Sarcomatoid variant of anaplastic large cell lymphoma mimicking a primary breast cancer: A challenging diagnosis
The sarcomatoid variant of anaplastic large cell lymphoma is one of the rarest histologic variants of this neoplasm. Due to its sarcomatoid features, it is frequently misdiagnosed as a poorly differentiated sarcoma, anaplastic carcinoma, or melanoma. We report the case of a 92-year-old woman with a sarcomatoid anaplastic large cell lymphoma mimicking a primary breast neoplasm. The patient presented with a rapidly enlarging lump in the left breast and nodules in the right axilla. The immunohistochemical profile showed reactivity for leukocyte common antigen, UCHL-1, vimentin, and CD30, but immunoexpression of anaplastic lymphoma kinase was lacking. Anaplastic large cell lymphomas are lymphoid neoplasms of T-cell/null-cell lineage that consistently express the activation marker CD30 and usually carry a gene rearrangement of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of sarcomatoid anaplastic large cell lymphoma presenting as a primary breast neoplasm in which anaplastic lymphoma kinase expression was assessed.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Preliminary data shows that ALK-1 positivity is one of the most important predictors of prognosis in ALCL and is associated with favorable prognosis. In the eleven primary cases of ALCL, two cases were ALK-1 positive, [12,13] six were ALK-1 negative and in the remaining three cases the result of ALK was not known [9,11,14-17]. Our case was ALK negative and by molecular analysis demonstrated a T-cell phenotype. "
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ABSTRACT: Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) of the breast represents 0.04-0.5% of malignant lesions of the breast and accounts for 1.7-2.2% of extra-nodal NHL. Most primary cases are of B-cell phenotype and only rare cases are of T-cell phenotype. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare T-cell lymphoma typically seen in children and young adults with the breast being one of the least common locations. There are a total of eleven cases of primary ALCL of the breast described in the literature. Eight of these cases occurred in proximity to breast implants, four in relation to silicone breast implant and three in relation to saline filled breast implant with three out of the eight implant related cases having previous history of breast cancer treated surgically. Adjuvant postoperative chemotherapy is given in only one case. Secondary hematological malignancies after breast cancer chemotherapy have been reported in literature. However in contrast to acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the association between lymphoma and administration of chemotherapy has never been clearly demonstrated.
In this report we present a case of primary ALCL of the breast arising in reconstruction mammoplasty capsule of saline filled breast implant after radical mastectomy for infiltrating ductal carcinoma followed by postoperative chemotherapy twelve years ago.
Primary ALK negative ALCL arising at the site of saline filled breast implant is rare. It is still unclear whether chemotherapy and breast implantation increases risk of secondary hematological malignancies significantly. However, it is important to be aware of these complications and need for careful pathologic examination of tissue removed for implant related complications to make the correct diagnosis for further patient management and treatment. It is important to be aware of this entity at this site as it can be easily misdiagnosed on histologic grounds and to exclude sarcomatoid carcinoma, malignant melanoma and pleomorphic sarcoma by an appropriate panel of immunostains to arrive at the correct diagnosis of ALCL.
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ABSTRACT: We report a highly unusual case of a pregnant woman presenting with induration and subsequent skin ulceration of the breast. A wedge biopsy led to the definitive diagnosis of a rare type of primary systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma of T-cell phenotype involving the skin.
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