Pancreatic carcinoma resists chemotherapeutic mediation of apoptosis. Irofulven (MGI 114, 6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene) is a novel illudin S analogue that we have shown to induce caspase-mediated apoptosis in pancreatic carcinoma cell lines.
Westem blot analysis and kinase assays were used to demonstrate the activation of Erk 1/2 and JNK1 kinases following Irofulven administration in the presence and absence of selective kinase inhibitors.
Irofulven activates JNK1 and Erk1/2, but not p38. The addition of the MAPK inhibitors, SB202190 and PD98059 (targeting JNK1 and Erk1/2 activation, respectively), prevents kinase activation and blocks Irofulven-induced activation of caspases -3, -7, -8 and -9. Blockade of either JNK1 or Erk1/2 results in a 50% decrease in apoptosis in MiaPaCa-2 cells treated with Irofulven.
Our data demonstrated that JNK1 and Erk1/2 are activated by Irofulven treatment and that blockade of either MAPK subfamily decreases apoptosis by rendering Irofulven incapable of inducing caspase activation.
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"Different types of natural compounds such as: flavonoids, polysaccharides, omega-3 fatty acids, non-flavonoid phenolic compounds, terpenes are efficient in this respect. A large amount of fungal compounds like polysaccharides and polysaccharide-protein complexes with immunomodulatory and anti-cancer effects have been isolated from mushrooms (Wang et al., 2002; Wasser and Weis, 1999). There are approximately 650 representatives of higher Basidiomycetes that have been found to possess antitumor activity, among them species from genera like Ganoderma, Grifola, Lentinus, Trametes and Pleurotus. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many polysaccharides and polysaccharide-protein complexes isolated from mushrooms have immunomodulatory and anti-cancer effects. Our aim was to study the regulatory mechanisms of Caco-2 cell response to water soluble P. ostreatus polysaccharide extract up to 72 hours. Specific enzymatic activities were assessed by kinetic measurements. The reduced glutathione content and the lipid peroxidation level were also analyzed. Protein expression of several heat shock proteins, Bcl-2 and metalloproteinases 2 and 9 were revealed by Western blot. Gelatin zymography assay was used to evaluate the MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. Until the third day of exposure the total SOD activity decreased continuously by 30%, whereas GST and GR ones diminished by 17% respectively 30.5% compared to control. No significant changes were observed in CAT and G6PDH specific activities as well as in GSH and MDA concentration. After the third day of exposure a significant up-regulation of Hsp60 and Hsp90 expression and a down-regulation of Hsp70 one were registered. Bcl-2 protein levels were down-regulated by 50% in the first day of treatment but increased after 3 days. MMP-2 and 9 secretion in the culture medium was significantly reduced suggesting a diminished ability of invasion of colon cancer cells. Our data revealed that in vitro treatment with P. ostreatus aqueous polysaccharide extract does not induce apoptosis in Caco-2 cell line but it could inhibit the invasion of colon cancer cells through the basement membrane.
"Aromatic products were isolated from the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Irofulven demonstrated antitumor activity against human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo (van Laar et al. 2004), HT-29 and HCT-116 colorectal and A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells (Poindessous et al. 2003a), head and neck, non-small-cell lung, malignant glioma, colon, ovary, poorly differentiated androgen-independent prostate cancer carcinoma cells, and to a lesser extent, sarcoma and leukemia cell lines (Poindessous et al. 2003b), and human pancreatic cancer cells (Wang et al. 2002). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Empirical approaches to discover anticancer drugs and cancer treatments have made limited progress in the past several decades in finding a cure for cancer. The expanded knowledge of the molecular basis of tumorigenesis and metastasis, together with the inherently vast structural diversity of natural compounds found in mushrooms, provided unique opportunities for discovering new drugs that rationally target the abnormal molecular and biochemical signals leading to cancer. This review focuses on mushroom low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites targeting processes such as apoptosis, angiogenesis, metastasis, cell cycle regulation, and signal transduction cascades. Also discussed in this review are high-molecular-weight polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from mushrooms that appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans, and demonstrate the anticancer properties of selenium compounds accumulated in mushrooms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is characterized by poor prognosis, because of late diagnosis and lack of response to chemo- and/or radiation therapies. Resistance to apoptosis mainly causes this insensitivity to conventional therapies. Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a central regulator of tissue homeostasis. Certain genetic disturbances of apoptotic signaling pathways have been found in carcinomas leading to tumor development and progression. In the past few years, the knowledge about the complex pathways of apoptosis has strongly increased and new therapeutic approaches based on this knowledge are being developed. This review will focus on the role of apoptotic proteins contributing to pancreatic cancer development and progression and will demonstrate possible targets to influence this deadly disease.