Prevalence of renal cell carcinoma in patients with ESRD pre-transplantation: A pathologic analysis
Acquired renal cystic disease (ARCD), renal adenoma (AD), and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are more common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the prevalence of these conditions in patients undergoing transplantation, and the clinical characteristics associated with their occurrence are unclear. At our institution, the majority of patients undergo an ipsilateral native nephrectomy at the time of transplantation, providing a unique opportunity to study the prevalence and pathology of ARCD, AD and RCC in ESRD. We retrospectively reviewed all consecutive nephrectomy pathology reports over a six year period. Demographic and clinical characteristics associated with these lesions were identified. Two hundred and sixty nephrectomy reports were reviewed: ARCD, AD, RCC and oncocytoma were found in 33%, 14%, 4.2% and 0.6% of cases, respectively. On multivariable analysis, ARCD was positively associated with male sex and longer dialysis duration and negatively associated with peritoneal dialysis. Similarly, AD was positively associated with male sex, longer dialysis duration and greater age. There was a trend for RCC cases to share similar associations although the small total number of cases precluded findings of statistical significance. By pathologic analysis, renal tumors are more common in the pre-transplant ESRD population than previously reported (using radiologic methods). Our study also identifies risk factors for their occurrence. This may prove useful in designing screening studies for renal tumors in this patient population.