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Leonardo da Vinci's contributions to neuroscience

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Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) made far-reaching contributions to many areas of science, technology and art. Leonardo's pioneering research into the brain led him to discoveries in neuroanatomy (such as those of the frontal sinus and meningeal vessels) and neurophysiology (he was the first to pith a frog). His injection of hot wax into the brain of an ox provided a cast of the ventricles, and represents the first known use of a solidifying medium to define the shape and size of an internal body structure. Leonardo developed an original, mechanistic model of sensory physiology. He undertook his research with the broad goal of providing physical explanations of how the brain processes visual and other sensory input, and integrates that information via the soul.

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... After the finished his "Last Supper" painting in 1506, Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) resumed his anatomical studies [175] and made great contributions to neuroanatomy, by making graphical representations of the posterior fossa [51]. He also produced the first three-dimensional model of the [52]. ...
... He also produced the first three-dimensional model of the [52]. Since his anatomical papers were only published in 1898-1916, Leonardo had little influence on neuroanatomy during the Renaissance [175]. Due to his engineering and physics studies, he was able to describe ventricular function in mechanical terms [175], through an innovative technique where he injected melted wax through the fourth ventricle of an ox. ...
... Since his anatomical papers were only published in 1898-1916, Leonardo had little influence on neuroanatomy during the Renaissance [175]. Due to his engineering and physics studies, he was able to describe ventricular function in mechanical terms [175], through an innovative technique where he injected melted wax through the fourth ventricle of an ox. After the wax had hardened, by removing the brain, he obtained a cast of the cerebral ventricles: "Make two vent-holes in the horns of the greater ventricles, and insert melted wax with a syringe, making a hole in the ventricle of memory [fourth ventricle] and through such a hole fill the three ventricles of the brain. ...
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Brainstem is one of the most complex structures of the human body, and has the most complex intracranial anatomy, which makes surgery at this level the most difficult. Due to its hidden position, the brainstem became known later by anatomists, and moreover, brainstem surgery cannot be understood without knowing the evolution of ideas in neuroanatomy, neuropathology and neuroscience. Starting from the first attempts at identifying brainstem anatomy in prehistory and antiquity, the history of brainstem discoveries and approach may be divided into four periods: macroscopic anatomy, microscopic anatomy and neurophysiology, posterior fossa surgery and brainstem surgery. From the first trepanning of the posterior fossa and later finger surgery, to the occurrence of safe entry zones, this paper aims to review how neuroanatomy and brainstem surgery were understood historically, and how the surgical technique evolved from Galen of Pergamon up to the 21st century.
... Regardless, artists of the period produced neuroanatomical studies that were both aesthetically and scientifically important (Pevsner, 2002, Ginn and Lorusso, 2008, Lorusso, 2008. It has also been suggested that several Renaissance artists covertly incorporated neuroanatomical depictions in their paintings Paluzzi et al., 2007;Suk and Tamargo, 2010). ...
... The first exercise focused on an account of the anatomical studies of Leonardo Da Vinci (Pevsner, 2002), while the second exercise involved reports on possible covert neuroanatomical references in the work of other artists Paluzzi et al., 2007;Suk and Tamargo, 2010). For the sake of ease, the first exercise will be referred to as the Da Vinci exercise, while the second will be referred to as the Hidden Images exercise. ...
... The first exercise required approximately 30 minutes and was presented immediately prior to the start of a unit of three, 90-minute class sessions that reviewed (and for some students introduced) basic neuroanatomy. Prior to the exercise, students were directed to read Pevsner's (2002) discussion of Da Vinci's highly detailed structural neuroanatomical studies, including his work on the cerebral vasculature, visual system, and ventricular system. In this paper, Pevsner (2002) also describes Da Vinci's theories of functional neuroanatomy, which were consistent with those of his contemporaries but are startlingly inaccurate to a modern reader. ...
Article
This report describes a pair of brief, interactive classroom exercises utilizing Renaissance artists' depictions of the brain to help increase student interest in learning basic neuroanatomy. Undergraduate students provided anonymous quantitative evaluations of both exercises. The feedback data suggest that students found both exercises engaging. The data also suggest that the first exercise increased student interest in learning more about neuroanatomy in general, while the second provided useful practice in identifying major neuroanatomical structures. Overall, the data suggest that these exercises may be a useful addition to courses that introduce or review neuroanatomical concepts.
... Por lo anterior, Leonardo pensó que era allí donde la función de la vida y el movimiento residían. 8,9 Sin embargo era un gran defensor de los animales y es posible que por ellos no llevara a cabo otros experimentos con animales vivos. Se volvió vegetariano y es bien sabido que compraba aves en los mercados con el objeto de dejarlas libres. ...
... Por tal razón dejó dibujos que muestran cómo se originan las raíces nerviosas de la médula espinal y descripciones del plexo braquial y lumbar. 2,8 En los años siguientes, como en oportunidades anteriores, Leonardo abandonó sus actividades en anatomía para centrarse en otras, no obstante, iba a retomar sus estudios en anatomía y fisiología en 1506. 8 Previo a señalar los aportes del sabio italiano acerca del sistema ventricular, es necesario hacer dos consideraciones sobre observaciones que llevaban siglos de existencia y se aceptaban casi como dogmas: que el encéfalo tiene tres ventrículos y no cuatro, y la existencia de los espíritus animales. ...
... 2,8 En los años siguientes, como en oportunidades anteriores, Leonardo abandonó sus actividades en anatomía para centrarse en otras, no obstante, iba a retomar sus estudios en anatomía y fisiología en 1506. 8 Previo a señalar los aportes del sabio italiano acerca del sistema ventricular, es necesario hacer dos consideraciones sobre observaciones que llevaban siglos de existencia y se aceptaban casi como dogmas: que el encéfalo tiene tres ventrículos y no cuatro, y la existencia de los espíritus animales. Sistema ventricular: al retomar sus estudios, aprovechando su experiencia como escultor, ideó un sistema para inyectar cera en los ventrículos lo cual le permitió después dibujarlos y detallar el agujero interventricular, el cual tiempo después iba a ser conocido como de Monro. ...
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Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1529) fue un reconocido personaje quien hizo grandes aportes a la ciencia y el arte. Demostró un gran interés por la anatomía y fisiología en su paso por el taller de Andrea del Verrocchio el cual se iría incrementando con el tiempo hasta realizar sus propias autopsias y descripciones. Gracias a sus prodigiosas manos, realizó múltiples procedimientos en cadáveres humanos y animales muertos, junto con algunos experimentos que alimentaban su interés por la fisiología. Sus primeros dibujos fueron del cráneo y del encéfalo. Propuso estudiarlo de afuera hacia adentro, por capas. Esquematizó e incluso replicó algunas estructuras, que en aquella época tenían un papel fundamental sobre el entendimiento del cuerpo humano. Con relación al encéfalo, describió el bulbo olfatorio y el recorrido de algunas ramas de los pares craneales. Demostró especial interés en detallar los ventrículos cerebrales debido a la influencia de las teorías propuestas por sus antecesores que integró con sus descubrimientos para explicar las funciones que se les atribuían en la época. Además, fue pionero en neurofisiología con sus experimentos de la médula espinal en ranas. Realizó un trabajo extenso en anatomía y fisiología, dejando grandes aportes en estos campos que desafortunadamente no fueron publicados. Hubo de pasar cerca de tres siglos para que fueran debidamente interpretados.
... BI have offended God and mankind because my work did not reach the quality it should have [4].Î t was this lofty aspiration that set him apart from his contemporaries who, rather than possessing the spirit of inquiry that is necessary for scientific progress, were content to hold dogmatically to the views of their predecessors [6,7]. As a youth, Leonardo became a trainee in topographical anatomy under the famous sculptor, Andrea del Verrocchio, to whose charge he was committed [4,6,8]. ...
... BI have offended God and mankind because my work did not reach the quality it should have [4].Î t was this lofty aspiration that set him apart from his contemporaries who, rather than possessing the spirit of inquiry that is necessary for scientific progress, were content to hold dogmatically to the views of their predecessors [6,7]. As a youth, Leonardo became a trainee in topographical anatomy under the famous sculptor, Andrea del Verrocchio, to whose charge he was committed [4,6,8]. Once acquired, this skill would not only set his brilliant mind apart from his peers as an anatomist but would also make his work far superior to theirs and ahead of its time. ...
... Although Leonardo's depictions were far ahead of their time, they were not all anatomically accurate [4,12,16]. This could be attributed in part to Leonardo's views being influenced to some extent by the concepts of his predecessors or a progression in understanding that occurred over time [6,13]. His earliest dissection specimens were animals (namely horses, birds, oxen, and bears [12]), from which inferred human anatomy. ...
Article
IntroductionFew individuals in history have exerted so great an influence and made such extensive contributions to so many disciplines as Leonardo da Vinci. Da Vinci’s inquisitive, experimental mentality led him to many discoveries, such as spinal cord function and the proper anatomy of several organ systems. Respected not only as an artist but also as an anatomist, he made many significant contributions to the field. Conclusions This article explores da Vinci’s drawings, in relation to the anatomy of the human spine.
... His observations were based on his anatomical exploits, which began in Milan, Italy from 1487 to 1493. During this period, he performed a significant number of human dissections and detailed his findings in the form of sketches, which were as realistic and accurate as possible in those days [11]. His earliest record of neuroanatomical findings was a series of illustrations of the human skull, which possibly date back to 1489 [12,13]. ...
... However, quite understandably, he did not have any idea about the function of the ventricular system and existence of cerebrospinal fluid in those days. Like many of his contemporaries, Leonardo was also an explorer in the ''search of soul'' and his concept was that the five senses in humans transfer their images to imprensiva, then onto senso commune and finally they are interpreted and stored in the memoria [11]. He gave a rudimentary picture of the spinal cord, whereby it was described that nerves were arising in pairs (spinal nerves) from the spinal cord and all nerves that were peripherally distributed in the human body were arising as branches from the spinal nerves [18]. ...
... He confirmed that the spinal cord was a continuation of the brain (with the cranial nerves arising in pairs from the brain) with both having essentially the same components (grey matter and white matter), constituting the central nervous system. He was of the view that all other nerves distributed in the human body were arising as branches of the spinal nerves (arising from spinal cord) and constituted the peripheral nervous system [11]. ...
Scholars began exploring anatomy of nervous system from ancient times; however, considerable progress could only be made during the European Renaissance from the 14th century onwards. The present study aimed to document significant discoveries in this context in chronological order to establish the cascading pattern of advancement in knowledge. The findings of Leonardo da Vinci (15th century), Vesalius (16th century) and their contemporaries, which were based on macroscopic dissection, helped to break the shackles of misconceptions in hypotheses prevalent from the time of Galen. However, very little headway could be achieved beyond superficial descriptions. Willis (17th century), through his experimental studies, provided the much-needed impetus and his discoveries put the study of brain and nervous system on their modern footing. In the following years, prominent researchers through their observations based on the use of microscopy and advanced histological techniques (prevalent after invention of microtome) contributed towards significant discoveries related to the morphological details of different components of nervous system. Such scientific activities culminated in remarkable advancements by the middle of 19th century. The advent of Golgi's staining technique and subsequent histological exploits of Cajal (late 19th century) established the neuron theory, which is central to comprehending the functioning of nervous system. Availability of Golgi's staining technique remarkably contributed in detailing the anatomical structure of nervous system at microscopic level. Access to structural details pertaining to living anatomy (late 20th century) and focus on findings at the molecular level by turn of 21st century have firmly established neuroscience as a sovereign academic discipline.
... Galen described the ventricles in detail as four cavities and their connections, and he thought that those were the sites of storage of psychic pneuma (animal spirit); he located the soul and higher cognitive functions in the solid portions of the brain around the ventricles. In Renaissance, Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) produced drawings of the skull and the central nervous system based on dissection of the human body (Pevsner, 2002). Andreas Vesalius (1514-64) published in 1543 the De Humani Corporis Fabrica, which depicted the brain and other organs in great detail (Vesalius et al., 1973). ...
... The study of individual patients (single cases) had played however a fundamental role in the birth and early development of scientific neuropsychology. Also for single cases studies, starting from patient HM, standardized procedures for assessment and testing have been developed, as well as specific statistical methods for comparing the patients' performances in different experimental situations, as well as against those of healthy control participants Garthwaite, 2006, 2002;2002;Crawford and Howell, 1998;Huber et al., 2015). Positions opposite to that of De Renzi (1967), namely that only the study of individual patients may provide reliable information for the understanding of the functional architecture of the unimpaired system, were put forward in the late 1980s. ...
Chapter
Reports of clinical observations of impairments of human mental functions that can be traced back to brain damage or dysfunction date to centuries ago. However, the naissance of neuropsychology as a scientific discipline is much more recent, dating to the 19th century. A most relevant observation was Paul Broca's report that damage to a frontal premotor region in the left hemisphere causes a deficit of spoken language (aphasia). Starting from this finding, other disorders brought about by brain damage were described, with impairments of perception and object recognition (agnosia), behavioral control, decision making, reasoning and intelligence, movement planning (apraxia), spatial orientation and attention, and memory (amnesia). The early study of individual patients with outstanding clinically apparent deficits (“single cases”) was followed by the investigation of groups of patients, using standardized psychometric tests, and statistical procedures of data analysis. In the second half of the 20th century neuropsychology became an independent scientific discipline, and, starting from the early 1960s, with its own scientific journals (Neuropsychologia, Cortex). In humans the correlation between behavioral deficits on the one hand and the localization of the responsible cerebral lesion on the other hand was initially based on post mortem autoptic findings. Beginning in the late 1930s also cortical brain stimulation of patients during awake surgery provided information about the localisation of cerebral functions. Starting from the late 1970s a variety of non-invasive methods for visualizing in vivo the brain became available for many patients. Neuropsychology, with the investigation of the disorders of higher mental functions caused by brain damage, has contributed both to the understanding of the neural and functional architecture of the mind, and to the diagnosis and rehabilitation of the disorders of its multiple component processes.
... The human eye is one of the most remarkable sensory systems. Leonardo da Vinci was acutely aware of its prime significance: ''The eye, which is termed the window of the soul, is the chief organ whereby the senso comune can have the most complete and magnificent view of the infinite works of nature'' [1]. Human beings gather most of the information about the external environment through their eyes and thus rely on sight more than on any other sense, with the eye being the most sensitive organ we have. ...
... Face recognition is a leading approach to person recognition . In well controlled settings, accuracy is comparable to that of historically reliable biometrics including fingerprint and iris recognition [1]. In less-controlled settings, accuracy is attenuated with variation in pose, illumination, and facial expression among other factors. ...
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... 1A) vysvětlující vznik myšlení a funkci mozku (Feinberg a Farah, 2000;Finger, 2001;Gross, 1999). Na přelomu 15. a 16. století byla dokonce tato teorie znázorněna nejen v celé řadě publikací (Magnus, 1506;Reisch, 1503;Sironi, 2011), ale dokonce i Leonardem da Vincim (1452−1519), jehož nákresy jsou zajímavé tím, že na jednom obrázku nakreslil "buněčnou" teorii funkce mozku se třemi komorami a zároveň i podrobný řez lebkou, včetně mozkových obalů (Gross, 1999;Pevsner, 2002). Nicméně, dokonalou znalost struktury mozku na úrovni své doby dokumentoval na dalších kresbách hlavy, kde znázornil nejen hlavové nervy a křížení optických nervů, ale i párové mozkové komory (obr. ...
... V první párové komoøe se nachází imprensiva, což byl termín navržený Leonardem pro strukturu, která zabezpeèuje spojení mezi orgány èití a sensoriem commune a který se neujal, ve druhé komoøe je senso comune (sensorium commune) a ve tøetí se nachází memo (pamìś). (Pevsner, 2002 Finger, 2001). Předpokládal, že v průběhu refl exních pohybů vnější podněty vyvolávají pohyb kůže a následný tah těchto vláken otevírá chlopně v mozkových komorách. ...
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The treatise "De structura nervorum" by Jiří Procháska was published in 1779 after his appointment as a professor in Prague. This work is remarkable not only for its anatomical and histological findings, but also for its historical introduction, which contains a very detailed bibliographical review of previous knowledge about the structure of the nervous tissue. The treatise "De structura nervorum" has never been translated from the Latin language, but as a historical document about the level of neuroscience research conducted by a famous Czech researcher, it deserves further analysis. The present article includes a historical overview of knowledge about the structure of nervous tissue up to the late 18th century from the perspective of today, a translation of the historical introduction about the medieval knowledge of the structure of the nervous tissue and documenting the way in which Jirí Procháska processed his bibliography, a translation and interpretation of his neurohistological observations and an analysis of the results in the light of current knowledge.
... Then when the wax has set, take apart the brain, and you will see the shape of the ventricles exactly." (cited from [10]). (D) The concept of brain functions and cross-section of the human head and cranial nerves according to Leonardo da Vinci. ...
... On the right is the "cell" theory of brain functions and the cranial nerves. In the first ventricle, Leonardo placed imprensiva, a term proposed by himself (and never used by anybody else) for a structure connecting the senses and senso commune; in the second ventricle, he placed senso comune; and in the third, he placed memo (memory) [10]. ...
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Neuroscience, like most other divisions of natural philosophy, emerged in the Hellenistic world following the first experimental discoveries of the nerves connecting the brain with the body. The first fundamental doctrine on brain function highlighted the role for a specific substance, pneuma, which appeared as a substrate for brain function and, being transported through the hollow nerves, operated the peripheral organs. A paradigm shift occurred in 17th century when brain function was relocated to the grey matter. Beginning from the end of the 18th century, the existence of active and passive portions of the nervous tissue were postulated. The passive part of the nervous tissue has been further conceptualised by Rudolf Virchow, who introduced the notion of neuroglia as a connective tissue of the brain and the spinal cord. During the second half of the 19th century, the cellular architecture of the brain was been extensively studied, which led to an in-depth morphological characterisation of multiple cell types, including a detailed description of the neuroglia. Here, we present the views and discoveries of the main personalities of early neuroglial research.
... Sensorium commune (sensus communis), fantasy (fantasia), and imagination (imaginatia) are placed into the first ventricle, thinking (cogitatia) and estimation (estimatia) into the second ventricle, and memory (memoratia) into the third ventricle (Reisch, 1503). Sironi, 2011) but also by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), whose drawings are interesting in that one picture sketched the "cell" theory of brain function with three chambers and also a detailed skull cut including the brain meninges (Gross, 1999;Pevsner, 2002). However, a thorough knowledge of the structure of the brain at that time is documented in his other drawings of the head, which illustrate not only the cranial nerves and crossing optic nerves but also paired ventricles (Fig. 3). ...
... On the right is the "cell" theory of brain functions and the cranial nerves. In the first ventricle, Leonardo placed imprensiva, a term proposed by Leonardo (and never used by anybody else) for a structure connecting the senses and sensorium commune; in the second ventricle, he placed senso comune (sensorium commune); and in the third, he placed memo (memory) (Pevsner, 2002). 2009) and was the first to describe the eleventh pair of cranial nerves (Garrison, 1921). ...
Article
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The treatise "De structura nervorum" by Jiri Prochaska was published in 1779 and is remarkable not only for its anatomical and histological findings but also for its historical introduction, which contains a detailed bibliographical review of the contemporary knowledge of the structure of the nervous tissue. Unfortunately, the treatise has never been translated from the Latin language, but it deserves further analysis as a historical document about the level of neuroscience research conducted by a famous Czech scholar. The present article includes a historical overview of the contemporary knowledge of the structure of the nervous tissue up to the late eighteenth century from the perspective of today, a translation of selected chapters from Prochaska's treatise (a historical introduction about the medieval knowledge of the structure of the nervous tissue and an interpretation of his neurohistological observations), and an analysis of Jiri Prochaska's results in light of current knowledge.
... Destacam-se as obras de Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) e de Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564). Os desenhos anatómicos de Da Vinci e Vesalius permaneceram para sempre associados às origens da ilustração médica (e.g., Loechel, 1960;Pevsner, 2002). Figura 2. Excerto de uma ilustração de Vesalius da sua obra monumental «De humani corporis fabrica libri septem», mais conhecida como A Fábrica. ...
Chapter
In our chapter we discuss the several Neuroscientific tools that have been used to investigate athletes and sports performance and how we might interpret these results to undersatand sports and human motion.
... Leonardo da Vinci was born on the 15th of April 1452. For Leonardo (1452-1519) the study of Anatomy became a science (11)(12)(13). He began to examine the relationship between the brain and the olfactory and optical nerves through experimenting with wax injections that helped him to model the ventricles. ...
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It is in the human nature to be curious about how we feel pain, see the world, hear bird's songs, remember, forget, reason. We want to understand the nature of love, anger, satisfaction, desire and madness. This is a short story about the evolution of the science on the human brain and about major brain discoveries. It gives a concise historic perspective of the understanding of the nervous system - from ancient Egypt to the birth of Renaissance, with the works of Vesalius and his esteemed contemporaries. The contributions of 17th century neuroanatomists such as Tomas Willis followed by the pre-modern neuroscience researchers Camillo Golgi and especially Santiago Ramon y Cajal are highlighted. The contribution of transgenic mouse models and the application of modern noninvasive imaging methods such as positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for ground braking functional studies on the human brain are briefly reviewed. Important 21st century projects such as the Human and Mouse Connectome projects and the White House Brain Initiative are also presented.
... Si se considera el término Neurociencia de manera holística y atemporal, entonces debería considerarse como Neurociencia a cualquier hallazgo o contribución científica o filosófica que se halla dado sobre consideraciones del sistema nervioso en cualquier época de la humanidad, como los descubrimientos neuroanatómicos que hizo Leonardo da Vinci -1452-1519-hace unos 500 años, alcanzando un conocimiento científico más preciso del cerebro (Mora, 2002), pero no por ello fue neurocientífico, aunque se considera que sus trabajos contribuyeron a la Neurociencia (Pevsner, 2002). También valdría entonces considerar a los Egipcios del siglo V aC, a los griegos helenísticos, a los romanos y a ciertos personajes del Medioevo, todos los cuales contribuyeron a la comprensión de diversas partes del sistema nervioso, en especial del cerebro. ...
Article
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The present work on Santiago Ramón y Cajal aims to demonstrate on the basis of neuroscientist literature, that Santiago Ramón y Cajal was not the father or founder of Neuroscience, but is considered a neural science pioneer. In order to corroborate this statement, varied information on Ramón y Cajal was consulted within Neuroscience to determine if Ramón Y Cajal is one of the Neuroscience pioneers, and contrast that information with the beginnings of neuroscience as a discipline. Subsequently this information was compared with various aspects of other important figures who were not named Neuroscience founders. In conclusion Santiago Felipe Ramón and Cajal if not the father of Neuroscience, though it should be noted he is considered one of the pioneers of neural science.
... The ventricular model had a long lasting influence despite the fact that obvious experimental evidence of its fallacy emerged during the Renaissance. Leonardo da Vinci, for example, obtained a wax cast of the ventricles that was clearly against the classical representation of the ventricular system (Pevsner, 2002). Similarly, Vesalius showed that the ventricular anatomy described by Galen was questionable and its doctrine did not fit with the evidence from dissections (Vesalius, 1543). ...
... He undertook his research with the broad goal of providing physical explanations of how the brain processes visual and other sensory input and integrates that information via the soul. (Pevsner, 2002) Chapter VI Art and Scientific Progress Leonardo DaVinci made contributions to the study of science, medicine and art. In his relentless pursuit to understand how our world works, he was one of the world's greatest inventors, thinkers, scientists, artists and writers. ...
Book
If science is defined as anything that can change or potentially change the environment, it goes without saying that science is also anything that can change or potentially change man himself because man is at the center of science. The nature of science reflects the nature of man. Although science is not stationary and that it changes as our environment changes, because scientific method and scientific paradigms change at different eras, scientific progress is multifaceted. Today, we are witnessing some advances in science that would not have been possible two hundred years ago. Politics, government regulations, economics, the military, the quest for energy, and our thirst for technology are amongst the most powerful forces that drive today’s scientific progress. And these forces are themselves influenced by how research is done, in other words, by today’s changing research spectrum. A large part of our attempt to understand why modern science advances has to do with, first, understand our modern research environment. The way we structure our scientific spectrum weighs heavily in the goals we set for science and determine the nature of scientific results. Science is all the more important that it ultimately impacts society. Science is an institution and as such it educates people, promotes research, and caters to society. Therefore, the scientific community – besides structuring the research process – has a duty to promote responsible behaviors or conducts by establishing normative rules. Scientific progress is inseparable from society and vice versa … Technology is an offshoot of science. However, science needs technology to progress. In fact, this is another symbiotic relationship of science with another field. This is a classic debate. This is a relationship similar to that between knowledge and skill. Knowledge includes fact, information, and skills acquired by a person through education or experience. It's the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. Skill is the ability to do something well. It's an expertise or a hand-on experience. Whereas knowledge can stand alone, skill often includes knowledge. Skill is a whole. Skill is practical. Knowledge is mainly theoretical. So, let’s think of science as knowledge and technology as skill. Science can exist without technology but technology desperately needs science. The relationship between science and technology has become symbiotic especially in modern times.
... Realizou trabalhos em neuroanatomia segundo a tradição medieval em relacionar a estrutura cerebral com a função mental. Denominou imprensiva aos ventrículos laterais, senso comune correspondia ao local da alma (terceiro ventrículo) e memoria ao quarto ventrículo 26 . A primeira descrição de hidrocefalia como dilatação dos ventrículos cerebrais foi realizada por Andreas Vesalius no século XVI, época em que foi necessário modificar completamente o conceito de hidrocefalia da antiguidade 14 . ...
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A história da endoscopia e sua crescente difusão na práticaneurocirúrgica é resultado da cooperação entre medicina etecnologia. A literatura sobre a história da neuroendoscopiae também da história do estudo das cavidades ventricularesno Brasil é revisada. Os grandes problemas relacionados àtecnologia disponível aos pioneiros da endoscopia eram a iluminaçãoe magnificação deficientes. Durante a década de 60,avanços tecnológicos contribuíram para a moderna neuroendoscopia,tais como, novo tipo de lente, invenção do Charged-Coupled Device e a fibra óptica. No futuro espera-se que coma invenção de novas tecnologias, outras melhorias neste campopossam ser alcançadas.
... These neurons need to make connections with the proper muscle in order for coordinated movement to be possible. It was observed early on almost 500 years ago by Leonardo da Vinci that nerves follow stereotyped pathways to their targets (Pevsner 2002). The question of how proper connections are made correctly by a huge number of neurons has been the subject of inquiry since then. ...
... Reproduced with permission from the Royal Collection Trust © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, 2013. 11,21 What's in a Name? ...
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The authors trace the etymology and historical significance of galea or epicranial aponeurosis. In ancient Greece, galea referred to a helmet worn by soldiers, typically made of animal hide or leather. Throughout antiquity, physicians referred to all soft tissue between the skin and the skull as panniculus, a standard established by Galen of Pergamon. A manual of surgery in the Middle Ages referred to the entire scalp as a “great panicle that is called pericranium.” During the early Renaissance, Leonardo da Vinci famously and stylistically analogized the dissection of the cranium with the peeling of an onion. Not until 1724 would the tendinous sheath connecting the frontalis and occipitalis muscles be defined as “Galea tendinosa cranii.” By 1741, the convention of referring to the galea as an aponeurosis was well established. Harvey Cushing's wartime experiences at Army Base Hospital No. 5 reinforced the surgical significance of the galea. Operative mortality was significantly diminished due to “closure of the wounds with buried sutures in the galea.” This operative nuance was then passed from teacher to pupil and has now become one of the tenets of modern neurosurgical practice.
... Si se considera el término Neurociencia de manera holística y atemporal, entonces debería considerarse como Neurociencia a cualquier hallazgo o contribución científica o filosófica que se halla dado sobre consideraciones del sistema nervioso en cualquier época de la humanidad, como los descubrimientos neuroanatómicos que hizo Leonardo da Vinci -1452-1519-hace unos 500 años, alcanzando un conocimiento científico más preciso del cerebro (Mora, 2002), pero no por ello fue neurocientífico, aunque se considera que sus trabajos contribuyeron a la Neurociencia (Pevsner, 2002). También valdría entonces considerar a los Egipcios del siglo V aC, a los griegos helenísticos, a los romanos y a ciertos personajes del Medioevo, todos los cuales contribuyeron a la comprensión de diversas partes del sistema nervioso, en especial del cerebro. ...
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The present work on Santiago Ramón y Cajal aims to demonstrate on the basis of neuroscientist literature, that Santiago Ramón y Cajal was not the father or founder of Neuroscience, but is considered a neural science pioneer. In order to corroborate this statement, varied information on Ramón y Cajal was consulted within Neuroscience to determine if Ramón Y Cajal is one of the Neuroscience pioneers, and contrast that information with the beginnings of neuroscience as a discipline. Subsequently this information was compared with various aspects of other important figures who were not named Neuroscience founders. In conclusion Santiago Felipe Ramón and Cajal if not the father of Neuroscience, though it should be noted he is considered one of the pioneers of neural science.
... Da Vinci produced realistic drawings of neuroanatomical structures he had personally dissected including the eyes, meningeal arteries, cranial fossae, cranial nerves, skull, and ventricles. He also succeeded in reproducing a cast model of the ventricles by injecting molten wax inside the brain [4]. ...
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Our current knowledge of the structure, function, and diseases of the brain comes from direct examination of its substance. In the last centuries, only a few elite had managed to retrieve, gather, and preserve the elusive brain for their own research. The resulting brain collections, stored in formalin-filled jars or dried up in cabinets, served anatomical, neuropathological, anthropometric, ideological, and diagnostic purposes. In the 1960s, the first modern brain banks actively collecting and strategically preserving both diseased and healthy brains to be consequently distributed to the scientific community were instituted. In an era where state-of-the-art biochemical “Omic” studies and advanced metabolic and molecular neuroimaging exist, it is now, more than ever, that postmortem brain investigations must be performed. Only through the comparison and integration of postmortem neuropathological and biochemical findings and antemortem data from clinical, neuropsychological neuroimaging, and other biomarker examinations can we truly understand neurological disease mechanisms. Brain banks supplying brain specimens, antemortem information, and postmortem diagnosis are a major benefactor of brain research.
... He stated in his notes that the anatomy of the brain had two vents in the large ventricles, in which molten wax was injected to fill the cavities of the brain. Once the wax hardened, it was removed from the brain to see the exact shape of the three ventricles (12,15,18,19). Thus, da Vinci extracted a mold that showed the three-dimensional shape of the ventricular labyrinth in the brain of an ox (15), and made the first realistic drawing of the cerebral ventricles (15,20,21). ...
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Introduction: The ventricular system of the brain was first described, partially, in the third century BC. Since then, several researchers have contributed to better understand this system, unraveling its position in the central nervous system, and relating it with certain functional aspects following philosophical concepts that have allowed a clearer approach to cavitations regarding the formation of the cerebrospinal fluid. Objective: To describe the most relevant concepts of the history of the ventricular encephalic system of the brain. Materials and methods: Various literature sources related to the ventricular system were consulted, and then chronologically organized, so that a more concrete approximation of the functional morphology of the ventricular system could be provided. Conclusion: Aristotle was the first to approach the ventricular system of the brain. Over time, his knowledge on the organization, function and number of cavities was debugged to the point of proposing the existence of eight ventricles. Today, five ventricles are recognized, four of which are encephalic components: two in the brain, one in the diencephalon, other in the brainstem, and a fifth in the terminal part of the spinal cord.
... Il a entrepris ses recherches dans le but général de fournir des explications physiques sur la manière dont le cerveau traite les entrées visuelles et sensorielles et intègre ces informations via l'âme. (Pevsner, 2002) Leonardo Da Vinci a contribué à l'étude des sciences, de la médecine et de l'art. Soucieux de comprendre le fonctionnement de notre monde, il était l'un des plus grands inventeurs, penseurs, scientifiques, artistes et écrivains du monde. ...
Book
Si la science se définit comme tout ce qui peut changer ou potentiellement changer l'environnement, il va sans dire que la science est aussi tout ce qui peut changer ou potentiellement changer l'homme lui-même parce que l'homme est au centre de la science. La nature de la science reflète la nature de l'homme. Bien que la science ne soit pas stationnaire et qu'elle change à mesure que notre environnement change, étant donné que la méthode scientifique et les paradigmes scientifiques changent à différentes époques, le progrès scientifique revêt de multiples facettes. Aujourd'hui, nous assistons à des avancées scientifiques qui n'auraient pas été possibles il y a deux cents ans. La politique, la réglementation gouvernementale, l’économie, l’armée, la quête de l’énergie et notre soif de technologies font partie des forces les plus puissantes à l’origine des progrès scientifiques d’aujourd’hui. Et ces forces sont elles-mêmes influencées par la façon dont la recherche est effectuée, en d’autres termes, par l’évolution du spectre de la recherche d’aujourd’hui. Une grande partie de notre tentative de comprendre pourquoi les progrès de la science moderne doit d'abord comprendre notre environnement de recherche moderne. La façon dont nous structurons notre spectre scientifique pèse lourdement sur les objectifs que nous nous sommes fixés pour la science et détermine la nature des résultats scientifiques. La science est d'autant plus importante qu'elle a finalement un impact sur la société. La science est une institution et à ce titre, elle éduque les gens, favorise la recherche et s'adresse à la société. Par conséquent, la communauté scientifique – en plus de structurer le processus de recherche – a le devoir de promouvoir des comportements ou des comportements responsables en établissant des règles normatives. Le progrès scientifique est indissociable de la société et inversement… La technologie est une émanation de la science. Cependant, la science a besoin de technologie pour progresser. En fait, il s'agit d'une autre relation symbiotique de la science avec un autre domaine. C'est un débat classique. C'est une relation similaire à celle qui existe entre connaissances et compétences. Les connaissances comprennent les faits, les informations et les compétences acquises par une personne au moyen de son éducation ou de son expérience. C'est la compréhension théorique ou pratique d'un sujet. La compétence est la capacité de bien faire quelque chose. C'est une expertise ou une expérience pratique. Alors que la connaissance peut être autonome, les compétences incluent souvent la connaissance. La compétence est un tout. La compétence est pratique. La connaissance est principalement théorique. Alors, considérons la science comme un savoir et la technologie comme une compétence. La science peut exister sans technologie, mais la technologie a désespérément besoin de la science. La relation entre la science et la technologie est devenue symbiotique, particulièrement à l’époque moderne.
... In fact, one of the earliest documented applications of the casting technique in anatomy was performed on the bovine brain ventricular system around 1505-1507 by Leonardo da Vinci who injected hot bee wax into the ventricles. After cooling down and hence solidification of the wax, the brain tissue was carefully scraped from the resulting cast to reveal its configuration (Paluzzi, Belli, Bain, & Viva, 2007;Pevsner, 2002). Other researchers such as Govert Bidloo (1685) explored the use of molten metal mixtures (e.g. ...
Article
Corrosion casting is the technique by which a solid, negative replica is created from a hollow anatomical structure and liberated from its surrounding tissues. For centuries, different types of hardening substances have been developed to create such casts, but nowadays, thermosetting polymers are mostly used as casting medium. Although the principle and initial set‐up are relatively easy, producing high‐quality casts that serve their intended purpose can be quite challenging. This paper evaluates some of the more popular casting resins that are currently available and provides a step‐by‐step overview of the corrosion casting procedure, including surface casts of anatomical structures. Hurdles and pitfalls are discussed, along with possible solutions to circumvent them, based on personal experience by the authors.
... In contrast, reversal has a rather positive connotation. In adults, it is an understatement to say that the right-to-left reversed annotations added to Leonardo da Vinci's drawings have not devalued them (Pevsner, 2002). In children, reversals are often precise and not blurred, as shown by the reversal writings reproduced in the literature (e.g., Fischer & Tazouti, 2012). ...
Article
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Young children, who are exposed to Latin script letters, experience difficulties in distinguishing between the reversible letters b and d and may therefore transform b into d (and vice versa). When children begin to write, in cultures with left-to-right writing/reading systems, they also often turn Arabic digits in the direction of writing/reading, thus, for example, producing ε instead of 3. However, two different terms or processes, namely, confusion and reversal, are used in the literature to label these apparent transformations. This study aimed to provide empirical evidence that the two processes are indeed very different. The sample consisted of 529 first graders (Mage = 6.21 years) who participated in the French National Assessment at the beginning of the school year. Simple linear, Bayesian, and logistic regression modeling of the left–right reversal rate in writing digits as a function of the confusion rate in children’s recognition of the letters b and d showed a negative relationship between the two rates, and a nonparametric test yielded a significant negative correlation (rS(318) = –0.373, p < .001). These results seem to rule out the possibility that the same process leads to reversing characters (letters or digits) in writing and misrecognizing b as d (or vice versa). This is the first study reporting strong empirical evidence that the processes of reversal and confusion are very different. Consequently, it would be a mistake to treat confusion between b and d as the reversal of b into d (and vice versa).
... Mechanical peeling of the preparation was most often used, although at times natural mechanisms of body decomposition were used. Thermal agents were also used (multi-hour cooking) as well as other organisms for tissue purification such as fly larvae or ants [38,42]. ...
Article
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The eaching stage of the corrosive preparation is a crucial element of creating a high quality anatomical specimen, which can be a source of scientific knowledge and support the teaching process. Nowadays, thermal techniques such as microwave cooking, enzymatic corrosion, and chemical corrosion are used. Living organisms can also be used for tissue maceration. Interactions between the corrosive substance and the filler carry a risk of failure; thus, choosing the correct method is key to the success of this technique. In this paper, we have reviewed the latest literature in order to present the strengths and weaknesses of currently used corrosion techniques. We proposed a definition of an ideal corrosive medium and compared the available techniques of etching corrosive preparations with a hypothetical perfect medium.
... This point, near the region later anatomically designated as the nucleus geniculatus lateralis, marks the senso comune, where Leonardo assumed that all external sensory impressions came together and were processed (Widmer, 2006). In his opinion, vision was the most significant sensation and he therefore assigned the eye the role of the most important sensory organ (Pevsner, 2002). ...
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Leonardo da Vinci, the Renaissance polymath, is still recognized today — above all for his oil paintings and mechanical inventions. His anatomical studies have attracted less attention, even though he devoted over 30 years of his life to them. This paper outlines Leonardo’s career and research methods and focuses on the importance of his medical images for anatomical research and teaching. Following a short presentation of the state of (dental) medicine in the early Renaissance period, it offers a description of five of his cranial drawings that show the anatomy of the teeth, the nervous and vascular system on inner and outer tables of the skull and the paranasal sinuses in great detail. Leonardo da Vinci had obviously discovered and depicted the maxillary sinus 150 years before the anatomist Nathaniel Highmore, who is usually credited with this discovery. Other anatomical drawings by Leonardo address the correct human dental formula and describe the morphology of the four types of teeth. His handwritten notes show that he recognized the connection between tooth form and function. Finally, this paper evaluates the influence of these discoveries and innovations on the development of dentistry and its establishment as a scientific discipline. There is no doubt that Leonardo da Vinci’s preoccupation with the anatomy of the maxillofacial region influenced the development of anatomy and dentistry, even though he never published his anatomical research.
... Galen also contemplated the functional specialisation of the ventricles thus defining localisation of functions: according to him, the anterior ventricle was responsible for integration of sensory information, whereas posterior ventricle was the motor centre from which signals were delivered to the body [9]. The first 3D reconstruction of ventricular system was made by Leonardo da Vinci in 1508 by filling the ventricles of an ox with molten wax to obtain a perfect cast [10]. The views of Galen on localisation of function derived from his dissections of animals and from acute experiments on pigs or oxen, because in the Roman times dissections of human bodies were prohibited. ...
Article
The 25-century long history of brain science can be divided into four distinct 'Eras': Era 1 (∼2000 years) started around 500 BC with reductionist studies of human and animal brains using invasive in vivo and ex vivo methods; Era 2 (∼200 years) started in the 17th century and introduced the first invasive methods to study the function of living tissues; Era 3 started around 1838 and is the ongoing era of cellular neurophysiology; finally, Era 4 (in statu nascendi) is the era of non-invasive, holistic yet mechanistic, studies of the brain. Animal experimentation is becoming increasingly more holistic as multimodal imaging and recording techniques are combined in a single experiment on the brain of awake behaving animal. This newly emerged approach can be called in vigilo (from Latin 'in awake' or 'in vigilant state'), by analogy to the earlier introduced terms in vivo or in vitro. We introduce the Special Issue " In Vigilo Veritas: New Frontiers of Optical Imaging and Electrical Recording in the Brain of Awake Behaving Mice", which features the original research articles and reviews that represent some of the finest examples of a truly multimodal study, where behavioural readouts and tasks are combined in the same longitudinal experiment and on the same mouse with the two-photon imaging, optogenetics and/or electrophysiological recordings. This exciting multi-methodological approach creates a fertile ground for breakthrough discoveries in neurophysiology and neuropsychology of an awake behaving mammalian brain.
... He undertook his research with the broad goal of providing physical explanation of how the brain processes visual and other sensory input and integrates that information via the soul. Leonardo began to examine the relationship between the brain and the olfactory and optical nerves through different experiments (Pevsner 2002). ...
... The ventricles in Leonardo's drawings are central to understanding his views of brain function. 24 They appear in a 1493 drawing in red chalk (figure 2) and several other drawings (appendix). In figure 2, above an onion, he writes: "If you will cut an onion through the middle you will be able to see and enumerate all the coats or rinds which circularly clothe the center of the onion." ...
Article
Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) contributed to the study of the nervous system. His earliest surviving anatomical drawings (circa 1485–93) included studies of the skull, brain, and cerebral ventricles. These works reflected his efforts to understand medieval psychology, including the localisation of sensory and motor functions to the brain. He was also the first to pith a frog, concluding that piercing the spinal medulla causes immediate death. After a 10-year interval in the early 1500s Leonardo resumed his anatomical studies and developed a method to inject hot wax into the ventricular system, creating a cast that showed the shape and extent of the ventricles. During this period he also progressed in his understanding of the anatomy of the cranial nerves. Besides being the first to identify the olfactory nerve as a cranial nerve, his dissections showed him that contrary to previous theories, the nerves do not converge on the lateral or third ventricles. Leonardo also performed detailed studies of the peripheral nervous system. Although his discoveries had little influence on the development of the field of anatomy, they represent an astonishingly sharp break from the field that had seen little if any progress in the previous 13 centuries. His work reflects the emergence of the modern scientific era and forms a key part of his integrative approach to art and science.
Article
It is well known that Leonardo da Vinci made several drawings of the human male anatomy. The early drawings (before 1500) were incorrect in identifying the origin of semen, where he followed accepted teaching of his time. It is widely thought that he did not correct this mistake, a view that is reflected in several biographies. In fact, he made a later drawing (after 1500) in which the description of the anatomy is remarkably accurate and must have been based on careful dissection. In addition to highlighting this fact, acknowledged previously in only one other source, this article reviews the background to Leonardo's knowledge of the relevant anatomy.
Article
Corrosion casting is an important manufacturing technique to replicate anatomical structures. Its execution is often based on the injection of resins that can be polymerized starting at room temperature in the presence of an accelerator, which suits most of the practical requirements. In the present contribution, we highlight the main challenges of the corrosion casting technique, addressing a multidisciplinary research angle connecting the fields of life science, veterinary science, materials science, rheology, and polymer reaction engineering. We pay attention to (commercial) material availability, casting medium selection criteria, specimen preparation, maceration, injection possibilities, cleaning procedures, and detail of replication. We start the discussion from general principles and recommendations to then include major examples for each corrosion casting characteristic addressed. Corrosion casting is a technique used to replicate anatomical structures by injecting a polymeric resin into a void space, for example, the circulatory system, and let to solidify. This review highlights the relationship between the technique and the properties of the casting material, considering biological and procedural aspects. This in view of forthcoming research in corrosion casting materials.
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Resumen Las neurociencias del comportamiento se han desarrollado a partir de otras disciplinas como la psicología, la psiquiatría y la neurología, y se han convertido en un área de gran importancia dentro de las neurociencias en general. En psicología, las neurociencias han tenido un papel importante. En este artículo se documentó la publicación de artículos sobre neurociencias del comportamiento en cuatro revistas de psicología de Latinoamérica y se encontró un número importante de artículos empíricos y teóricos. También se han abarcado diferentes temáticas dentro del área, y la investigación empírica se ha enfocado sobre humanos y ratas, aunque otras especies han sido estudiadas. Las neurociencias del comportamiento parecen estar desempeñando un papel importante y creciente en el desarrollo de la psicología latinoamericana. Palabras clave: neurociencias del comportamiento, psicología latinoamericana, historia de la psicología, historia de las neurociencias
Article
Early modern medical science did not arise ex nihilo, but was the culmination of a long history stretching back through the Renaissance, the Middle Ages, Byzantium and Roman times, into Greek Antiquity. The long interval between Aristotle and Galen and Harvey and Descartes was punctuated by outstanding visionaries, including Leonardo, the ultimate Renaissance man. His attitude and mindset were based on Aristotelian pursuit of empirical fact and rational thought. He declared himself to be a "man without letters" to underscore his disdain for those whose culture was only mnemonics and philosophical inferences from authoritative books. Leonardo read the Book of Nature with the immense curiosity of the pioneering scientist, ushering in the methodology of modern medical science with help from forerunners. He left no publications, but extensive personal Notebooks: on his scientific research, hydrodynamics, physiological anatomy, etc. Apparently, numerous successors availed themselves of his methodologies and insights, albeit without attribution. In his Notebooks, disordered and fragmentary, Leonardo manifests the exactitude of the engineer and scientist, the spontaneous freshness of one speaking of what he has at heart and that he knows well. His style is unrefined, but intensely personal, rich with emotion and, sometimes, poetic. Leonardo, the visionary anatomist, strived consistently not merely to imitate nature by depicting body structures, but to perceive through analysis and simulations the intimate physiologic processes; i.e., the biomechanics underlying the workings of all bodily organs and components, even the mysterious beating heart. It is fitting to regard him as the first modern medical scientist.
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This book is the introduction to a series of e-books dedicated to physiology and pathophysiology of neuroglia. The topic of neuroglia is generally overlooked in neuroscience curricula across the world, the main attention being focused on the description of excitability of neurons and neuronal networks. The neuroglia, being electrically non-excitable, are universally regarded as supportive cells which do not contribute to information processing. This oversimplified view, however, ignores the tremendous importance of brain homeostasis, which is imperative for the ongoing activity of neuronal networks. It also ignores the truth that specialization of neurons and their ability for rapid propagation and multi-level integration of signals become possible only because of delegation of homeostatic abilities to neuroglia. Furthermore, glial cells contribute to information processing as they can modulate neuronal synaptic transmission. Finally, neuroglia provide the only system of brain defense and as such these cells are intimately involved in all types of neuropathologies, and contribute to both neuroprotection and regeneration of the nervous system. The e-books in this series provide a platform for in-depth learning of all aspects of neuroglial cells function in health and disease.
Article
The understanding of epilepsy has been in progressive evolution since Antiquity, with scientific advances culminating in the last few decades. Throughout history, epilepsy was plagued by mystical misconceptions involving either demonic possessions, witchcraft, or divine interventions. This has frequently altered or even halted any real progress in its scientific understanding or its social perception. This metaphysical context is also at the core of the stigma revolving around this condition, some of which still lingering today. This review explores the origins of these mystical beliefs, and describes the chronological evolution of epilepsy from mysticism to science across different civilizations and eras.
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Behavioral neurosciences have evolved from other disciplines such as psychology, psychiatry and neurology, becoming a prominent area within general neuroscience. In mainstream psychology, neurosciences currently have an important role. In this paper we documented articles published in four Latin-American psychology journals and we classified these papers as empirical or theoretical. We analyzed the main topics covered in the behavioral neurosciences. Most of reported research used humans and rats as study subjects, although other species have also been used as models. Data suggest behavioral neurosciences currently play a growing and prominent role in Latin American psychology.
Research
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This is volume 26, 2015 of the journal BIOMEDICAL REVIEWS...
Chapter
All primate vocal signals are produced through the coordinated movements of the lungs, larynx (vocal folds), and the supralaryngeal vocal tract (Fitch & Hauser, 1995; Ghazanfar & Rendall, 2008). As a result, humans and other primates share a remarkable number of similarities in their vocal signaling, ranging from production mechanisms and signal structure to the inextricable link between vision and audition. In human speech, the signal—across all languages and contexts—is amplitude modulated, consisting of a rhythm that ranges from 2 to 7 Hz (Drullman, 1995; Greenberg et al., 2003; Chandrasekaran et al., 2009), roughly matching the timescale for syllable production. Such temporal modulation in similar frequency ranges also seems to be a common feature of several nonhuman primate vocalizations. For example, common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) twitter calls are modulated in the 5–9 Hz range (Wang et al., 1995); squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations in the 6–10 Hz range (Godey et al., 2005); and finally cotton top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), macaques (Macaca spp.), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) all seem to have vocalizations modulated in the 3–8 Hz range (Cohen et al., 2007).
Chapter
Figure 17.1 shows a drawing in which Leonardo da Vinci indicates, with intersecting lines, the senso comune in the third cerebral ventricle, where he thought there was a confluence of the senses. Figure 17.1 also includes the equally famous drawing of René Descartes showing the convergence of sensory inputs in the pineal body. The process of producing and assembling percepts into a perception is clearly not the only higher function of the nervous system, but it is certainly one that is frequently considered. An important goal throughout the rich history of neuroscience has been to identify the one place where receptions are converted into perceptions. It is now apparent that there is not a single locus (a Cartesian theater) where this occurs, but rather it is a distributed function of much of the brain. It is appropriate that we conclude this book on nervous system interactions with a brief consideration of the higher functions that might be called the mind.
Chapter
Over the past 140 years, a rapid progression in the advancements of visualization and instrumentation has allowed for an evolution from open to endonasal techniques for the treatment of frontal sinus pathology.
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Zebrafish have come to the forefront as a flexible, relevant animal model to study human disease, including cardiovascular disorders. Zebrafish are optically transparent during early developmental stages, enabling unparalleled imaging modalities to examine cardiovascular structure and function in vivo and ex vivo. At later stages, however, the options for systematic cardiovascular phenotyping are more limited. To visualise the complete vascular tree of adult zebrafish, we have optimised a vascular corrosion casting method. We present several improvements to the technique leading to increased reproducibility and accuracy. We designed a customised support system and used a combination of the commercially available Mercox II methyl methacrylate with the Batson's catalyst for optimal vascular corrosion casting of zebrafish. We also highlight different imaging approaches, with a focus on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X‐ray microtomography (micro‐CT) to obtain highly detailed, faithful three‐dimensional reconstructed images of the zebrafish cardiovascular structure. This procedure can be of great value to a wide range of research lines related to cardiovascular biology in small specimens.
Article
The object of this article is a drawing by Peter Paul Rubens, a copy of "The Battle of Anghiari" by Leonardo da Vinci in 1503-1506. This work, created in 1603, was based on an engraving of 1553 by Lorenzo Zacchia, which was taken from a cartoon by Leonardo da Vinci. The original fresco itself is lost. The analysis of the drawing shows that the Peter Paul Rubens's copy of "The Battle of Anghiari" by Leonardo da Vinci, which was created six centuries ago, includes double content. The drawing depicting the battle secretly describes the three-dimensional image of the brain.
Chapter
At first glance, STEM and theatre arts seem to have very little in common. A closer look at the educational purposes, goals, and pedagogies of both cultures reveals distinct similarities such as an interest in the betterment of society, an enhanced understanding of the world and its inhabitants, and problem-solving strategies that include questioning, observation, analysis, and synthesis. The major difference between the two cultures is the degree to which high levels of mathematical reasoning are involved in their inquiries. Chapter 6 reminds the higher education reader that while there is a rich history of pushing the boundaries of knowledge by applying cross-cultural lenses that involve the intersection of science and art, there is more work to be accomplished.
e-mail: pevsner@jhmi
  • Jonathan Pevsner Dept Of Neurology
  • Kennedy Krieger Research Institute
Jonathan Pevsner Dept of Neurology, Kennedy Krieger Research Institute, 707 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. e-mail: pevsner@jhmi.edu TRENDS in Neurosciences Vol.25 No.4 April 2002
The Madrid Codices II:137 recto, McGraw-Hill 49 The Literary Works of Leonardo da Vinci
  • Leonardo Da
Leonardo da Vinci (1978–1980) Corpus of the Anatomical Studies in the Collection of Her Majesty, the Queen, at Windsor Castle (Clark, K. and Pedretti, C. eds.), 55 recto, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich 48 Leonardo da Vinci (1974) The Madrid Codices (Reti, L., ed.), II:137 recto, McGraw-Hill 49 Richter, J.P. (1970) The Literary Works of Leonardo da Vinci, no. 827, Phaidon 50 Leonardo da Vinci (2000) In Il Codice Atlantico della Biblioteca Ambrosiana di Milano (Marinoni, A., ed.), Vol. 3, 729 verso, Giunti Gruppo Editoriale 51 Leonardo da Vinci (1974) The Madrid Codices (Reti, L., ed.), II:67 recto, McGraw-Hill
Theories of brain function from antiquity through the eighteenth century
  • Camargo
Corpus of the Anatomical Studies in the Collection of Her Majesty, the Queen
  • Leonardo Da