Schlaggar BL, Brown TT, Lugar HM, Visscher KM, Miezin FM and Petersen SD. Functional neuroanatomical differences between adults and school-age children in the processing of single words

Department of Neurology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
Science (Impact Factor: 33.61). 06/2002; 296(5572):1476-9. DOI: 10.1126/science.1069464
Source: PubMed


A critical issue in developmental cognitive neuroscience is the extent to which the functional neuroanatomy underlying task
performance differs in adults and children. Direct comparisons of brain activation in the left frontal and extrastriate cortex
were made in adults and children (aged 7 to 10 years) performing single-word processing tasks with visual presentation; differences
were found in circumscribed frontal and extrastriate regions. Conceivably, these differences could be attributable exclusively
to performance discrepancies; alternatively, maturational differences in functional neuroanatomy could exist despite similar
performance. Some of the brain regions examined showed differences attributable to age independent of performance, suggesting
that maturation of the pattern of regional activations for these tasks is incomplete at age 10.

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    • "Among the most left-lateralized language functions in typically developing individuals are syntactic [Friederici et al., 2010] and semantic processing [Binder et al., 1995; Seghier et al., 2004], word generation [Cuenod et al., 1995; Gaillard et al., 2003; Schlaggar et al., 2002] and speech production [Devlin and Watkins, 2007], speech perception [Dehaene- Lambertz et al., 2002; Frost et al., 1999], and auditory word comprehension [Zahn et al., 2000] and phonological encoding [Coney, 2002; Shaywitz et al., 1995]. In the motor domain, the planning of complex, sequential movements [Haaland et al., 2004; Schluter et al., 1998; Verstynen et al., 2005], bimanual coordination [J€ ancke et al., 2003; Serrien et al., 2003], praxis and tool use [Bohlhalter et al., 2009; Kr oliczak and Frey, 2009], fine motor skills (as expressed by handedness) and response selection [Weissman and Banich, 2000] are more strongly mediated by the left hemisphere. "
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    ABSTRACT: In humans, both language and fine motor skills are associated with left-hemisphere specialization, whereas visuospatial skills are associated with right-hemisphere specialization. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) show a profile of deficits and strengths that involves these lateralized cognitive functions. Here we test the hypothesis that regions implicated in these functions are atypically rightward lateralized in individuals with ASC and, that such atypicality is associated with functional performance. Participants included 67 male, right-handed adults with ASC and 69 age- and IQ-matched neurotypical males. We assessed group differences in structural asymmetries in cortical regions of interest with voxel-based analysis of grey matter volumes, followed by correlational analyses with measures of language, motor and visuospatial skills. We found stronger rightward lateralization within the inferior parietal lobule and reduced leftward lateralization extending along the auditory cortex comprising the planum temporale, Heschl's gyrus, posterior supramarginal gyrus, and parietal operculum, which was more pronounced in ASC individuals with delayed language onset compared to those without. Planned correlational analyses showed that for individuals with ASC, reduced leftward asymmetry in the auditory region was associated with more childhood social reciprocity difficulties. We conclude that atypical cerebral structural asymmetry is a potential candidate neurophenotype of ASC. Hum Brain Mapp, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Human Brain Mapping
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    • "In addition to the aforementioned reasoning, further consideration of the age of their sample and the fact that cognitive neuroscience research indicates differences between how adults and children process verbal information (e.g., Schlaggar et al., 2002), it is likely that the generalizability of Zourbanos et al.'s (2013) findings remain somewhat limited. In the present study, we build off Zourbanos et al.'s study to examine the effectiveness of using instructional self-talk versus motivational self-talk for skilled adult athletes utilizing a complex, real-life outcome based motor skill; accuracy of free kick goal kicking in Gaelic football. "
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    ABSTRACT: This research examined the relative effectiveness of instructional versus motivational self-talk for skilled athletes. Forty Gaelic footballers completed a shooting accuracy task with their dominant and nondominant feet. Results indicated significantly more accurate performance when executing the task using the dominant foot and motivational as compared to instructional self-talk. No difference emerged between the two types of self-talk within the nondominant foot condition. Results challenge the widely held view that instructional self-talk is most effective for accuracy-based tasks and should prompt practitioners to consider the skill level of their clients when constructing self-talk interventions.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Applied Sport Psychology
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    • "The present finding that the left IFG was identified not only in adult but also in child studies is in line with the results of the meta-analysis on child reading by Houdé et al. (2010), which identified very similar peaks in left IFG and PRG regions. In developmental studies, the typical pattern is reliable left IFG engagement even in the early stages of reading acquisition (e.g., Church et al., 2008, Gaillard et al., 2003) and increase of engagement with increasing age (Bitan et al., 2007b; Booth et al., 2003, 2004; Brown et al., 2005; Schlaggar et Fabio Richlan 25 al., 2002; Shaywitz et al., 2002; Turkeltaub et al., 2003). Our meta-analysis showed that the peak of the age-related increase was not located in the IFG proper but in the most dorsal part of the left inferior frontal cluster corresponding to the PRG. "
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    ABSTRACT: We used quantitative, coordinate-based meta-analysis to objectively synthesize age-related commonalities and differences in brain activation patterns reported in 40 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of reading in children and adults. Twenty fMRI studies with adults (age means: 23–34 years) were matched to 20 studies with children (age means: 7–12 years). The separate meta-analyses of these two sets showed a pattern of reading-related brain activation common to children and adults in left ventral occipito-temporal (OT), inferior frontal, and posterior parietal regions. The direct statistical comparison between the two meta-analytic maps of children and adults revealed higher convergence in studies with children in left superior temporal and bilateral supplementary motor regions. In contrast, higher convergence in studies with adults was identified in bilateral posterior OT/cerebellar and left dorsal precentral regions. The results are discussed in relation to current neuroanatomical models of reading and tentative functional interpretations of reading-related activation clusters in children and adults are provided. Hum Brain Mapp, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Human Brain Mapping
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