The purpose of this study was to compare linear periodization (LP) and daily undulating periodization (DUP) for strength gains. Twenty men (age = 21 +/- 2.3 years) were randomly assigned to LP (n = 10) or DUP (n = 10) groups. One repetition maximum (1RM) was recorded for bench press and leg press as a pre-, mid-, and posttest. Training involved 3 sets (bench press and leg press), 3 days per week. The LP group performed sets of 8 RM during weeks 1-4, 6 RM during weeks 4-8, and 4 RM during weeks 9-12. The DUP group altered training on a daily basis (Monday, 8 RM; Wednesday, 6 RM; Friday, 4 RM). Analysis of variance with repeated measures revealed statistically significant differences favoring the DUP group between T1 to T2 and T1 to T3. Making program alterations on a daily basis was more effective in eliciting strength gains than doing so every 4 weeks.
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"In PIHIV, muscle strength is related to anaerobic power, and increasing this variable contributes to better performance in daily activities (Raso et al., 2013). Previous studies in healthy persons have shown that NLRT produces greater gains in muscle strength than does linear training or training without periodization (Buford, Rossi, Smith, & Warren, 2007; Rhea & Alderman, 2004; Rhea et al., 2002). Reductions in the subcutaneous body fat and neck, abdomen, and waist circumferences demonstrate the beneficial effects of regular exercise in reducing the adverse effects of HAART. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to analyse the effect of 12 weeks of non-linear resistance training (NLRT) on anthropometry, muscle strength and inflammatory biomarkers in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (PIHIV). Thirty previously sedentary PIHIVs were randomized into the NLRT (n = 15) and control (CON, n = 15) groups. NLRT group were submitted to 12 weeks of training, whereas the CON group maintained their daily habits. At baseline and after 12 weeks, both groups underwent anthropometric evaluations and blood sampling for the analysis of inflammatory biomarkers. Analysis of covariance using preintervention values as covariate was performed to determine the effects of exercise on anthropometry, muscle strength, cytokines levels and T cells. Significance was set at p < 0.05. After 12 weeks of intervention, there was a decrease in subcutaneous body fat (p < .0001), neck, abdomen and waist circumferences (p < .05), waist-to-hip ratio (p = .009), blood levels of interleukin (IL)-1β (p = .029), IL-6 (p = .005), IL-8 (p = .010), and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α (p = .001) and an increase in muscle strength (p < .0001), IL-10 levels (p = .030) and CD4(+) (p = .004) and CD8(+) (p < .0001) counts in the NLRT compared to CON group. Twelve weeks of NLRT promoted positive changes in the body fat, body circumferences, muscular strength and inflammatory profile in PIHIV.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · European Journal of Sport Science
"linear) periodization . The different outcomes reported in these studies [3, 11, 20] could be explained by the design of the training week and the individual sessions within it, combined with longer training periods (8-12 weeks) and prior training experience of the assessed populations, although none of these cohorts were regularly participating in another sport. So it appears that, as individuals adapt to the training stimulus, other variables can be manipulated to induce further strength adaptations, even when training volume is kept constant. "
"First, an experimental approach examining VLCD-treated subjects should closely represent clinical situations in which: 1) VLCDs are prescribed to patients who are severely obese and exhibit comorbid conditions, 2) VLCD-based treatments are medically monitored by a multifaceted team of physicians, dieticians, and exercise physiologists, 3) duration of VLCD treatment is 12 weeks with regular behavioral counseling, and 4) exercise is not specifically prescribed; rather general physical activity is recommended and typically unsupervised. Secondly, an experimental resistance training intervention should be: 1) formatted based on empirical innovations in training programming, i.e. periodization, to optimize protocols towards enhanced lean mass and muscular strength [170,191192193194195196 , 2) combined with sufficient nutrient support through high-quality protein intake for lean tissue maintenance or growth, and 3) integrated into the standard clinical care of the VLCD-treated patient to enhance the understanding of its practical application. A trial taking into account for these limitations may be an effective means to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of resistance training in enhancing standard VLCD-based treatments towards improved weight-loss composition, metabolic rate, and muscular function. "