ArticlePDF Available

Wheat Grass Juice in the Treatment of Active Distal Ulcerative Colitis: A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial


Abstract and Figures

The use of wheat grass (Triticum aestivum) juice for treatment of various gastrointestinal and other conditions had been suggested by its proponents for more than 30 years, but was never clinically assessed in a controlled trial. A preliminary unpublished pilot study suggested efficacy of wheat grass juice in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. One gastroenterology unit in a tertiary hospital and three study coordinating centers in three major cities in Israel. Twenty-three patients diagnosed clinically and sigmoidoscopically with active distal UC were randomly allocated to receive either 100 cc of wheat grass juice, or a matching placebo, daily for 1 month. Efficacy of treatment was assessed by a 4-fold disease activity index that included rectal bleeding and number of bowel movements as determined from patient diary records, a sigmoidoscopic evaluation, and global assessment by a physician. Twenty-one patients completed the study, and full information was available on 19 of them. Treatment with wheat grass juice was associated with significant reductions in the overall disease activity index (P=0.031) and in the severity of rectal bleeding (P = 0.025). No serious side effects were found. Fresh extract of wheat grass demonstrated a prominent tracing in cyclic voltammetry methodology, presumably corresponding to four groups of compounds that exhibit anti-oxidative properties. Wheat grass juice appeared effective and safe as a single or adjuvant treatment of active distal UC.
Content may be subject to copyright.
W heat Gra ss Juice in the Treatment of Active Distal Ulcerative Colitis
A R andomized D ouble-blind Placebo-controlled Trial
E. Ben -Arye, E. Goldin, D. Wengrower, A. Stamper, R. Kohn & E. Berry
Dept. of Family Medicine, The Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, The Technion, Israel Institute
of Technology , Haifa, Israel; Klalit Health Services, Haifa and Wester n Gallill e District;
Gastroenterolog y Unit, Hadassah Hospital. Jerusalem , Israel ; Dept. of Pharmacology , the Hebrew
University, Hadassah School of Medicine, Jerusalem , Israel; Dept. of Metabolism and Nutrition, the
Hebrew University, Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel
Ben-Arye E, Goldin E, Wengrower D, Stamper A, Kohn R, Berry E. Wheat grass juice in the treatment of
active distal ulcerativ e colitis : a randomized double-blin d placebo-controlle d trial. Scand J Gastroentero l
2002;37:444 –449.
Background: The use of wheat grass (Triticum aestivum) juice for treatment of various gastrointestina l
and other conditions had been suggeste d by its proponent s for more than 30 years, but was never
clinically assessed in a controlle d trial. A preliminary unpublished pilot study suggeste d ef cacy of wheat
grass juice in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: A randomized, double-blind , placebo-
controlled study. One gastroenterolog y unit in a tertiary hospital and three study coordinatin g centers in
three major cities in Israel. Twenty-three patients diagnosed clinically and sigmoidoscopicall y with active
distal UC were randomly allocated to receive either 100 cc of wheat grass juice, or a matching placebo,
daily for 1 month. Ef cacy of treatment was assessed by a 4-fol d disease activity index that included
rectal bleeding and number of bowel movements as determined from patient diary records, a
sigm oidoscopi c evaluation, and global assessment by a physician. Results. Twenty-one patients
com pleted the study, and full information was available on 19 of them. Treatment with wheat grass juice
was associated with signi cant reductions in the overall disease activity index (P = 0.031) and in the
severity of rectal bleedin g (P = 0.025). No serious side effects were found. Fresh extract of wheat grass
dem onstrate d a prominent tracing in cyclic voltammetry methodology, presumably correspondin g to four
groups of compounds tha t exhibit anti-oxidativ e properties . Conclusion. Wheat grass juice appeare d
effective and safe as a single or adjuvant treatment of active distal UC.
K ey words: Clinical trial; complementar y alternativ e medicine (CAM); randomized; ulcerativ e colitis;
wheat grass juice
Eran Ben-Arye, M.D., Moshav Bet-Shearim, Israel 30046 (fax.
97 2 463 90127, e-mail. eranben @
heat grass juice is an extrac t squeezed from mature
sprouts of wheat seeds (Triticum aes tivum). The
use of wheat grass juice for therapeutic purposes
was developed and popularized by Dr. Ann Wigmore (1).
Although proponents of wheat grass juice have re commended
it for three decades as a treatment for various a ilments,
including chroni c in ammatory conditions and malignancies,
to date no clinical trials exist. The juice is believed to possess
therapeutic qualities only when fresh and is therefore con-
sumed immediately after extraction, on an empty stomach.
The therapeutic qua lities of wheat grass juice have been
attributed to its rich nutritional content—chlorophyll, vita-
mins (A, C and E), bio avenoids, minerals (iron, calcium and
magnesium), and 17 amino acids, 8 of which are essential (2).
Several studies have a ssessed an anti-mutagenic activity of
wheat grass juice. In 1978, Lai et al. demonstrated an anti-
mutagenic activity of wheat grass extract in the Ames test
system and attributed it to chlorophyll (3). In 1992, Peryt
showed its anti-mutagenic activity agains t cyclophosphamide
and ethidium bromide, which was related to avonoids,
particularly apigenin (4).
Clinic al aspects of ulcerative colitis (UC) have been
studied thoroughly , and there have been recent advances in
drug therapy (5). Yet many patients, particularly in younger
age groups, suffer from symptoms that are dif cult to treat:
the emotional distress of feeling c ontrolled by the disease
rather than controlling it (as they constantly seek the nearest
rest-room) ; the experience of blood in the stool and constant
concern about neoplastic changes; the side effects of second-
line drugs; and the physic al and psychological distress of
multiple endoscopic procedures (6).
The use of wheat grass juice in the treatment of UC was
brought to our attention by several patients with UC who
attributed their improvement to regular use of the extract. In a
pilot study, we gave 100 cc of wheat grass juice for 14 days to
10 previously diagnosed UC patients during relapse. Eight
Ó 2002 Taylor & Francis
patients described clinical improvement, one had no change,
and one got worse. This study was never published. The
present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
was designed to examine the e ffects of wheat grass juice in
patients with active distal UC.
Me thods
Patients were recruited from a variety of sources: media
publicity, an in ammatory bowel disease (IBD) support
group, and referrals from gastroenterologists and general
practitioners (Fig. 1). Of the 614 individuals who contacted
the research team, 210 presented with clinical histories
sugge stive of IBD (164 compatible with UC and 46 with
Crohn disease). Active symptoms of UC were pres ent in 124
patients. However, only 24 ful lled the clinical inclusion
criteria (Table I) as well as were willing to undergo two
sigmidoscopies, resided within reasonable travel distance,
and were able to enlist the full collaboration of their physi-
cians. These 24 patients (1 5 men and 9 women), with a mean
age of 35 and a mean duration of UC of 6.8 years, were
randomized to receive either true whe at grass juice or a
placebo of similar color and amount. There were no signi -
cant differences between the two groups in the baseline
patient characteristics, clinical and sigmoidoscopic assess-
ment and current treatment (Table II).
The protocol was approved by the Hadassah Hospital ethics
committee in Jerusalem and by the Israeli Ministry of Health
in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki II. All patients
signed an informed consent. Patients with clinical symptoms
of UC underwent a baseline endoscopic assessment upon
Assessment of patients
Although there is a correlation between sigm oidoscopic
evaluation and clinically active UC, one cannot predict the
severity of the symptoms based on the sigmoidoscopic
examination alone. Therefore, disease activity assessments
in UC require a combination of subjective and objective
parameters. Disease activity was assessed in three ways:
symptom diary, sigmoidoscopy, and subjective improvement
scale (7).
The symptom diary consisted of eight symptoms which
patients graded daily on a 0–3 scale (no activity, mild,
moderate, or severe, respectively). The eight symptoms were
rectal bleeding, stool frequency, urgency, pain (rectal or
abdominal), distention, mucous, general well-being, and
appetite . Baseline diary information was recorded for 3–7
days prior to the beginning of treatment. Symptomatic
changes were assessed by comparing the average scores of
the rst week of diary entry to the average scores in the last
week of diary entry for each symptom.
Sigm oidoscopies were performed on each participant
within a week prior to starting treatment a nd within 3 days
following the termination of treatment. Sigmoidoscopic
results were rated on a 0–3 scale as no activity, mild,
moderate or se vere, respectively. Pretreatment and posttreat-
ment scores were compared for each participant. All
sigmoidoscopies were performed, a ssessed and rated by
gastroenterologists from the Gastroenterology Unit in
Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem who were blinded a s to
whether the patients were treated with wheat grass or placebo.
The subjective global assessment consisted of both the
phys ician’s and participant’s estimation of change in disease
activity. It was performed upon treatment termination
separately and graded on a ¡3 to 3 scale.
Fig. 1. Flow chart describing progress of patients through the trial.
Table I. Inclusion criteria
18 years
Sigmoidoscopi c nding of active Ulcerative Colitis that involve s the
left colon
Clinical activity comparable with Ulcerative Colitis
No change in drug treatment (type and dosage) in the month prior to
Lack of serious systemic involvement –fever
C, erythem a
nodosum, arthritis
Blood hemoglobi n
11 g%
Negative stool culture and test for ova and parasites
Table II. Patient characteristic s
Variable Placebo Wheat grass P value
No. of patients 12 11
Age (years) 33.3
10.3 37.4
12.8 0.402
Sex (male/female) 9/3 6/5
Years of disease 6.6
9.4 7.0
9.4 0.924
Sigmoidoscopic score: (no. of patients)
Mild (score 1) 5 4
Moderate (score 2) 6 4
Severe (score 3) 1 3
Severity of disease by patient assessment
Rectal bleeding (scor e 0–3) 0.7
0.4 1.4
0.9 0.006
Bowel Movements (no.) 4.4
2.4 3.6
2.5 0.083
Hemoglobin (g/dl) 13.6
1.9 14.0
1.9 0.644
Pre-study medication : (no. of patients)
None 3 3
5-am ino-salicyli c acid oral
(enem a)
8 (4) 8 (3)
Prednisone oral (enema) 1 (1) 0
Scand J Gastroenterol 2002 (4)
Active Distal Ulcerative C olitis 445
A disease activity index (DAI) was created by combining
the four most accepted measures (according to Sutherland
(7)): stool frequency, rectal ble eding, sigmoidoscopic score
and physician’s assessment of disease activity.
Trial design and treatment
Patients were randomly allocated, through a centralized
randomization process, to receive either 100 cc of wheat grass
juice or matching placebo for 1 month. To ensur e high
qua lity, special methods of preparing and distributing the
wheat grass juice and the placebo were designed. Wheat seeds
were grown organically in indirect sunlight on a substrate
composed of soil, volcanic tuff and compost. The wheat grass
was harvested at the height of 20 cm, packaged and
distributed in a refrigerated vehicle twice weekly to the three
study coordinating centers in three main cities in Israel. Every
morning, at about 0500, workers at each study coordinating
center extracted the wheat grass juice using a manually
ope rated juice machine. Then both the true wheat grass juice
and the placebo were packaged in coded, identical, sealed,
opa que containers . A driver, blinded to the allocation scheme
and given only the address es for each package, then
distributed all the packages. All containers were delivered
within an hour of extraction to ensur e freshness. The patients
were instructed to take the juice immediately. The doses of
both the true juice and the placebo were increased gradually
from an initial dose of 20 cc on the rst day to an increase of
20 cc on each successive day. By the fth day the optimal
daily dose of 100 cc was achieved and given thereafter.
The placebo juice was manufactured from 0.18% normal
saline with a mixture of under 0.5% weight kaolin and
tragacanth, and tinted with food color (Fast Green FCF). The
placebo juice was prepared in a centra lized location and
distributed monthly to the study coordinating centers. The
placebo juice was similar to wheat grass juice in appearance,
but not in taste and smell.
Data collection and scoring
Patients’ diaries and nal subjective assessme nt of cha nge
were collected upon treatment completion. Each nal sub-
jective assessment score (after 1 month of drug or placebo)
was subtracted from the initial subjective score fo r each
patient. The values for the two groups were compared. The
proportions of persons who improved or deteriorated are
shown in Figs 2 and 3. Table III speci es the results in var ious
parameters. A change in a parameter (improvement or aggra-
vation) was de ned as larger than 0.4 in an analog scale where
¡3 designates the lowest score of aggravation, 0 no change,
and 3 highest score of improvement. The parameter change
for the number of bowel movements was de ned as greater
than 2 in absolute numbers.
Statis tical analysis
A between-groups analysis (tw o-tailed, Fisher exact test)
was done on the four components of the DAI: rectal bleeding,
stool frequency, sigmoidoscopic score and physician’s assess-
ment of disease activity (Table III). Analyses were con ned to
the 21 patients who completed the trial. The physician’s
assessment of disease activity was compared to the stool
frequency, rectal bleeding, sigmoidoscopic score and the
patients retrospective assessment score using the Spearman
rank correlation (Table IV).
R esults
Withdrawals and drop-outs
Of the 24 patients wh o were randomized, 21 completed the
double- blind study. Three withdrew e arly. One patient (from
the treatment group) withdrew within 1 da y of commencing
treatment, because she was unable to tolerate the taste of the
juice (Fig. 1). Another patient (treatment group) withdrew
after 10 days, convinced she was receiving a placebo. The
third patient (placebo group) withdrew after 14 days, due to
deterioration in her illness. Of the 21 patients who completed
the 1-month trial, 19 were evaluated with a second sigmoido-
scopy within 3 days after completion of the study.
Signi cant differences in improvements in rectal bleeding
(P = 0.025), abdominal pain (P = 0.019), the DAI score
Fig. 2. Percentage improvement in DAI (disease activity index) an d
in its 4 constituents : Sigmo (score), PGA (physician global assess-
ment), Blood (rectal bleeding-diary) , No. (daily bowel movements-
Fig. 3. Percentage deterioratio n in DAI (disease activity index) and
in its 4 constituents : Sigmo (score), PGA (physician global assess-
ment), Blood (rectal bleeding-diary) , No. (daily bowel movements-
Scand J Gastroenterol 2002 (4)
446 E. Ben-Arye et al.
(P = 0.031), the PGA (P = 0.031), and patients’ retrospective
evaluation (P = 0.0053) were demonstrated in the treatment
versus the placebo groups (Table III). No signi cant differ-
ences were found in the number of bowel movements or sense
of abdominal bloating between the two groups. A greater
proportion of participants improved on the sigmoidoscopic
evaluation in the treatment group (7 of the 9 patients (78%)),
compared to the placebo group (3 of the 10 patients (30%)).
However, this difference was not signi c ant (P = 0.13).
Credibility of blindness was ass essed by a questionnaire at
the end of the study. In the treatment group, 6 of 11 patients
believed they were getting wheat grass juice, and attributed it
to their improved well-being; three were convinced they were
getting placebo, and two did not give a de nite answer. In the
placebo group, 7 out of 12 patients did not give a de nite
answer, 2 believed they were getting wheat grass, and 3
believed they were taking placebo.
Table V summarizes both the positive and the negative
effects, which were reported by participants who received
wheat grass juice. Nausea was found to be the most adverse
effect (33% ). A prominent positive side effect was increased
vitality (41%). No side effects were reported in the placebo
An attempt was made to identify likely bioactive com-
pounds tha t might explain som e of the activity of wheat grass
juice. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been suggested to
be involved in th e induction and prognosis of UC. Anti-
oxida nts were demonstrated to be bene cial in preventing
intestinal injury in general, and UC in particular. A signi cant
reduction in the activity of the colonic low molecular weight
anti-oxidants (LMWA) has already been reported (8); there-
fore, in this study we evaluated the overall LMWA capacity
of the wheat grass juice to see its pro le. The cyclic
volta mmetry (CV) methodology was used for this purpose,
as described in detail else where (Chevion et al.) (9). Fresh
extract of wheat grass demonstrated a prominent tracing with
at least fou r peaks (Fig. 4), presumably corresponding to four
groups of compounds that exhibit anti-oxidative properties.
These four pea ks decreased in number and amplitude over
time (Fig. 5).
D iscussion
The results of this double-blind study indicate that wheat
grass juice has a therapeutic role in treating patients with
active restricted left colon UC. We have demonstrated that
wheat grass is a generally safe substance, wit h fe w side effects
(Table V ).
Table III. Clinical state after 1 mont h of treatment
Variable Study group Improved No change Worsened P value
Disease Activity Index (DAI) Treatment (T) 10 1 0 0.0312
Placebo (P) 5 2 5
1. Rectal bleeding T 9 2 0 0.0254
P 7 0 5
2. Bowel movements (No.) T 8 1 2 0.37
P 7 0 5
3. Sigmoidoscopi c assessment * T 7 1 1 0.127
P 3 5 2
4. Physician global assessm ent (PGA) T 10 1 0 0.0312
P 5 2 5
Other indices of activity (Diary)
Mucous T 5 2 3 0.167
P 8 4 0
Pain T 8 1 0 0.0191
P 3 4 5
Abdominal bloating T 7 3 1 0.376
P 3 2 7
Patient’s retrospective evaluation T 10 0 0 0.0053
P 5 3 4
* 10 patients in placebo and 9 in treatment group.
Table IV. Correlation between physicia n global assessment and
other parameters of disease activity
No. of
rho P value
Bowel movements 33 0.410 0.0178
Rectal bleeding 33 0.775 0.0001
Retrospective patient assessment 33 0.773 0.0001
Sigmoidoscopi c appearance 30 0.618 0.0003
Fig. 4. Cyclic voltammetry of fresh wheat grass juice.
Scand J Gastroenterol 2002 (4)
Active Distal Ulcerative C olitis 447
Both subjective and objective parameters are important in
the clinical evaluation of UC. Various disease activity assess-
ments that combine these parameters have been developed in
the past 40 years, initially by Truelove & Witt s in 1955 (10)
and later by Seo et al. (11) an d Sutherland (7). It is notable
that the correlation between sigmoidoscopic evaluation and
clinical activity in UC is well established but not absolute, as
the length of the in amed colon does not always correspond
with the severity of the clinica l appearance (12). According to
the four parameters of the DAI we used [based on Sutherland
(7)], overall clinical evalua tion of the treatment group demon-
strated a signi cant improvemen t compared to the placebo
group. Although sigmoidoscopy did not demonstrate a sig-
ni cant improvement, there was a distinct trend toward
The present study indicates a possible clinical ef cacy of
wheat grass juice in treating UC. Several questions emerge.
First, does whe at grass possess anti-in ammatory properties?
If so, which components are the active ones? Second, does the
active substance exert a general anti-in amma tory effect via
proxim al intestinal absorption, or does it act locally at the
in amed site itself?
When wheat grass juice has been analyzed using cyclic
volta mmetry, four distinct peaks emerge. These four peaks
may indicate that there are at least four group s of active
ingre dients that possess redox potentials and anti-oxidative
prope rties. There is growing evidence that free radicals play a
role in the pathogenesis of UC (8). If this is the case, then anti-
oxida tive agents may be bene c ial therapy.
One mechanism by which wheat grass juice may improve
the symptoms of UC can involve avonoids, speci cally
apigenin, a known ingredient of wheat grass juice (4). The
well-established biological activity of avonoids includes
anti-in ammation (via the arachidonic acid pathway (13)) and
anti-oxidation (14). Apigenin, a potent bio- avonoid found in
wheat grass juice, has been shown to be an anti-oxidant in the
xantine/xantine oxidase system (15), anti-in ammatory in
inhibiting adhesion of leukocytes to endothelia (16), anti-
mutagenic in the Ames Test (17) and inhibiting towards colon
motility (18).
No answer is available at present as to the site of wheat
grass juice ac tion. This question can be addressed in future
studies by administration of wheat grass juice in enemas or
suppos itories. Many other questions are raised by ou r results.
For example, does wheat grass juice have a therapeutic
advantage over other modes of treatment for UC as a stand-
alone treatment or an adjunct to drug administration? Does it
have any role in prophylaxis or only in acute attacks? Should
it be offered to patients with extensive UC or Crohn colitis as
well? What are optimum doses and modes of administration,
and are there interactions with other drugs? The authors
believe that these questions should be tested in future studies.
Although it is noteworthy that signi cant ndings emerge
from the study with such a small sample size, ther e are some
limitations of this study because of its small sample. For
example, the sample was too small to be able to identify
characteristic of responders. Secondly, the study required
participants to undergo two sigmoidoscopies, use an uncon-
ventional treatment, an d travel. Given these requirements, the
study participants may be a non-representa tive, highly
motivate d sample of UC patients. Another trial with a larger
group of patients could address both of these shortcomings.
We can also, in retrospect, identify at least two ways that
future trials can improve on this study. First, it is recom-
mended that the sigmoidoscopy lms be read by two inde -
pendent reade rs blinded to each othe r’s assessm ent, and that
inter-rater agreements be calculated. This would highlight,
and minimize, single-reader bias. Secondly, an assessment of
whether participants believe they are receiving the placebo or
the true juice before there is any chance of a change in the
disease activity, for example at about 3 days.
We believe that wheat grass juice offers a genuine
therapeutic advantage in the disabling disease of UC. Besides
apparent ef cacy, adverse effects were relatively benign.
Notable is the potential of this regimen of empowering the
patient in becoming an active participant in the therapeutic
process. The effort of obtaining or growing wheat grass and
the daily production of fresh juice may be important in
enhancing the patients sense of control and alleviating some
of the patient distress de scribed earlier. In any case, use of
wheat grass juice in subsets of patients , as singl e or adjuvant
remedy in acute left-sided UC, may prove to be bene cial
R eferences
1. Wigmore A. The wheatgrass book. Avery Publishing Group;
Fig. 5. Cyclic voltammetry of non-fres h wheat grass juice.
Table V. Side effects of wheat grass juice administration
No. of patients (%)
Mild 3 (25)
Severe 1 (8.3)
Decreased morning appetite 2 (16.6)
Constipation 1 (8.3)
Increased vitality 5 (41.6)
Scand J Gastroenterol 2002 (4)
448 E. Ben-Arye et al.
2. Walters R. The alternative cancer therapy book. Avery Publish-
ing Group; 1992. p. 299–308.
3. Lai CN. Chlorophyll: The active factor in wheat sprout extract
inhibiting the metabolic activatio n of carcinogen s in vitro.
Nutrition Cancer 1979;1:19–21.
4. Peryt B, Szymczyk T, Lesca P. Mechanism of antimutagenicit y
of wheat sprout extracts. Mutation Research 1992;269:201
5. Hanauer SB. Drug therapy: in ammatory bowel disease. N Engl
J Med 1996;334;841 –8.
6. Dudley-Brown S. Living with ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterol
Nurs 1996;19;60 –4.
7. Sutherland LR, Martin F, Greer S. 5-Aminosalicyli c acid enema
in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis, proctosigmoiditi s and
proctitis. Gastroenterolog y 1987;92:1894 8.
8. Buf nton GD, Doe WF. Depleted mucosal antioxidant defenses
in in ammatory bowel disease. Free R adic Biol Med 1995;19;
911– 8.
9. Chevion S, Berry EM, Kitrossky N, Kohe n R. Evaluation of
plasma low molecular weight antioxidan t capacity by cyclic
voltam metry. Free Radical Biol Med 1997;22:411 – 21.
10. Truelove SC, Witts LJ. Cortisone in ulcerative colitis. BMJ
1955;2;1041 –8.
11. Seo M, Okada M, Yao T, Ueki M, Arima S, Okumura M. An
index of disease activity in patients with ulcerativ e colitis. Am J
Gastroentero l 1992;87;971 –6.
12. Powell-Tuck J, Day DW, Buckell NA, Wadsworth J, Lennard-
Jones JE. Correlation between de ned sigmoidoscopic appear-
ances and other measures of disease activity in ulcerative colitis.
Dig Dis Sci 1982;27;533 7.
13. Alcara z MJ, Ferrandiz ML. Modi cation of arachidoni c metab-
olism by avonoids. J Ethnopharmaco l 1987;21;209 –29.
14. Saija A, Scalese M, Lanza M, Marzullo D, Bonina F, Castelli F.
Flavonoids as antioxidant agents: importance of their interaction
with biomembranes . Free Radical Biol Med 1995;19;481 –6.
15. Wei H, Bowen R, Cai Q, Barnes S, Wang Y. Antioxidant and
antipromotiona l effects of the soybean iso avone genistein . Proc
Soc Exp Biol Med 1995;208;124 –30.
16. Gerritsen ME, Carley WW, Ranges GE. Flavonoids inhibit
cytokine-induce d endothelial cell adhesion protein gene expres-
sion. Am J Pathol 1995;147;278 –92.
17. Peryt B, Miloszewska M, Zielenska M, Szymczyk T. Antimuta-
genic effects of several subfraction s of extract from wheat sprout
tow ards benzo(a)pyrene-induce d mutagenicity in strain TA-98 of
salmonella typhimurium . Mutat Res 1988;206;221 –5.
18. DiCarlo G, Autore G, Izzo AA. Inhibitio n of intestina l motility
and secretion by avonoids in mice and rats. J Pharm Pharmacol
1993;45;1054 9.
Received 10 May 200 1
Accepted 20 September 2001
Scand J Gastroenterol 2002 (4)
Active Distal Ulcerative C olitis 449
... It is also a rich source of many active substances that act as antioxidants such as phenols, flavonoids and tocopherols, whose concentrations increase with the period of germination and reach a maximum at the age of (7) days of growth. Wheatgrass extract also works to inhibit the formation of free radicals due to the presence of many active substances [3]. In the same direction, other studies indicated that wheatgrass extract contains a high percentage of chlorophyll (70%), essential vitamins, minerals, vital enzymes, amino acids, and fiber [4].The results of other studies also reported the effectiveness of wheat plant extract in building blood cells in the case of Thalassemia, and aids in blood flow, digestion and detoxification [5] [6]. ...
Conference Paper
The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of cold aqueous extract of wheatgrass on the histological structures of the liver in male albino rats as it was taken orally with the extract in three doses (100, 150, 200 mg / kg) (Body Weight) for 30 days, wheatgrass is rich in Vitamin C, Selenium, Phosphorous, Iron, Potassium, Sulfur, Sodium, Cobalt, Zinc, and others. In addition, wheatgrass contains phenols, flavonoids, and tocopherols, which act as antioxidants. After the experiment period ended, the animals were anesthetized, dissected and liver samples were taken, and they were fixed in formalin at a concentration of 10%. The slides were prepared and the results showed that the live tissue of mice treated with aqueous extract of wheatgrass at a concentration of (100.150.200 mg / kg / body weight) for a period of (30) days did not suffer from any change in the histological composition compared to the control group, and the study indicated that eating wheatgrass Important because they contain effective compounds that help the immune system to suppress free radicals that may be generated in the body as a result of consuming a lot of food additives. Therefore, the cold aqueous extract of wheatgrass can be considered safe to handle and does not damage body tissues.
... Few clinical trials have been accomplished that have shown on consumption of wheatgrass juice, the number of transfusions in patients with thalassemia major is decreased 14 . Reduction in the overall disease activity index and the severity of rectal bleeding in cases of distal ulcerative colitis on consumption of wheatgrass juice has also been observed 15 . HeLa cell line A HeLa cell is an immortal cell line used in medical research. ...
Full-text available
The objective of the study was to analyze the anticancer property of the leaves of Triticum aestivum on HeLa cells. The Indian medicinal plant Triticum aestivum that is used in traditional medicine for cancer and non cancerous diseases was collected. The crude methanolic extract was prepared by using standard protocols. The antiproliferative effect the methanolic extract was evaluated in vitro by employing MTT assay. The potency of each plant extract concentration was calculated in terms of percent decrease in viable HeLa cells as compared to the control value. The extract showed dose dependent antitumor activity. The MTT assay showed an anti proliferative activity (IC50) at 156 μg/ml of crude extract.
... Reduction in the overall disease activity index and the severity of rectal bleeding in cases of distal ulcerative colitis on consumption of wheatgrass juice has also been observed [18] . ...
Full-text available
The study was aimed to evaluation of anticancer activity of the leaves of Triticum aestivum on Hep-2 cell line from human epithelioma of larynx. The aqueous extract of leaves of Triticum aestivum was tested for its inhibitory effect on Hep-2 cell line in comparison with the Vero (normal kidney cells) cell line. The cytotoxic activity was investigated in-vitro using 3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The potency of each plant extract concentration was calculated in terms of percent cell inhibition of HEp-2 cells as compared to the Vero (normal kidney cells) cell line. The extract showed dose dependent antitumor activity. The MTT assay showed an anti proliferative activity (IC 50) for the HEp-2 cell line at 335.3 μg/ml of crude extract.
... [18] Reduction in the overall disease activity index and the severity of rectal bleeding in cases of distal ulcerative colitis on consumption of wheatgrass juice has also been observed. [19] ...
Full-text available
Introduction: Cancer is caused by abnormalities in genetic material of the transformed cells. Cancer may also be initiated by carcinogens, tobacco, smoke, radiation, chemicals or infectious agents, especially some viruses. Cancers cause annually more than 13% of all human deaths. More than 70% of all cancer deaths occurred in low and middle income countries. Deaths from cancer worldwide are projected to continue rising, with an estimated 12 million deaths in 2030 (WHO estimate). Natural products have been used as traditional medicines in many parts of the world like Egypt, China, Greece, and India from ancient times. It is from these medicinal plants, the modern drugs been d eveloped known to be free of the deleterious effects, are inexpensive and effective. One of these herbs is Wheatgrass, the young grass of Triticum aestivum Linn., family: Poeaceae. Objectives: Objective of the study was to analyze anticancer property of leaves of Triticum aestivum on HCT-15 cells. Materials and methods: The young grass of Triticum aestivum is was collected. The aqueous extract was prepared by using standard protocols. The antiproliferative effect of the aqueous extract was evaluated in vitro by employing MTT assay. The potency of plant extract was calculated in terms of percent decrease in viable HCT-15 cells as compared to the control. Result and conclusion: The extract showed dose dependent antitumor activity. The MTT assay showed an anti proliferative activity (IC50) at 258.8 μg/ml of crude extract.
... It has been found that 100ml of wheatgrass juice given daily for one month to patients suffering from ulcerative colitis results in reduced levels of severe rectal bleeding and also decrease the dis-ease activity index (Ben et al., 2002) [23] . It has been discovered that chlorophyll balm with fluid arrangement indicates valuable in treatment of skin ulcer and furthermore animates tissue development ...
Multiple studies confirm use of Integrative Health (IH) therapies is common among children with IBD. Pediatric prevalence rates are compatible with or exceed IH use in adult IBD. Surveys indicate that biologically-based therapies are the most frequently utilized modality among the pediatric IBD population. Concurrent use of herbal remedies and dietary supplements (which we will define as biologically based IH therapies for the purpose of this chapter) and prescription medication is common and may cause untoward drug interactions. In this chapter, we review the available evidence for the safety and efficacy of the most commonly used biologically-based therapies and mind-body therapies in IBD. Clinicians need to know the prevalence of IH therapy utilization in the pediatric IBD population, parents’ receptivity towards these modalities as adjuvant therapies, and the reticence to disclose utilization. We suggest that maintenance of a cursory level of understanding and awareness of IH modalities, including knowledge of efficacy, interactions and contraindications, is essential to ensure patient safety.
Für den Begriff komplementäre und alternative Medizin (KAM) gibt es keine einheitliche Definition. Der Schwerpunkt der komplementären Verfahren liegt auf nichtpharmakologischen Therapieverfahren, die in einem Gesamtkonzept ergänzend zur Pharmakotherapie bei CED eingesetzt werden. Im deutschsprachigen Raum wird unterschieden zwischen komplementären Verfahren, die ergänzend zur konventionellen, sogenannten Schulmedizin eingesetzt werden, und alternativen Verfahren, die als Alternative zu den Standardverfahren eingesetzt werden. Alternative Verfahren sind vor diesem Hintergrund abzulehnen.
Full-text available
Atopic dermatitis is regulated by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines via the nuclear factor kappa B or mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways, as well as, the release of oxidative stress-related factors via the NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 signaling pathway. Both wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum L., TA) and aronia (Aronia melanocarpa, AR) are known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, however, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of TA and AR (TAAR) mixture extract have not been elucidated in an atopic dermatitis model. In this study, we assessed the inhibitory effects and underlying molecular mechanism of TAAR extract against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and tumor necrosis factor-α/interferon-γ-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in vitro. We also investigated the alleviating effect of TAAR extract on DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice in vivo. We found that TAAR extract treatment inhibited inflammatory mediators in both RAW 264.7 cells and HaCaT cells, and increased the expression of oxidative stress defense enzymes in HaCaT cells. Furthermore, treatment of the DNCB-induced mouse model with TAAR extract ameliorated the overall symptoms of atopic dermatitis. Therefore, TAAR extract as a novel natural therapeutic agent may be used for the treatment of atopic dermatitis.
Full-text available
Nutraceuticals are the nourishing components (hybrid of nutrition and pharmaceuticals) that are biologically active and possess capability for maintaining optimal health and benefits. These products play a significant role in human health care and its endurance, most importantly for the future therapeutic development. Nutraceuticals have received recognition due to their nutritional benefits along with therapeutic effects and safety profile. Nutraceuticals are globally growing in the field of services such as health care promotion, disease reduction, etc. Various drug nutraceutical interactions have also been elaborated with various examples in this review. Several patents on nutraceuticals in agricultural applications and in various diseases have been stated in the last section of review, which confirms the exponential growth of nutraceuticals’ market value. Nutraceuticals have been used not only for nutrition but also as a support therapy for the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as to reduce side effects of cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Diverse novel nanoformulation approaches tend to overcome challenges involved in formulation development of nutraceuticals. Prior information on various interactions with drugs may help in preventing any deleterious effects of nutraceuticals products. Nanotechnology also leads to the generation of micronized dietary products and other nutraceutical supplements with improved health benefits. In this review article, the latest key findings (clinical studies) on nutraceuticals that show the therapeutic action of nutraceutical’s bioactive molecules on various diseases have also been discussed.
Chlorophyll has been determined to be the major active factor in wheat sprout extract that inhibits the mutagenic effect of carcinogens requiring metabolic activation. The findings were confirmed by the testing of equivalent commercial compounds.
Flavonoids, a group of phenolic compounds widely occurring in the plant kingdom, have been reported to possess strong antioxidant activity. In the present study, four flavonoids (quercetin, hesperetin, naringenin, rutin), chosen according to their structural characteristics, were tested in two different in vitro experimental models: (1) Fe2+-induced linoleate peroxidation (Fe2+-ILP), by detection of conjugated dienes; and (2) autooxidation of rat cerebral membranes (ARCM), by using thiobarbituric acid for assay of free malondialdehyde production. The results obtained were also interpreted in the light of flavonoid interactions, studied by differential scanning calorimetry, with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles as a biological membrane model. The antilipoperoxidant activity of the flavonoids tested can be classified as follows: rutin > hesperetin > quercetin ⪢ naringenin in the Fe2+-ILP test; quercetin > rutin ⪢ hesperetin > naringenin in the ARCM test. Quercetin, hesperetin, and naringenin interacted with DPPC liposomes causing different shifts, toward lower values, of the main transition peak temperature (Tm) typical for DPPC liposomes; however, no change in Tm of DPPC dispersion was observed in the presence of rutin. The hypothesis will be discussed that flavonoid capacity to modify membrane-dependent processes, such as free-radical-induced membrane lipoperoxidation, is related not only to their structural characteristics but also to their ability to interact with and penetrate the lipid bilayers.
The aqueous extract from wheat sprouts contains some antimutagenic factor(s). The factor(s) abolish-(es) the activity of aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase (AHH) in the S9 fraction from Aroclor-treated rat livers and also inhibit(s) the mutagenic activity of benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) in the Ames test. The extract (fraction S30) was subjected to initial fractionation by thermal treatment, 3 24-h cycles of dialysis and ultrafiltration. The antigenotoxic activity of fraction S30 amounted to 98% and was unchanged by thermal treatment (100°C, 10 min). Both the dialysate and the dialysis fluid inhibited the mutagenic effect of B(a)P by 48.4 and 48% respectively. The microsomal subfraction inhibited the mutagenicity only in 10%, and the postmicrosomal subfraction in 68%. It is concluded that the extract from wheat sprouts contains at least 2 heat-resistant compounds (or groups of compounds) located within the cell cytosol and showing antimutagenic activity: one group is of low molecular weight and another of high Mw. Alternatively, low-molecular compounds could either be free or bound to high-molecular compound(s).
In this paper we have demonstrated that wheat sprout extract, which has been shown to be antimutagenic towards benzo[a]pyrene (BP), reduced formation of BP metabolites by hepatic microsomes of either benzo[a]pyrene- or phenobarbital-treated rats as analyzed in high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Comparing the time dependence of profiles and values of BP metabolites, formed in experiments in which the same dose of wheat sprout extract was added to the incubation medium, it has been observed that the later this extract was added the higher the percent of BP that was metabolized. In a bacterial test (cytochrome P450 induction assay) high inhibition of mutagenic activity of cyclophosphamide and ethidium bromide, in the presence of wheat sprout extract, reflected decreased levels of cytochromes P4502B1 and P4501A1 respectively. Decreased levels of both cytochromes P4501A1 and P4502B1 were also observed in either wheat sprout extract- or wheat sprout extract plus benzo[a]pyrene-treated rats. In all of these studies it has been observed that wheat sprout extract displays much more affinity for cytochrome P4501A1 than for the P4502B1 form. On the other hand the wheat sprout extract had higher affinity for carcinogen binding protein (4S protein) than for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. The strong inhibition of BP mutagenicity and BP metabolism with non-chlorophyllic wheat sprout extract suggests that chlorophyll is not the main compound responsible for the antimutagenic activity of wheat sprout extract. The similar chromatographic behavior of both the main inhibitory fraction, obtained from wheat sprout extract, and two pure glycosides of apigenin--shaftoside, purified from wheat sprout extract and synthetic swertisine--suggests that antimutagenic compound(s) contained in the wheat sprout extract belong(s) to this family of flavonoids.
Quantification of disease severity was studied in 72 patients with ulcerative colitis, who had undergone total 85 clinical courses. We performed a multiple stepwise regression analysis, according to Truelove and Witts' classification, with disease severity as a dependent variable, and with 18 clinical, laboratory, and endoscopic parameters as independent variables. Results showed that disease severity in patients with ulcerative colitis is significantly influenced by five factors, namely, bloody stool, bowel movements, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), hemoglobin (Hb), and serum albumin. The activity index (AI) developed for ulcerative colitis is expressed as follows: AI = 60 x blood stool + 13 x bowel movements + 0.5 x ESR - 4 x HB - 15 x albumin + 200. Index values below 150, values between 150 and 220, and values above 220 nearly corresponded to mild, moderate, and severe disease, respectively, in Truelove and Witts' classification. We believe that the activity index is useful in evaluation of the effect of medical treatment in patients with ulcerative colitis. Its most important value will be in therapeutic trials.
The pharmacological effects of many plants depend on their flavonoid constituents. This review is concerned with the influence of flavonoids on arachidonic metabolism as the possible mechanism of action of such natural products. Special attention has been paid to structure-activity relationships since this knowledge may allow the synthesis of more potent and selective analogs with therapeutic applications.