Article
Measurement of superluminal optical tunneling times in doublebarrier photonic band gaps
University of Bergamo, Bérgamo, Lombardy, Italy
Physical Review E (Impact Factor: 2.29). 05/2002; 65(4 Pt 2B):046610. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.046610 Source: PubMed
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 "Even more strikingly, Recami [24] notes that " at least four different experimental sectors of physics seem to indicate the actual existence of Superluminal motions " , two of which have been confirmed both theoretically and experimentally [23]. In particular, various experiments [14] [17] [20] [29] (cf. [18]) have confirmed the quantumtheoretical prediction [1] that the total time taken for a photon to 'tunnel' through an opaque barrier is independent of tunnel width, whence group velocities are necessarily superluminal for wide enough barriers. "
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ABSTRACT: It has recently been shown within a formal axiomatic framework using a definition of fourmomentum based on the StückelbergFeynmanSudarshan "switching principle" that Einstein's relativistic dynamics is logically consistent with the existence of interacting fasterthanlight inertial particles. Our results here show, using only basic natural assumptions on dynamics, that this definition is the only possible way to get a consistent theory of such particles moving within the geometry of Minkowskian spacetime. We present a strictly formal proof from a streamlined axiom system that given any slow or fast inertial particle, all inertial observers agree on the value of (m . sqrt{1v^2}), where m is the particle's relativistic mass (or energy) and v its speed. This confirms formally the widely held belief that the relativistic mass and momentum of a positivemass FTL particle must decrease as its speed increases. 
 "Such a prediction has been verified a second time, taking advantage of the circumstance that quite interesting evanescence regions can be constructed in the most varied manners, like by means of different photonic bandgap materials or gratings (it is possible to use multilayer dielectric mirrors, or semiconductors, to photonic crystals… ). And, indeed, a very recent confirmation came, as already mentioned, from an experiment having recourse to two gratings in an optical fiber [81]. We cannot skip a further, indeed delicate, topic, since the last experimental contribution to it [77], aroused large interest. "
Dataset: JSTQE

 "Such a prediction has been verified a second time, taking advantage of the circumstance that quite interesting evanescence regions can be constructed in the most varied manners, like by means of different photonic bandgap materials or gratings (it being possible to use from multilayer dielectric mirrors, or semiconductors, to photonic crystals...). And indeed a very recent confirmation came —as already mentioned— from an experiment having recourse to two gratings in an optical fiber.[25] We cannot skip a further, indeed delicate, topic, since the last experimental contribution to it[23] aroused large interest. "
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ABSTRACT: In the first part of this article the various experimental sectors of physics in which Superluminal motions seem to appear are briefly mentioned, after a sketchy theoretical introduction. In particular, a panoramic view is presented of the experiments with evanescent waves (and/or tunneling photons), and with the "Localized superluminal Solutions" (SLS) to the wave equation, like the socalled Xshaped waves. In the second part of this paper we present a series of new SLSs to the Maxwell equations, suitable for arbitrary frequencies and arbitrary bandwidths: some of them being endowed with finite total energy. Among the others, we set forth an infinite family of generalizations of the classic Xshaped wave; and show how to deal with the case of a dispersive medium. Results of this kind may find application in other fields in which an essential role is played by a waveequation (like acoustics, seismology, geophysics, gravitation, elementary particle physics, etc.). This eprint, in large part a review, was prepared for the special issue on "Nontraditional Forms of Light" of the IEEE JSTQE (2003); and a preliminary version of it appeared as Report NSFITP0293 (KITP, UCSB; 2002). Further material can be found in the recent eprints arXiv:0708.1655v2 [physics.genph] and arXiv:0708.1209v1 [physics.genph]. The case of the very interesting (and more orthodox, in a sense) subluminal Localized Waves, solutions to the wave equations, will be dealt with in a coming paper. [Keywords: Wave equation; Wave propagation; Localized solutions to Maxwell equations; Superluminal waves; Bessel beams; Limiteddispersion beams; Electromagnetic wavelets; Xshaped waves; Finiteenergy beams; Optics; Electromagnetism; Microwaves; Special relativity]