpartum depression. Speed of recovery from postpartum depressive symptoms was significantly predicted by the ASQ. Other results indicate that the ASQ was not a good predictor of causal attributions for naturally occurring stressful events. Attributional style had a direct relationship to subsequent depression, rather than an indirect relationship mediated by causal attributions for actual stressful events. Unless findings can be attributed to problems in the measurement of attributions for actual events, modifications in the reformulated learned helplessness model may be indicated. (45 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Neurohypophyseal hormones and related peptides cause behavioural alterations after intracerebroventricular injection in mice. In the present study, these effects, consisting of excessive grooming and scratching, and of escape-directed activity in stressful situations, could easily be distinguished from those of other centrally acting peptides and drugs by means of two different behavioural bioassays. The effects were not antagonized by drugs that block cholinergic or adrenergic receptors, but they were powerfully suppressed by some potent psychotropic agents. Some compounds with strong vasoconstrictor or vasodilatory actions did not mimick or antagonize the behavioural alterations, suggesting that vasoconstriction is not essential for the induction of these effects. A considerable degree of tolerance could be induced and cross-tolerance was observed between different neurohypophyseal hormones. In rats, behavioural alterations caused by oxytocin and vasopressin could be demonstrated as well, but they were by far less pronounced than those observed in mice. For comparison, some data on the behavioural effects of bombesin are included. This peptide caused behavioural alterations similar to those of the neurohypophyseal hormones, but these were apparently mediated by different mechanisms. It is suggested that centrally-released oxytocin and/or vasopressin might be physiologically involved in the regulation of animal behaviour.
Article
This paper describes a patient who has had two episodes of mania, both of which occurred immediately after weaning. Although no recent reference to weaning as an aetiological factor in psychiatric disturbances could be found, it is suggested that weaning was an aetiological factor in this case.
Article
A 20 per cent prevalence of mild clinical depression was found in 120 women assessed at about six weeks postpartum. The strongest associated factor was occurrence of recent stressful life events. Previous history of psychiatric disorder, younger age, early postpartum blues, and a group of variables reflecting poor marital relationship and absence of social support were also notable. Poor marital support acted as a vulnerability factor, only producing an effect in presence of stressful life events. Previous psychiatric history produced a strong independent effect, both with and without life events. Postpartum blues were only associated with depression in the absence of life events, suggesting a small hormonal sub-group. Overall the findings indicate the importance of social stress in puerperal depression.
Article
The aim of the present investigation was to explore dose relationships for effects of oxytocin on spontaneous motor activity in the rat. Oxytocin in doses from 1-1000 micrograms/kg was given SC to male Sprague-Dawley rats, and spontaneous motor behavior was measured by means of photocell-operated open-field observations. In the rats treated with low doses of oxytocin (1-4 micrograms/kg), there was a decrease in peripheral locomotor activity. With increasing doses (250-1000 micrograms/kg), there were clear signs of sedative effects as indicated by a suppression of locomotor activity and rearing. The time course for the effect of oxytocin on peripheral activity (1 microgram/kg) and rearing (1 mg/kg) was tested. A maximal effect was obtained within 1 h and, thereafter, the behavior gradually returned to normal within 24 h. This spectrum of effects caused by oxytocin was similar to that of midazolam but different from that induced by raclopride.
Article
The vagal nerves convey information between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract in both afferent and efferent direction. The efferent vagal nerves regulate gastrointestinal secretory and motor function and also the activity in the endocrine system of the gut. Gastrointestinal function and anabolic metabolism is optimized during gestation and lactation as a means of saving energy for this calorie-demanding process. This enhanced activity seems to involve central oxytocinergic transmission which increases efferent vagal nerve activity as reflected by altered levels of gastrointestinal hormones in plasma. In parallel a behaviour pattern characterized by sedation is induced. In addition, vagal afferents transfer information from the gut to the brain, e.g. as to the presence or absence of calories in the gastrointestinal tract. It is well known that satiety and sedation following a meal is in part caused by an activation of vagal afferents in response to food intake. Cholecystokinin released from the intestine is one of the factors that triggers the afferent vagal nerve activity. Also reproductive "interactive behaviours" such as milk ejection and maternal behaviour can be induced by CCK via afferent activation of vagal nerves. In contrast, when no food reaches the gut, milk production and ejection is blocked. Parts of these effects are vagally mediated, since they can be observed in vagotomized rats receiving full amounts of calories.
Article
This study examined the relationships between symptoms of common infectious illnesses, menstrual cycle phase, and cycle-related distress. Sixty-five women who had regular menstrual cycles and were not taking birth control pills were the convenience sample for this research. Subjects completed the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and an investigator-developed symptom checklist (SCL) that inventoried symptoms of common respiratory, skin, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary infections. The subjects completed all questionnaires three times during the menstrual cycle (during menstruation, midcycle, and premenstruum). The results of the study indicated a highly significant clustering of infectious illness symptoms during the perimenstrual period compared with midcycle. There were significant relationships between scores on the MDQ and PSS and the frequency and intensity of infection symptoms throughout the cycle. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) of the effects of phase, PSS, MDQ, and SCL scores revealed that phasic influences were not significant when MDQ scores were controlled. PSS and MDQ scores significantly influenced symptom scores when phase was controlled, suggesting a general relationship between distress and infectious symptoms during the menstrual cycle.
Article
The regulation of food and fluid intake in lactating women was examined by comparing maternal intake during lactation, 6 weeks postpartum, to intake in two groups of nonpregnant, nonlactating women. All subjects completed a questionnaire and then filled out a food-intake diary for seven consecutive days. Lactating women did not differ from body weight-matched, nonlactating controls in their total daily intakes or their meal patterns. However, they consumed a significantly smaller percentage of the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) per day than did their nonlactating counterparts. Lactating women were also significantly more calm both pre- and postmeal than were either of the control groups. These results indicate that the lactating women, at 6 weeks postpartum, did not increase their intake to compensate for the caloric demands of lactation. This may indicate that the lactating women catabolize weight gained during pregnancy faster than accounted for in the RDA, or that lactating women increase their metabolic efficiency.
Article
The present study focused on the relationship between psychological stress and immune reaction to a novel antigen. Participants completed questionnaires on daily hassles, psychoneurotic complaints, coping style, and loneliness, 2 and 6 months after the first of a series injections with a low dose recombinant DNA hepatitis B vaccine. Antibody response was determined 7 months after the first vaccination. Based on the psychological questionnaires two different stress measures were calculated: a Stress Index score-month-2 and a Stress Index score-month-6 indicating stress levels experienced at the beginning and at the end of the study respectively. Antibody levels were found to be negatively related with the Stress Index score-month-2. Although the influence of psychological stress reported on month 6 tended to be in the same direction, this effect was not significant. Coping styles and loneliness were not associated with antibody formation. These results suggest that antibody formation to rDNA hepatitis B vaccine is negatively influenced by psychological stress.
Article
In view of the current changes in the National Health Service, it was considered an opportune time to review the literature on perinatal psychiatric illness. A systematic review w