Prevalence of renal cell carcinoma in patients with ESRD pre-transplantation: a pathologic analysis. Kidney Int

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Kidney International (Impact Factor: 8.56). 07/2002; 61(6):2201-9. DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.2002.00374.x
Source: PubMed


Acquired renal cystic disease (ARCD), renal adenoma (AD), and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are more common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the prevalence of these conditions in patients undergoing transplantation, and the clinical characteristics associated with their occurrence are unclear.
At our institution, the majority of patients undergo an ipsilateral native nephrectomy at the time of transplantation, providing a unique opportunity to study the prevalence and pathology of ARCD, AD and RCC in ESRD. We retrospectively reviewed all consecutive nephrectomy pathology reports over a six year period. Demographic and clinical characteristics associated with these lesions were identified.
Two hundred and sixty nephrectomy reports were reviewed: ARCD, AD, RCC and oncocytoma were found in 33%, 14%, 4.2% and 0.6% of cases, respectively. On multivariable analysis, ARCD was positively associated with male sex and longer dialysis duration and negatively associated with peritoneal dialysis. Similarly, AD was positively associated with male sex, longer dialysis duration and greater age. There was a trend for RCC cases to share similar associations although the small total number of cases precluded findings of statistical significance.
By pathologic analysis, renal tumors are more common in the pre-transplant ESRD population than previously reported (using radiologic methods). Our study also identifies risk factors for their occurrence. This may prove useful in designing screening studies for renal tumors in this patient population.

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    • "Indeed, when data were not available in the national registries, information was extracted from regional registries or from neighboring countries. In other studies, only one type of cancer was specifically studied[10,11]. Moreover, unlike our study, they did not take into account the patients' clinical characteristics (comorbidities, BMI, serum albumin and hemoglobin)[5,12,13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: End-stage renal disease is a chronic and progressive pathology associated with several comorbidities, particularly diabetes. Indeed, diabetes is the first cause of end-stage renal disease and, in France, 42% of incident patients had diabetes in 2012. In the general population, diabetes is associated with increased cancer risk. The aim of this study was to examine the association between risk of cancer death and diabetes in a large French cohort of patients with end-stage renal disease. Data on all patients with end-stage renal disease who initiated dialysis in France between 2002 and 2009 were extracted from the Renal Epidemiology Information Network registry. The risk of dying by cancer was studied using the Fine and Gray model to take into account the competing risk of death by other causes. We analyzed 39,811 patients with end-stage renal disease. Their mean age was 67.7±15 years, 39.4% had diabetes and 55.3% at least one cardiovascular disease. Compared with the non-diabetic group, patients with diabetes were older and had more cardiovascular and respiratory comorbidities when they started dialysis. Conversely, fewer diabetic patients had also a tumor at the beginning of the renal replacement therapy. Cancer was indicated as the cause of death for 6.7% of diabetic and 13.4% of non-diabetic patients. The Fine and Gray multivariate analyses indicated that diabetes (HR=0.72 95% CI: [0.68-0.95], p<0.001) and also female gender, peritoneal dialysis, cardio-vascular disease and kidney transplantation were associated with decreased risk of death by cancer. In this French cohort of patients with end-stage renal disease, diabetes was not associated with a significant increased risk of dying from cancer. Studies on the incidence of cancer in patients with ESRD are now needed to evaluate the potential association between diabetes and specific malignancies in this population.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Several factors could contribute to this higher prevalence, including depressed host immunity [6], impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms, increased synthesis of reactive oxygen [7] [8], and acquired renal cystic formation [9]. On the contrary, the biological behavior of RCC related to ESRD (ESRD-RCC) is generally reported to be less aggressive than that of RCC in the general population [3] [10]. However, the natural history and the prognosis of ESRD-RCC still remain unclear, with limited data from only a few small and noncomparative RCC series on dialysis patients or renal transplant patients or both [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Previous studies have reported that elevated pretreatment C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with poor outcome in various malignancies, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC), in the general population. However, there is no evidence of such an association in dialysis patients. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the prognostic significance of preoperative serum CRP levels in patients with RCC related to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring hemodialysis (HD). Materials and methods: We evaluated 315 patients with ESRD requiring HD who underwent nephrectomy for RCC as the first-line treatment at our hospital from 1982 to 2013. Complete patient- and tumor-specific characteristics as well as preoperative CRP levels were assessed. We defined a serum CRP level >0.5mg/dl as elevated and divided these patients into 2 groups according to their preoperative CRP levels (CRP≤0.5 and >0.5mg/dl). The median follow-up was 51 months. Results: Preoperative CRP levels were elevated in 75 patients (23.8%). The Kaplan-Meier 5-year cancer-specific survival rates were 95.2% and 69.9% in patients with CRP levels≤0.5 and>0.5mg/dl, respectively (P<0.0001). Multivariate analysis identified preoperative CRP level as an independent predictor for cancer-specific survival, along with a pathological TNM stage and tumor grade (CRP>0.5: hazard ratio = 3.47; 95% CI: 1.35-9.18; P = 0.0098). The concordance index of multivariable base models increased after including the preoperative CRP levels. Conclusions: Preoperative serum CRP level might be an independent predictor of postoperative survival in patients with RCC related to ESRD requiring HD. Its routine use, together with the TNM classification and tumor grade, could allow better risk stratification and risk-adjusted follow-up of these patients.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Urologic Oncology
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    • "Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), which is commonly associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), also has been reported as a condition predisposing patients to an increased risk of RCC [2]. However, data from the literature are limited to a few small and noncomparative RCC series in dialysed patients [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] and in renal transplant patients [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16]. These studies have individually suggested specific clinical, pathologic, or outcome features for ESRD native renal tumours. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To compare the prognoses associated with positive surgical margins (PSMs) according to their urethral, ureteric and/or soft tissue locations in patients with pN0 M0 bladder cancer who have not undergone neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and methods: A retrospective, case-control study was conducted between 1991 and 2011 using data from 17 academic centres in France. A total of 154 patients (cases) with PSMs met the eligibility criteria and were matched according to centre, pT stage, gender, age and urinary diversion method with a population-based sample of 154 patients (controls) from 3651 patients who had undergone cystectomies. The median follow-up period was 23.9 months. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to test the effects of PSMs on local recurrence (LR)-free survival, metastatic recurrence (MR)-free survival and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Results: The 5-year LR-free survival and CSS rates of patients with urethral and soft tissue PSMs were lower than those in the control group. A significant decrease in CSS was associated with soft tissue PSMs (P = 0.003, odds ratio = 0.425, 95% confidence interval 0.283-0.647). The prognosis was not affected in cases of ureteric PSMs. Conclusions: Soft tissue PSMs were associated with poor CSS rates in patients with pN0 M0 bladder cancer. A correlation between urethrectomy and a reduction of the risk of LR in a urethral PSM setting was observed.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · BJU International
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