Article

Thies A, Moll I, Berger J, et al. CEACAM1 expression in cutaneous malignant melanoma predicts the development of metastatic disease

Institute for Anatomy, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, D-20246 Hamburg, Germany.
Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 18.43). 05/2002; 20(10):2530-6. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2002.05.033
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The cell adhesion molecule CEACAM1 is involved in intercellular adhesion and subsequent signal transduction events in a number of epithelia. CEACAM1 downregulation has been demonstrated in colorectal and prostate carcinomas. This study sought to analyze whether its expression in malignant melanoma is associated with metastasis.
CEACAM1 expression was immunohistochemically evaluated in 100 primary cutaneous malignant melanomas and correlated with metastasis in a 10-year follow-up. Furthermore, CEACAM1 expression was analyzed in metastatic lesions (11 distant metastases and six sentinel lymph node metastases). Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis adjusted for standard prognostic indicators were performed to assess the prognostic relevance of CEACAM1 expression.
A total of 28 of 40 patients with CEACAM1-positive primary melanomas developed metastatic disease, compared with only six of 60 patients with CEACAM1-negative melanomas. Often, the strongest CEACAM1 expression was observed at the invading front. In addition, CEACAM1 expression was preserved in the metastatic lesions. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a highly significant association between CEACAM1 expression and metastasis (P <.0001); multivariate Cox regression analysis, including CEACAM1 expression status adjusted for tumor thickness, presence of ulceration, and mitotic rate, confirmed that CEACAM1 is an independent factor for the risk of metastasis and demonstrated that the predictive value of CEACAM1 expression is superior to that of tumor thickness.
Expression of the cell adhesion molecule CEACAM1 in the primary tumors in melanoma patients is associated with the subsequent development of metastatic disease. This raises the possibility of a functional role for this cell adhesion molecule in the metastatic spread it indicates.

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    • "favoring metastatic spread (Ebrahimnejad et al., 2004; Markel et al., 2010; Ortenberg et al., 2012; Thies et al., 2002; Ullrich et al., 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: The multifunctional Ig-like carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is neo-expressed in the majority of malignant melanoma lesions. CEACAM1 acts as a driver of tumor cell invasion and its expression correlates with poor patient prognosis. Despite its importance in melanoma progression, how CEACAM1 expression is regulated is largely unknown. Here, we show that CEACAM1 expression in melanoma cell lines and melanoma tissue strongly correlates with that of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a key regulator of melanoma proliferation and invasiveness. MITF is revealed as a direct and positive regulator for CEACAM1 expression via binding to an M-box motif located in the CEACAM1 promoter. Taken together, our study provides novel insights into the regulation of CEACAM1 expression and suggests an MITF-CEACAM1 axis as a potential determinant of melanoma progression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
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    • "However, in melanoma and lung cancer, the presence of CEACAM1 is known to strongly predict the development of aggressive disease with poor outcome [18] [37] [38]. The only mechanistic explanation potentially accounting for this clinical observation was that CEACAM1 directly inhibits activated NK and T lymphocytes [8] [15] [18] [37] [38]. There was no information regarding the direct effects of CEACAM1 on melanoma cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: The prognostic value of the carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) in melanoma was demonstrated more than a decade ago as superior to Breslow score. We have previously shown that intercellular homophilic CEACAM1 interactions protect melanoma cells from lymphocyte-mediated elimination. Here, we study the direct effects of CEACAM1 on melanoma cell biology. By employing tissue microarrays and low-passage primary cultures of metastatic melanoma, we show that CEACAM1 expression gradually increases from nevi to metastatic specimens, with a strong dominance of the CEACAM1-Long tail splice variant. Using experimental systems of CEACAM1 knockdown and overexpression of selective variants or truncation mutants, we prove that only the full-length long tail variant enhances melanoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. This effect is not reversed with a CEACAM1-blocking antibody, suggesting that it is not mediated by intercellular homophilic interactions. Downstream, CEACAM1-Long increases the expression of Sox-2, which we show to be responsible for the CEACAM1-mediated enhanced proliferation. Furthermore, analysis of the CEACAM1 promoter reveals two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly enhance the promoter's activity compared with the consensus nucleotides. Importantly, case-control genetic SNP analysis of 134 patients with melanoma and matched healthy donors show that patients with melanoma do not exhibit the Hardy-Weinberg balance and that homozygous SNP genotype enhances the hazard ratio to develop melanoma by 35%. These observations shed new mechanistic light on the role of CEACAM1 in melanoma, forming the basis for development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic technologies.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
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    • "However, in melanoma and lung cancer, the presence of CEACAM1 is known to strongly predict the development of aggressive disease with poor outcome [18] [37] [38]. The only mechanistic explanation potentially accounting for this clinical observation was that CEACAM1 directly inhibits activated NK and T lymphocytes [8] [15] [18] [37] [38]. There was no information regarding the direct effects of CEACAM1 on melanoma cells. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prognostic value of the carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) in melanoma was demonstrated more than a decade ago as superior to Breslow score. We have previously shown that intercellular homophilic CEACAM1 interactions protect melanoma cells from lymphocyte-mediated elimination. Here, we study the direct effects of CEACAM1 on melanoma cell biology. By employing tissue microarrays and low-passage primary cultures of metastatic melanoma, we show that CEACAM1 expression gradually increases from nevi to metastatic specimens, with a strong dominance of the CEACAM1-Long tail splice variant. Using experimental systems of CEACAM1 knockdown and overexpression of selective variants or truncation mutants, we prove that only the full-length long tail variant enhances melanoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. This effect is not reversed with a CEACAM1-blocking antibody, suggesting that it is not mediated by intercellular homophilic interactions. Downstream, CEACAM1-Long increases the expression of Sox-2, which we show to be responsible for the CEACAM1-mediated enhanced proliferation. Furthermore, analysis of the CEACAM1 promoter reveals two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly enhance the promoter's activity compared with the consensus nucleotides. Importantly, case-control genetic SNP analysis of 134 patients with melanoma and matched healthy donors show that patients with melanoma do not exhibit the Hardy-Weinberg balance and that homozygous SNP genotype enhances the hazard ratio to develop melanoma by 35%. These observations shed new mechanistic light on the role of CEACAM1 in melanoma, forming the basis for development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic technologies.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
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