Article

Cultural Teaching: The Development of Teaching Skills in Maya Sibling Interactions

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Abstract

Psychology has considered the development of learning, but the development of teaching in childhood has not been considered. The data presented in this article demonstrate that children develop teaching skills over the course of middle childhood. Seventy-two Maya children (25 boys, 47 girls) ranging in age from 3 to 11 years (M = 6.8 years) were videotaped in sibling caretaking interactions with their 2-year-old brothers and sisters (18 boys, 18 girls). In the context of play, older siblings taught their younger siblings how to do everyday tasks such as washing and cooking. Ethnographic observations, discourse analyses, and quantification of discourse findings showed that children's teaching skills increased over the course of middle childhood. By the age of 4 years, children took responsibility for initiating teaching situations with their toddler siblings. By the age of 8 years, children were highly skilled in using talk combined with manual demonstrations, verbal feedback, explanations, and guiding the body of younger learners. Children's developing competence in teaching helped their younger siblings increase their participation in culturally important tasks.

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... . The sibling teaching literature focuses mainly on the teacher's role, with less attention to the learner's role during both naturalistic interactions and semi-structured teaching paradigms (e.g., Azmitia & Hesser, 1993;Howe et al., 2017;Maynard, 2002). Imitation is an important process in learning a range of behavioral repertoires and is observed during sibling teaching (Azmitia, 1996;Fenstermacher & Saudino, 2006). ...
... Teaching and learning are an active, dyadic process evident during semistructured tasks and naturalistic interactions (Azmitia & Hesser, 1993;Howe et al., 2017;Maynard, 2002;Pérez-Granados & Callanan, 1997). Strauss et al. (2002) argue that teaching is a natural cognitive activity because no one teaches children how to teach. ...
... There is a small literature on sibling teaching during naturalistic interactions of North American families at home or the play of Mayan children Maynard, 2002). In early childhood, Howe et al. (2017) reported that the frequency of sibling teaching increased more than three-fold over two years. ...
Article
The sibling relationship represents a unique bond characterized by a high degree of closeness and intimacy, which fosters teaching and learning. Two studies investigated associations between sibling-directed teaching, imitation as a learning strategy, and learner involvement during a semi-structured, video-taped construction task. Study 1 also examined associations with the teacher’s Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities; Study 2 focused on associations with birth order and sibling relationship quality. In both studies, siblings ranged from preschool-age to the cusp of middle childhood (Study 1 n = 61; Study 2 n = 72). Findings across both studies indicated that learners engaged in significantly more nonverbal than verbal imitation and imitation was predominately immediate and not deferred. Teachers responded to both verbal and nonverbal learner imitation positively, corrected, or did not respond. In Study 1, learner task involvement was predicted by learner age and nonverbal imitation, while teaching strategies that were positively related to the teacher’s ToM abilities were associated with learner imitation. In Study 2, younger siblings’ reports of a positive sibling relationship were significantly associated with learner imitation. Birth order differences were only evident for younger (but not older) sibling learner imitation and task involvement. Findings are discussed in light of relationships and social constructivist theories of development.
... Another possibility is that the observed trajectory is simply typical of the ontogeny of teaching in small-scale societies. This idea is backed up by an older observational study with Maya children (Maynard 2002). When taking care of younger siblings, Maya children taught them how to perform everyday tasks (Maynard 2002). ...
... This idea is backed up by an older observational study with Maya children (Maynard 2002). When taking care of younger siblings, Maya children taught them how to perform everyday tasks (Maynard 2002). By age 4, children started to initiate teaching, and by the age of 8, children used verbal explanations and feedback combined with demonstrations, along with physically intervening in the learner's behaviour (Maynard 2002). ...
... When taking care of younger siblings, Maya children taught them how to perform everyday tasks (Maynard 2002). By age 4, children started to initiate teaching, and by the age of 8, children used verbal explanations and feedback combined with demonstrations, along with physically intervening in the learner's behaviour (Maynard 2002). Children aged 3-5 used some commands but did not use much combined teaching or verbal feedback, and no explanations (Maynard 2002). ...
Thesis
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Link to ePrint: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10138335 While culture is common in the animal kingdom, cumulative culture appears to be limited to humans. Research suggests that this is due to (1) our advanced social cognition, in particular joint attention and Theory of Mind; and (2) our reliance on high-fidelity mechanisms of social learning such as teaching. However, some have argued that these mechanisms are themselves culturally transmitted, vary across cultures, and that contact with Western norms and institutions reshapes cognition in small-scale societies. These proposals require us to test whether developmental trajectories observed in industrialized populations translate to other societies. To this end, I examine the development of Theory of Mind and teaching among children living in rural areas of Vanuatu. In Chapter 2, I combine results from participant observations and informal interviews to explore the ethnographic context. I examine kinship systems, childrearing practices, and worldviews, and discuss how they relate to folk models of the mind and cultural transmission. In Chapter 3, I examine the development of Theory of Mind and mental state talk. Consistent with the idea that Theory of Mind is culturally learnt, the results diverge from Western findings. However, they also contradict earlier studies and point to methodological challenges, urging more caution in the interpretation of cross-cultural work. In Chapter 4, I examine the development of teaching. The results diverge from Western findings, with children’s teaching reflecting local norms and perceptions of cultural transmission. This suggests that while teaching as such is developmentally reliable, specific teaching styles, along with the way we conceptualize teaching, may be culturally learnt. In Chapter 5, I explore various socio-economic and demographic trends associated with ‘modernization’, such as market integration, formal education, overseas travel, and household structure, documenting considerable heterogeneity. However, I failed to find support for the idea that transformations associated with ‘Westernization’ shift children’s cognitive development.
... Children's ability to teach one another during a variety of semistructured tasks is evident by age 3. Child-child teaching becomes more effective with development as siblings begin to employ a range of both direct instruction and guided participation strategies (Azmitia & Hesser, 1993;Howe & Recchia, 2009;Klein, Feldman, & Zarur, 2002;Strauss & Ziv, 2012). Preschoolage teachers typically employ demonstration strategies (e.g., how to construct a toy), whereas school-age teachers are more likely to engage in a learner-centered or guided participation approach (e.g., structuring the task, providing explanations and hints, relaying verbal instructions; Howe & Recchia, 2009;Maynard, 2002;Strauss & Ziv, 2012). This growing sophistication in teaching has been supported in semistructured paradigms where both older and younger siblings were assigned teaching roles by a researcher (Azmitia & Hesser, 1993;Howe, Recchia, Della Porta, & Funamoto, 2012). ...
... One early study documented that first-born, schoolage siblings in female pairs engaged in the most teaching during naturalistic ongoing interaction at home (Stoneman, Brody, & MacKinnon, 1986), whereas Mayan children were observed teaching younger siblings about domestic and cultural tasks (e.g., cooking) during play (Maynard, 2002(Maynard, , 2004Rabain-Jamin, Maynard, & Greenfield, 2003). In a series of studies, Howe and colleagues (2015;Howe, Adrien, et al., 2016;) also investigated naturally occurring sibling teaching and children's use of a variety of sophisticated strategies in a short-term longitudinal study at time 1 (T1; ages 2 and 4) and again at time 2 (T2; ages 4 and 6). ...
... As expected, older and younger siblings did not contribute equally to the teaching exchanges. Asymmetries of expertise and knowledge generally favor the older child (Abuhatoum et al., 2016;Dunn, 1983;Frye & Ziv, 2005), thus our prediction that older siblings would assume a greater proportion of teaching responsibilities was in line with the literature Maynard, 2002Maynard, , 2004Stoneman et al., 1986). Nevertheless, we highlight that the proportion of teaching by younger children increased significantly at T2, which likely represents their developing cognitive and teaching skills (Strauss & Ziv, 2012) and exposure to the home language and literacy environment created by their older sibling and parents (Dunn & Shatz, 1989;Gregory 1998Gregory , 2001Sénéchal & LeFevre, 2002). ...
Article
Research on the home literacy environment has typically involved parents as teachers with little attention given to siblings’ roles in teaching each other. This study examines naturalistic language and literacy teaching by 39 sibling dyads, at two timepoints, when children were ages 2 and 4 (time 1; T1) and again at ages 4 and 6 (time 2; T2). Each family was observed for a total of six 90-minute sessions at both timepoints. First, all sibling-directed teaching sequences were identified, including instances of formal and informal teaching. Second, sequences were coded for evidence of language (i.e., vocabulary, book concepts, songs, phonological awareness) and literacy concepts (i.e., alphabetic principle, reading, writing, spelling). Over 40% of the T1 and T2 teaching sequences involved language and literacy concepts. Older siblings taught the majority of the time at T1 and T2; however, the number of sequences taught by younger siblings increased proportionally over time. Because siblings taught vocabulary concepts significantly most often at both T1 and T2, further analyses were conducted on vocabulary subcategories (i.e., expansion, discussing pictures, relaying word meaning, checking for listener understanding, second-language instruction). Significantly more teaching sequences involved expansion than other vocabulary subcategories at both timepoints. Finally, at T2, literacy concepts (i.e., writing, spelling) were taught significantly more than at T1. Our findings demonstrate that siblings are interested in teaching each other a variety of language and literacy concepts during naturalistic interactions in the home, indicating that siblings contribute to the richness of the home literacy environment.
... Teaching is a ubiquitous process of knowledge transmission in diverse cultural settings (Boyette & Hewlett, 2017a,b;Kline, Boyd, & Henrich, 2013;Maynard, 2002), and has theoretically been tied to the evolution of cumulative culture because it is hypothesized to increase the learning fidelity of hard to acquire information (Castro & Toro, 2014;Fogarty, Strimling, & Laland, 2011). In industrialized societies, where learning in schools is normative, adults are usually perceived to be the primary teachers of children (Rogoff, Matusov, & White, 1996), with child-to-child teaching occurring in some informal settings, such as in the playground (Corsaro & Eder, 1990). ...
... Thus, if older siblings teach younger siblings to forage, they may increase their own potential share of parental resources. Evidence for the prevalence of sibling teaching was found among the Maya (Maynard, 2002;Maynard & Tovote, 2009;Zarger, 2002), Aka, and Ngandu (Boyette & Hewlett, 2017a). Taking subsistence skills as its focal point, the present study investigated the kinship relationship between teachers and learners, including siblings. ...
... The specific teaching behaviors coded during observations were modelled after similar coding schemes (Boyette & Hewlett, 2017a;Childs & Greenfield, 1980;Kline, 2015Kline, , 2016Maynard, 2002) and are described in Table S1. The first teaching event which occurred in the 30-second-observation window was recorded. ...
Article
Teaching is cross-culturally widespread but few studies have considered children as teachers as well as learners. This is surprising, since forager children spend much of their time playing and foraging in child-only groups, and thus, have access to many potential child teachers. Using the Social Relations Model, we examined the prevalence of child-to-child teaching using focal follow data from 35 Hadza and 38 BaYaka 3- to 18-year-olds. We investigated the effect of age, sex and kinship on the teaching of subsistence skills. We found that child-to-child teaching was more frequent than adult-child teaching. Additionally, children taught more with age, teaching was more likely to occur within same-sex versus opposite-sex dyads, and close kin were more likely to teach than non-kin. The Hadza and BaYaka also showed distinct learning patterns; teaching was more likely to occur between sibling dyads among the Hadza than among the BaYaka, and a multistage learning model where younger children learn from peers, and older children from adults, was evident for the BaYaka, but not for the Hadza. We attribute these differences to subsistence and settlement patterns. These findings highlight the role of children in the intergenerational transmission of subsistence skills.
... Children have also been described as natural teachers, because their motivation and capacity to transmit information and knowledge appears early in life, and follows a developmental path even in the absence of explicit instruction about Bhow to teach^ (Akagi 2012, Ashley and Tomasello 1998, Bonawitz et al. 2011, Calero et al. 2015, Corriveau and Harris 2009, Davis-Unger and Carlson 2008, Eaves and Shafto 2012, Gweon et al. 2014, Harris & Corriveau 2011, Knudsen and Liszkowski 2012, Köymen et al. 2015, Sperber et al. 2010, Strauss 2005, 2018, Strauss and Ziv 2012, Strauss et al. 2002, Tomasello 2009). Moreover, growing evidence supports the existence of teaching across cultures and societies, including contemporary traditional societies of hunter-gatherers and agro-pastoralists (Hewlett et al. 2011;Kline 2013Kline , 2015Kline et al. 2013;Lancy & Grove 2010;Maynard 2002Maynard , 2004Maynard and Greenfield 2005;Paradise & Rogoff 2009). ...
... Spontaneous engagement in teaching younger siblings has also been observed among Zinacantec Maya populations in Chiapas, with children teaching skills such as how to prepare tortillas and how to take care of dolls in the context of everyday chores (Maynard 2002(Maynard , 2004. Changes have been observed in the modalities of teaching (but not in time spent at teaching), with children aged 3 to 5 years mostly sitting side by side and providing the younger sibling a task to perform, and older children giving more feedback, engaging more in explanations, commands, guidance of the learner's body, etc.. ...
... Changes have been observed in the modalities of teaching (but not in time spent at teaching), with children aged 3 to 5 years mostly sitting side by side and providing the younger sibling a task to perform, and older children giving more feedback, engaging more in explanations, commands, guidance of the learner's body, etc.. A significant difference is observed between children aged 5 to 7 years and children aged 8 to 11 years, the latter but not the former engaging significantly more in talk with demonstration than the 3-5-yearold group (Maynard 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
This editorial is intended to provide a broad overview of current approaches to teaching as a cognitive ability, as well as a background to the articles of the present special issue.The contributions are from the fields of developmental psychology, archaeology,anthropology, comparative cognition, robotics and artificial intelligence. So broad is the range of disciplines that need to be mobilized in order to characterize and under-stand human teaching. (PDF) Introduction: Teaching and its Building Blocks. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329408407_Introduction_Teaching_and_its_Building_Blocks [accessed Dec 07 2018].
... In particular, research conducted with indigenous and rural populations has shown that older children perform caregiving and socialization tasks for young children (Maynard, 2002;Whiting & Edwards 1988;Whiting & Whiting 1975) and that young children's interactions are in fact not dyadic but involve multiple participants of various ages (León, 1998;Ochs & Schieffelin, 1984;Rabain-Jamin, 1998, 2001. However, these studies have not addressed the extent to which interventions by children of various ages contribute to shaping the linguistic environment of young children in their home context. ...
... Although the contribution of other children to the linguistic environment of young children has not been specifically analysed, certain social practices that shape daily relationships between young children and other children in various communities have been studied. In cultures where taking care of siblings is a valued practice, such as in the Maya Zinacantec community, Maynard (2002) has observed that very early on, at four years of age, children perform some caregiving tasks for their younger siblings and that by the age of eight years they already use more complex linguistic resources to guide the younger children in the various practices of the community. In Argentina, García Palacios et al. (2015) studied both Qom indigenous groups living in a suburban neighbourhood of Buenos Aires and Mbyá Guaraní indigenous communities in the Misiones province, finding that when children begin to walk they acquire a certain independence from adults that allows them to leave their home and join groups of mixed-age children that move about the community. ...
... Given that some studies have shown that social groups are not homogeneous and instead have high intragroup variability, particularly groups from low socioeconomic status (Kuchirko & Tamis-LeMonda, 2019;, we wondered about the particular group characteristics that could help account for the frequency of interactions between children and from there, the amount of speech young children hear from other children. Previous literature has indicated differences in the amount of children who are cared for by their older siblings depending on the place of residence -rural or urban - (Vogt, Mastin, & Aussems, 2015) as well as the ethnic variable (Alcalá et al., 2014;Maynard, 2002). In the analysed sample, the level of urbanization varies among the families comprising the low socioeconomic area group. ...
Article
Full-text available
This present research analyses the linguistic environmental setting in homes of children under the age of two years from different social groups and looks at the extent to which the speech from other children contributes to shaping that environment. The corpus includes recordings of spontaneous speech from middle-class households in residential urban areas, from lower socioeconomic classes in marginalized urban areas and from impoverished semi-rural areas. Beta regressions were used to estimate whether place of residence could explain the proportion of words from other children that were directed, as well as those that were not directed, towards the child under study. The results showed that children from impoverished semi-rural areas and children from residential areas hear a higher proportion of non-directed words than children from marginalized urban areas. However, when child-directed speech is considered, the two lower socioeconomic groups, urban and semi-rural, hear a higher proportion of words than their residential peers. These results reveal heterogeneity within social groups.
... Some have argued that families with more children have worse educational outcomes for all children, due to the "resource dilution" hypothesis (e.g. having fewer resources [time, money, etc] to devote to each child) [15], while others posit that older siblings might play a mentorship role for younger children [19,39]. It is thus not clear how other family members might impact children's literacy, particularly less literate family members. ...
... Prior work on early literacy at home often focuses exclusively on the role of the parents [30,32,55], and presents conflicting hypotheses for the benefits of other family members (e.g. siblings) on children's literacy [15,19,39]. In contrast, we find here that families in rural communities in Côte d'Ivoire often leverage support networks of multiple adults and siblings (i.e. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Low levels of childhood literacy in global contexts may be mitigated by educational technologies, however, these technologies often rely on parents of sufficient literacy to effectively support their children. Given low levels of adult literacy in many low-resource contexts, we investigate the nature of low-literate adult support for children's use of a literacy technology designed to foster early literacy precursors. We deployed an interactive voice response (IVR) system with 38 families in a rural village in Côte d'Ivoire using the IVR for 5 weeks in their homes. Using call log data and grounded theory analyses of IVR observations and interviews, we find evidence that families leverage complex support networks where family members support children's use of the IVR in different ways, via a collective network of intermediaries. These results suggest opportunities to scaffold low-literate family supporters for educational technologies.
... Early research with young children showed that already at the age of 7 years siblings can be efficient teachers and that they become even more efficient teachers in middle childhood and preadolescence years as their metacognitive skills become more developed (Cicirelli, 1995;Weisner, 1989). Maynard (2002) for example showed that older siblings in Maya culture learned how to adapt their teaching strategies to both the skill level of their young siblings and the type of task used. Their teaching strategies were characterized by "scaffolding" skills (e.g., use of talk with demonstration, evaluations, and explanations) and that they could adapt their communication to the developmental level of the young sibling (e.g., understanding child's perspective, provision of necessary information, direct instruction, decreasing of use of commands). ...
... Their teaching strategies were characterized by "scaffolding" skills (e.g., use of talk with demonstration, evaluations, and explanations) and that they could adapt their communication to the developmental level of the young sibling (e.g., understanding child's perspective, provision of necessary information, direct instruction, decreasing of use of commands). Early research shows that older siblings serve as meaningful role models to their younger siblings, thus affecting their cognitive, social, and emotional development (e.g., Abramovitch, Stanhope, Pepler, & Corter, 1987;Azmitia & Hesser, 1993;Dunn & Kendrick, 1982;Lillard, 2018;Maynard, 2002;Meisner & Fisher, 1980;Montessori, 2004;Youngblade & Belsky, 1995). Stoneman (2009) claimed that sibling interaction relies on adoption of asymmetric yet reciprocal roles (e.g., teacher versus learner) as well as on permitting practice of familiar roles yet allowing experimenting with novel skills. ...
... During this process, older siblings take on active roles and responsibilities such as supervising and taking care of their younger siblings as well as passing on knowledge about hunting and gathering to them. A similar study on the interaction process between siblings was conducted by Maynard (2002), with 3-11 age group children in Zinacantec Maya communities. In his study, Maynard (2002) investigated sibling interaction ethnographically in Zinacantec Maya communities and indicated that olders siblings encourage younger ones to do typical activities in their culture during care giving and provide them with materials to give them a chance to try easy tasks. ...
... A similar study on the interaction process between siblings was conducted by Maynard (2002), with 3-11 age group children in Zinacantec Maya communities. In his study, Maynard (2002) investigated sibling interaction ethnographically in Zinacantec Maya communities and indicated that olders siblings encourage younger ones to do typical activities in their culture during care giving and provide them with materials to give them a chance to try easy tasks. When sibling parenting is considered from ethnic socialization point of view, both the care giver and the care taker contribute to ethnic socialization of each other (Zukow, 1989). ...
Article
This article examines the processes of participation of children living in the Bajau Laut sea gypsies community in daily life activities. The subject of the study, the Bajau Laut, is one of the last sea nomadic communities. This research is planned as a case study which is one of the qualitative research methods. The data of this research were collected through observation, photographing and researcher diary in a one month period in the context of the research. In the Bajau Laut sea gypsies community, children appear to be involved in livelihoods from an early age and adapt to the ecological contexts of children's livelihoods and playgrounds. This cohesion between the community's livelihood activities, children's games and contexts reveals that children in the cultural community determine their development and learning niche.
... Experiencing little age segregation, they spent most of their time interacting with members of their extended family. This pattern has also been found in other studies of Maya children (Gaskins, 2000(Gaskins, , 2006Maynard 2002). ...
... As they were growing older, they learned to prepare food, sew and embroider, wash and hang up clothes, scrub floors, and occasionally feed fowl and pigs. Girls merely a few years old were already responsible for taking care of their still younger siblings and over time learned how to guide them (Maynard, 2002). Just a bit later, they began to contribute to field work in addition to their domestic work. ...
Book
Cambridge Core - Cultural Psychology - Global Changes in Children's Lives - by Uwe P. Gielen
... Ethnographic research indicates that in several indigenous communities, there is a strong emphasis on working together cooperatively to accomplish joint tasks, which fosters a sense of group responsibility and a sense of individuality and freedom (Maynard, 2002;Mosier & Rogoff, 2003;Rogoff, 2003). Children in indigenous communities typically share family work responsibilities and voluntarily contribute to joint tasks in a more fluid manner, that is, without needing adult managing (Gaskins, 1999;Greenfield, 1984;Maynard, 2002). ...
... Ethnographic research indicates that in several indigenous communities, there is a strong emphasis on working together cooperatively to accomplish joint tasks, which fosters a sense of group responsibility and a sense of individuality and freedom (Maynard, 2002;Mosier & Rogoff, 2003;Rogoff, 2003). Children in indigenous communities typically share family work responsibilities and voluntarily contribute to joint tasks in a more fluid manner, that is, without needing adult managing (Gaskins, 1999;Greenfield, 1984;Maynard, 2002). Cross-cultural studies have shown remarkable differences in collaboration between Mayan and U.S. communities. ...
Article
Little is known about parents’ book-sharing styles in indigenous communities undergoing social and cultural change. This study investigated Guatemalan Mayan parents’ book-sharing styles and their relation to parents’ schooling experience and children's narrative contributions. Thirty parents and their first-grade children (ages 7–9) were audiotaped sharing a worded picture book. Most parents either adopted the role of the sole narrator (40%) or shared the role of the narrator with their children (40%); other parents focused on teaching literacy skills (20%). Guatemalan Mayan parents with greater schooling experience were more likely to adopt the sole-narrator style than other styles. Children whose parents adopted the sole-narrator style contributed significantly less to the story (both in amount and type of new information provided) than children whose parents adopted other styles. Implications for family literacy programs working with Guatemalan Mayan and other indigenous communities are discussed.
... Sib care is also important because it provides a way for children (most commonly, girls) to learn the skills of caretaking. Caretaking teaches forms of interdependence, play (Kheirkhah & Cekaite, 2017;Maynard, 2004), as well as responsible and nurturing behavior toward siblings (Maynard, 2002;Ochs, 1988;Rabain-Jamin et al., 2003;Schieffelin, 1990;Watson-Gegeo & Gegeo, 1989;Weisner, 1982, p. 311;Weisner & Gallimore, 1977;Zukow, 1989b). In the process of caretaking, siblings can also provide invaluable assistance by socializing younger family members into work and responsibility ( de León, 2012a;Maynard, 2002;Nuckolls, 1993) as well as forms of enskilment (de León, in press). ...
... Caretaking teaches forms of interdependence, play (Kheirkhah & Cekaite, 2017;Maynard, 2004), as well as responsible and nurturing behavior toward siblings (Maynard, 2002;Ochs, 1988;Rabain-Jamin et al., 2003;Schieffelin, 1990;Watson-Gegeo & Gegeo, 1989;Weisner, 1982, p. 311;Weisner & Gallimore, 1977;Zukow, 1989b). In the process of caretaking, siblings can also provide invaluable assistance by socializing younger family members into work and responsibility ( de León, 2012a;Maynard, 2002;Nuckolls, 1993) as well as forms of enskilment (de León, in press). While sibling care has been documented in diverse non-Western contexts and in immigrant working-class American contexts (Orellana, 2001), we know little about the contributions of siblings to caretaking in middle-class Western contexts. ...
Book
Embodied Family Choreography documents the lived and embodied practices employed to establish, maintain, and negotiate intimate social relationships in the family, examining forms of control, care, and creativity. Making use of extensive video archives of family interaction in the US and Sweden, it presents the first investigation of how touch and interaction, in conjunction with talk, constitute a primary means of orchestrating activities, revealing the important role touch plays in the context of contemporary Western middle class family life and shedding light on the ways in which the visual, aural, and haptic senses (usually analysed separately) mutually elaborate one another.
... The effect of imperatives seems to depend on the infants' language proficiency and the way in which they are used, with children just learning language profiting from the use of imperatives (Akhtar et al., 1991;Barnes et al., 1983). Additionally, requests for actions permit infants to participate more fully in interactions, for example, their older peers' games (Maynard, 2002;Rabain-Jamin, 2001). ...
... How sharing is encouraged without verbal instruction is an interesting topic for future research. Other authors have also pointed out that requests for actions enable infants to participate in others' activities (Maynard, 2002;Rabain-Jamin, 2001), which is another way of enhancing group cohesion. It is also possible that Hadza culture has changed recently, an interpretation which will be discussed in more detail in relation to RQ3. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study deals with speech acts addressed to Hadza infants in Tanzania, a group that has traditionally lived off hunting and gathering. Three research questions are addressed: How do Hadza speech acts compare with those found in previous studies in other cultures? Are there differences between child and adult speakers? And do speech acts differ with camp livelihood patterns? Speech acts are seen as a part of language socialization, which reflects overarching cultural values and socialization goals. The results indicate that Hadza infants experience many requests for action/imperatives—a way of expressing hierarchies—more than the infants in the comparative cultural communities, in spite of the fact that hunter–gatherers have been described as egalitarian in the past. Children’s and adults’ speech acts differ in several ways: adults use more requests for action and information (questions) with infants, while children use more assertives. Finally, the comparison of camp livelihoods revealed differences mainly between camps living off tourism and those that are more isolated from outside influence. The former use more imperatives, the latter more vocatives. The results are discussed in terms of cultural change toward more hierarchical structure related to livelihood activities, particularly tourism, and different activities that children and adults engage in when interacting with infants.
... Several empirical data have highlighted the necessity to study these dimensions separately because of their influence on developmental outcomes and socialization processes. Regarding this, affectionate and warm sibling relationships have been associated with the development of prosocial skills and behaviors, such as more efficient emotional understanding and regulating abilities (Howe, Aquan-Assee, Bukowski, & Rinaldi, 2001;Kennedy & Kramer, 2008), self-disclosure (Howe et al., 2001), ability to take on the perspective of others (Maynard, 2002), and sensitivity to the emotions and beliefs of others (Dunn, 1988). More than simply an association between sibling relationship and prosocial behavior, some research displayed that the sibling relationship affects prosocial behavior. ...
... In agreement with previous studies, these results underlined that positive sibling relationships, characterized by support, closeness, intimacy, and companionship, can offer daily opportunities to observe and experience behavior in a close relationship, representing an opportunity for more favorable and successful peer relationships (Downey & Condron, 2004;MacKinnon, Starnes, Volling, & Johnson, 1997). Sibling relationships characterized by positive and warm interaction represent an important context of socialization for children, where siblings can learn and practice prosocial skills related to the ability to understand their own and others' emotions, regulate their own emotions through control and modification of the expression of their own feelings, and consider others' emotional perspectives (Dunn, 1988;Howe et al., 2001;Howe & Recchia, 2008;Kennedy & Kramer, 2008;Maynard, 2002;Pike et al., 2005). These prosocial skills can improve the development of positive best friend relationships, characterized by higher levels of supportive and lower levels of conflictual interactions. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to explore whether the sibling condition (having a sibling) and sibling relationship quality affect prosocial behaviors and best friend relationship quality, deepening the mediating role of prosocial behaviors on the relationship between sibling relationship quality and best friend relationship quality. A sample of 310 children (161 males and 149 females) aged 8 to 11 years (M = 9.50, SD = 0.66) completed a battery of questionnaires. Results revealed that the sibling condition did not affect prosocial behaviors and best friend relationship quality. However, the quality of sibling relationships positively affected prosocial behaviors, which in turn positively influenced best friend relationship quality, supporting the mediator hypothesis. Limitations, strengths, and further development of the present study are discussed.
... Arnold (2016) has also highlighted the intergenerational dimensions of care in the distributed scaffolding that takes place between younger and older siblings and, in turn, between parents and children in the video recording of greetings that transnational Salvadoran families exchange as a form of circulating communicative care. The microethnographic examination of children's caregiving for siblings has similarly revealed how these care interactions often become contexts of intergenerational teaching and learning with important ramifications for both older and younger children (Maynard 2002, Rabain-Jamin et al. 2003, Zukow 1989. De León (2007León ( , 2015, in particular, has shown how Mayan siblings interactionally choreograph complex situated learning ecologies that not only meet immediate child care needs but also have important consequences for the long-term sustainability of linguistic and sociocultural practices in households and communities. ...
Article
Bringing together ethnographic approaches to childhood, linguistic anthropology, and relational–feminist perspectives on care, this review focuses on the role of children as interactional brokers of care, a role that has been underappreciated. Building from the premise that, through language, children perform a fundamental form of other-oriented care—that of mediating another person's ability to express themselves—this review explores the material, political, moral, and affective dimensions of children's interactional care work. Attention to the interactional–relational aspects of children's caregiving shows the extent to which children are involved in facilitating the circulation of care and enabling community care networks, and it opens up new possibilities for how we conceptualize care: It illuminates the processes through which care practices are organized, negotiated, and enacted at the intersection of the local and the global; it reveals care as a reciprocal, distributed interactional achievement; and it helps us transcend dichotomies that have characterized scholarly thinking about care.
... It should be acknowledged that our sample was limited to children reared within the United States; it is therefore unclear how our findings might generalize to other cultures. In some Mayan communities, for instance, children become proficient teachers at earlier ages than they do in Western cultures (Gaskins, 1999;Maynard, 2002; see also Shneidman, Gweon, Schulz, & Woodward, 2016). If ToM development and teaching abilities are indeed linked as we report here, this could have implications for how ToM develops across cultures where natural pedagogy emerges at different ages. ...
Preprint
Natural pedagogy emerges early in development, but good teaching requires tailoring evidence to learners’ knowledge. How does the ability to reason about others’ minds support early pedagogical evidence selection abilities? In three experiments (N = 205), we investigated preschool-aged children’s ability to consider others’ knowledge when selecting evidence in the service of teaching. Results from Experiment 1 revealed that four-year-olds reliably selected evidence to rectify others’ false beliefs, and provided causal explanations in their teaching, whereas three-year-olds did not. In Experiment 2, we tie children’s evidence selection abilities to Theory of Mind (ToM) development, above and beyond effects of age and numerical conservation abilities. In Experiment 3, we employed a 6-week training of children’s pedagogical evidence selection with a new teaching task, and further explored the relationship between these skills and children’s ToM abilities. We qualitatively replicated our results from Experiment 2, and report tentative evidence for a link between the pedagogical training and improvements in ToM. Together, our findings suggest important connections between reasoning about others’ minds and evidential reasoning in natural pedagogy in early childhood.
... There is considerable evidence that siblings are more patient and sympathetic mentors than adults (Maynard 2002). A contrasting pair of anecdotes is very revealing. ...
Chapter
Anthropologists take pains to distinguish the work children do in the context of rural, premodern communities where work is the means through which they learn to become a fully competent adult member of society and doing poorly paid hard labor in unsafe jobs with no future. The chapter details the cultural and economic forces that have fostered the spread of child labor in the past and present. Anthropology’s unique contribution to this discussion arises from an understanding of children’s place in a traditional gerontocracy and the fact that, from infancy, children incur a debt to those older for the care received when they were helpless dependents. So when families are resource poor, everyone, including the youngest, must work for all to survive.
... There is considerable evidence that siblings are more patient and sympathetic mentors than adults (Maynard 2002). A contrasting pair of anecdotes is very revealing. ...
Chapter
A major theme of this chapter is that, wherever we look in history or culture, we can find children working. Going beyond a simple catalog, Lancy explicates the learning processes that are implicated in the various skill domains. The chapter covers a very broad landscape in order to show what kinds of work children do and how the pairing between child and chore varies as a function of age, gender, subsistence (how people make a living), and historical period. Another important theme is the performance level expected of the child. In farming societies, children as young as seven may put in a “full day’s work.” In a society dependent on hunting and gathering, children’s work is still mixed with play. One of the most common chores, especially for girls, is caring for younger siblings. This is a welcome assignment as girls appreciate the opportunity to be “little mothers.”
... Interactions with siblings, especially older siblings, promote children's language and cognitive development, as well as their understanding of others' emotions (Brody 2004). Furthermore, older siblings often take on a teaching role with their younger siblings, using demonstrations, verbal feedback, and explanations to teach culturally important adaptive and social skills in the context of play (Maynard 2002). Thus, in individuals who exhibit difficulties with social communication skills, such as those with ASD, a positive sibling relationship could prove extremely beneficial during the early developmental period. ...
Article
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Research on the experiences of siblings of individuals with ASD and the quality of their sibling relationships has yielded mixed results. The present study examined the significance of parent- versus child-report of both positive and negative behaviors exhibited by siblings and their brothers and sisters with ASD within sibling dyads. Findings indicated that siblings were more positive in their assessment of the sibling relationship than were their parents. Siblings exhibited more positive behaviors within the sibling relationship than did their brothers and sisters with ASD, and were recipients of aggression. These findings are consistent with prior research suggesting that siblings tend to take on a caretaking role, and point to important targets for intervention.
... In the Aka, teaching in all contexts occurred about 0.017 times per minute, whereas in the Mbendjele, teaching in the nut-cracking context was three times more frequent, occurring about 0.05 times per minute. The rate of teaching for the Mbendjele was quite similar to that observed within a Maya community weaving carpet, in which teaching instances over all contexts, involving many technical ones, occurred about 0.07 times per minute 56 . Among the Mbendjele almost all teaching interactions took the form of "instruction" (in the sense defined in 54 ), while in the Aka instruction represented only 8% of the teaching events recorded. ...
Article
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Humans are considered superior to other species in their tool using skills. However, most of our knowledge about animals comes from observations in artificial conditions with individuals removed from their natural environment. We present a first comparison of humans and chimpanzees spontaneously acquiring the same technique as they forage in their natural environment. We compared the acquisition of the Panda nut-cracking technique between Mbendjele foragers from the Republic of Congo and the Taï chimpanzees from Côte d’Ivoire. Both species initially acquire the technique slowly with similar kinds of mistakes, with years of practice required for the apprentice to become expert. Chimpanzees more rapidly acquired the technique when an apprentice, and reached adult efficiency earlier than humans. Adult efficiencies in both species did not differ significantly. Expert-apprentice interactions showed many similar instances of teaching in both species, with more variability in humans due, in part to their more complex technique. While in humans, teaching occurred both vertically and obliquely, only the former existed in chimpanzees. This comparison of the acquisition of a natural technique clarifies how the two species differed in their technical intelligence. Furthermore, our observations support the idea of teaching in both species being more frequent for difficult skills.
... In less individualistic cultures older siblings may also play an important role in teaching about daily activities (e.g. cooking, washing [38,39]). Cultural differences in sibling caregiving may also underscore these contrasts. ...
Article
Sibling relationships are characterized by familiarity and emotional intensity. Alongside frequent shared play, sibling interactions feature complementary interactions (e.g. teaching, caregiving) reflecting age-related asymmetries in socio-cognitive skills. These aspects may underpin sibling influences on prosocial behavior: theoretical accounts of social influences on prosocial behavior highlight emotion sharing, goal alignment, the intrinsically rewarding nature of social interaction, and scaffolding of social norms. Taking a fine-grained approach to prosocial behavior, we examine these processes in relation to sibling influences on children's comforting, sharing, and helping. Emergent themes include: developmental change in the nature of sibling influences on prosocial behavior, the need to consider sibling influences in the wider family context, and the importance of individual differences in the quality of sibling relationships.
... Nonetheless, not being adults, elder siblings of young children are often overlooked as potent agents of socialization by family members, at least in Western societies (Dunn, 2014;Kramer & Conger, 2009). However, this is not necessarily true across the globe; in societies that stress the exchange of help and support among children, such as those in Mayan Mexico and Southeast Asia, older siblings are acknowledged as primary agents of socialization and caregiving beginning at a very young age and continuing into adulthood (Maynard, 2002;Nuckolls, 1993;Zukow-Goldring, 2002). ...
Chapter
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In this chapter, we examine how siblings and sibling relationships affect, and are affected by, other family relationships. One key objective is to help researchers , educators and practitioners move beyond the traditional parent-driven model of how families operate to explore some of the ways that children-who are growing up with siblings-also affect the quality of family life. In so doing, we will consider some of the mutual influences of parent-child, marital , and sibling subsystems over the life course. As we examine relevant research and theory, we aim to enhance our understanding of the roles that sibling relationships play in promoting resilient families. More specifically, we will ask whether positivity in sibling relationships results in better functioning for individuals, parents, and for families as a whole-and, if so, whether this is true across the life course. In the United States, approximately 85% to 90% of families include multiple children (Milevsky, 2011). This means at least two things: First, children largely grow up in contexts that include other children , each of whom faces her or his own developmental challenges. And, second, that in addition to meeting the unique needs of each of their children as individuals, parents are also challenged to support and manage their children's relationships with one another (Dunn, 2014; Kramer, 2010). The implications of these two factors are powerful. At the very least, they require researchers, educators, and practitioners to move beyond the "social address models" of sibling relations that are concerned with the potential influences of immutable factors, such as birth order, age spacing, and sex constellation, and to examine the dynamic qualities of sibling relationships and their role in family systems.
... "Qualitative" included analyses of non-numerical data (Gall et al.;Sandelowski, 2001). Since research often does not fit cleanly into this dichotomy (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2006), we defined "both" operationally as an article including numerical and non-numerical data, such as results including frequency data on categories that emerged from coding (e.g., Maynard, 2002;Suárez-Orozco, Gaytán, Bang, Pakes, O'Connor, & Rhodes, 2010). ...
... Traditionally, toddlers have been more or less always in the presence of older children who could draw them up into truly social play. In separate studies, Howes and Farver (1987) and Maynard (2002) found that 4-and 5-year-olds can engage 2-year-olds in truly shared fantasy play by structuring the toddlers' roles and explaining to them what to do. ...
Article
"Play" is a word used commonly to refer to children's preferred activities and to some adult activities, and it is often said that play promotes learning. But what is play exactly, and what and how do children learn through play? This essay begins with a description of an evolutionary, practice theory of play by German philosopher and naturalist, Karl Groos, followed by a system of categorizing play according to the kinds of skills most obviously practiced: Physical/locomotor play, constructive play, language play, fantasy play, social play, and play with formal rules. Play is then defined as activity that (1) is self-chosen and self-directed, (2) is motivated by means more than ends, (3) is guided by mental rules, and (4) includes a strong element of imagination. These characteristics are elaborated upon to show how each contributes to play's developmental value. Two final sections describe the special developmental value of age-mixed play and deleterious changes in children's well-being that have accompanied the decline of play in recent decades.
... Cross-cultural research reveals that the form and content of sibling teaching varies as a function of cultural practices, beliefs, and values. For example, ethnographic research examining Mayan children's sibling teaching revealed that they teach their sibling important everyday tasks (such as making tortillas) using a distinct teaching style (Maynard, 2002(Maynard, , 2004. This style consisted of observational learning that incorporated scaffolding and contextualized talk, as well as physical closeness between teacher and learner, the expectation of obedience, and the possibility of multiple teachers (Rabain-Jamin et al., 2003). ...
... Previous studies have demonstrated that teaching plays a central role in knowledge transmission across a range of contexts and communities [21,36,53,[60][61][62][63][64][65]. Elsewhere, we have argued that foragers generally, and BaYaka specifically, primarily learn through exploration, play, participation and low-cost teaching [51,52,60,66,67]. ...
Article
Teaching likely evolved in humans to facilitate the faithful transmission of complex tasks. As the oldest evidenced hunting technology, spear hunting requires acquiring several complex physical and cognitive competencies. In this study, we used observational and interview data collected among BaYaka foragers (Republic of the Congo) to test the predictions that costlier teaching types would be observed at a greater frequency than less costly teaching in the domain of spear hunting and that teachers would calibrate their teaching to pupil skill level. To observe naturalistic teaching during spear hunting, we invited teacher–pupil groupings to spear hunt while wearing GoPro cameras. We analysed 68 h of footage totalling 519 teaching episodes. Most observed teaching events were costly. Direct instruction was the most frequently observed teaching type. Older pupils received less teaching and more opportunities to lead the spear hunt than their younger counterparts. Teachers did not appear to adjust their teaching to pupil experience, potentially because age was a more easily accessible heuristic for pupil skill than experience. Our study shows that costly teaching is frequently used to transmit complex tasks and that instruction may play a privileged role in the transmission of spear hunting knowledge.
... Por otra parte, él solicita comida, bebida, que lo cargue para alcanzar fruta de un árbol, que le ayude a colocarse un mecapal en la cabeza, que busquen insectos debajo de una piedra, etc. La asimetría revela el valor de la práctica del cuidado de hermanos y la responsabilidad asumida por los mayores. El papel de los hermanos como cuidadores y socializadores de los menores está ampliamente investigado en relación con su valor en la familia (ver Wiesner y Gallimore 1977, Zukow 1989) y es central en las familias mayas del estudio (De León 2008b;Maynard 2002Maynard , 2004; Rabain-Jamin y otros 2003). ...
Chapter
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el presente capítulo analiza las prácticas comunicativas que dirigen y organizan la atención de los niños en el trabajo doméstico en familias mayas zinacantecas de Chiapas, México. En esta comunidad se toma por supuesto que los niños participan en las diversas tareas domésticas, por lo que normalmente no reciben instrucciones para marcar e iniciar la actividad, para negociar si se hace o no, sino, en ciertos casos específicos, para monitorearla y precisarla cuando no son totalmente competentes en esta.Para examinar este punto me interesa enfocarme en los directivos, formas discursivas diseñadas para lograr que alguien realice una acción (Goodwin 1990: 64, 2006a; Ervin-Tripp, 1976, 1982; Ervin-Tripp y otros 1984: 116). Al examinar las secuencias de directivos y las estrategias interactivas en su diseño y negociación entre adultos y niños descubrimos un área de gran interés en la socialización a la participación y la organización de la atención y el aprendizaje. Observo que los directivos se usan para «afinar» o «calibrar» la atención por medio de: (i) formulaciones «didácticas» cuya función es el adiestramiento en la tarea, así como por (ii) una apelación a una ética del trabajo y la responsabilidad. Esta función de los directivos resulta del supuesto de que el niño/niña está realizando un trabajo activo de atención, y su participación en la actividad no es cuestionada ni negociada sino presupuesta por todos los participantes. El trabajo se enmarca en la participación y la agencia de los niños/as indígenas en actividades de pertinencia cultural.
... For example, infants and children can learn from observing and imitating siblings (Abramovitch et al., 1979;Barr & Hayne, 2003;Dunn, 1983). Indeed, older siblings contribute to the cognitive development of younger siblings as older siblings can teach younger siblings new skills in their day-to-day interactions, such as how to draw, use toys, and play games (Abramovitch et al., 1979;Azmitia & Hesser, 1993;Dunn & Kendrick, 1982;Klein et al., 2003;Maynard, 2002;Perez-Granados & Callanan, 1997;Wang et al., 2019). Interestingly, young children can perform better on a task when taught by their older siblings in comparison to children who were taught by peers (Azmitia & Hesser, 1993). ...
Article
Across the lifespan, learners have to tackle the challenges of learning new skills. These skills can range from abilities needed for survival, such as learning languages, learning to walk during infancy, and learning new software for a job in adulthood, to abilities related to leisure and hobbies. As the learner progresses through novice to expert stages, there are cognitive and metacognitive, motivational, and resource considerations for learning new skills. In terms of cognitive considerations, fluid and crystallized abilities as well as executive functions interact to help the learner process and retain information related to the skills. In terms of metacognitive considerations, knowing what to learn and how to learn are important for novel skill learning. In terms of motivational considerations, changes in individuals' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation throughout the lifespan impact their pursuit of novel skill learning, and declines in motivation can be buffered through the cultivation of grit, growth mindset, self‐efficacy, and other personal factors. In terms of resource considerations, there are many tools that learners can use to acquire new skills, but allocation and availability of these resources differ based on life stage and socioeconomic status. Taken together, these considerations may provide learners with the best chance at acquiring new skills across the lifespan. Further research investigating these three factors, particularly among older adult learners, and their interactive effects could help increase our understanding of their impacts on skill learning and inform future cognitive interventions that can be tailored to learners' unique needs. This article is categorized under: Cognitive Biology > Cognitive Development Psychology > Development and Aging Psychology > Learning
... In general, culture consists of abstract thoughts, values, and world perceptions that give to people information about human behavior and come to life in these behaviors. Culture is shared by members of a community and produces patterns of behavior that can also be understood by members of that community (Maynard, 2002;Lillard, 2006;Schein, 2010). In this sense, economic and technological developments in the present century have led to the development of relations between people and have initiated a radical process of change and transformation in all fields. ...
Article
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This study was conducted to investigate the perceptions of pre-service teachers majoring in English at the department of English Language Teaching (ELT)—Tishk International University Education Faculty in Iraq at the level of knowledge and attitude. Studies related to the concept of multiculturalism are significant as being discussed recently in our globalized world and Mesopotamia in Iraq. The present study was planned in 2018–2019 academic year by using case study design within the framework of qualitative research method. The study was carried out with 90 final year students (48 females and 42 males). The subject participated in the study on a voluntary basis. The data of the study were obtained by using semi-structured interview technique. The data obtained from the study was collected under certain codes and themes by content analysis. As a result of the analysis of the data, it was determined that pre-service teachers had both right and wrong learning about the concepts of multiculturalism and multicultural education, and their attitude levels were both positive and negative. In this regard, it is thought that it may be beneficial for prospective teachers to receive a training in the vocational education process related to multiculturalism and multicultural education. Conducting the studies to be planned for multicultural education applications by revealing different variables will enable the subject to be evaluated from different perspectives and will be beneficial for the enrichment of the literature on the subject.
... Parental Attachment, Self-Control, and Adjustment Difficulties-The Moderating Role of Culture Culture can be described as a "socially interactive process of construction" [9], composed of cultural practices (i.e., shared activities) and cultural interpretation (i.e., shared meaning). These components, although universally present, differ among cultures and change throughout development (both throughout the individual lifecycle as well as historical periods), and imply both cultural learning and cultural teaching [9,64]. Social-ecological models recognize culture as an important determinant of human development and behavior [65,66] and foresee the presence of assets that contribute to the well-being and adaptation of youth [3,4]. ...
Article
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From a socio-ecological perspective, individuals are influenced by the interplay of individual, relational, and societal factors operating as a broader system. Thereby, to support youth adjustment during the critical adolescence period, the interplay between these factors should be investigated. This study aimed to investigate cross-cultural differences in adolescents’ maternal and paternal attachment, adolescents’ adjustment difficulties and self-control, and in their association. N = 1000 adolescents (mean (M) age = 16.94, SD = 0.48; 45.90% males) from China, Italy, Spain, and Poland participated by completing self-report measures. Results showed cross-country similarities and differences among the considered variables and their associative pattern. Moreover, conditional process analysis evaluating the association between maternal vs. paternal attachment and adjustment difficulties, mediated by self-control, and moderated by country, was performed. Maternal attachment directly, and indirectly through greater self-control, influenced adjustment difficulties in all four countries. This association was stronger among Spaniards. Paternal attachment influenced directly, and indirectly through self-control, on adolescents’ adjustment difficulties only in Italy, Spain, and Poland, and was stronger among Polish adolescents. For Chinese adolescents, paternal attachment solely associated with adjustment difficulties when mediated by self-control. Thus, results highlighted both similarities and differences across countries in the interplay between maternal vs. paternal attachment and self-control on adolescents’ adjustment difficulties. Implications are discussed.
... There is a significant difference to which childcare services perceive children as partners in the implementation of programs and the provision of services globally (Alfageme, Cantos, & Martinez, 2003;Cook, Blanchet-Cohen, & Hart, 2004). The introduction of children's participative pedagogy into the school curricula can permit more competent African school children and ECD peers to mentor and "tutor" their conspecifics (Guo & Dalli, 2016;Maynard, 2002). In view of this, it is necessary for curriculum planners to provide children with a wide variety of opportunities to have an input in curriculum planning and implementation. ...
Article
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This article examined perceptions on curriculum implementation regarding rural Zimbabwean early childhood development (ECD) teachers in 2017. The study aimed to locate teachers as agents of change in schools by reviewing their perceptions in implementing the recently introduced ECD framework. In this qualitative multiple case study, 30 rural teachers from Zimbabwe’s 10 provinces shared their views as well as strengths and weaknesses of the competence-based curriculum. Implicit in the teachers’ descriptions of effective curriculum implementation were their perspectives on effective classroom instruction. Such perspectives offer much insight into challenges experienced in curriculum implementation for rural schools. Using teacher agency as a theoretical framework, findings of the study revealed that teachers lack support regarding proper infrastructural facilities, and schools lack human, financial, and material resources for successful curriculum implementation. The researcher recommends that as a basis for future policy, the concerns of teachers, parents, and learners in complex ECD settings need to be highly prioritized by the curriculum makers ahead of planning and implementing a new curriculum.
... Besides parental teaching, toddlers and young children also frequently experience explicit teaching by older siblings across cultures (Howe et al., 2016;Lew-Levy et al., 2019;Rabain-Jamin et al., 2003;Scheidecker, 2017). However, content of siblings' teaching substantially differs between cultures: Whereas siblings in Western middle-class cultures focus on teaching play activities (e.g., how to use a toy), siblings from villages in the Mexican highlands or Senegal and siblings from hunter-gatherer communities in the Congo Basin frequently teach about daily activities such as cooking, washing or hunting (Hewlett and Roulette, 2016;Howe et al., 2016;Maynard, 2002;Rabain-Jamin et al., 2003). ...
Chapter
From a developmental systems perspective, this chapter focuses on the question whether culture matters for children's early social-cognitive development. Based on a review of the current cross-cultural literature, we evaluate the current state of research on cross-cultural similarities and differences in major developmental milestones of early social cognition, namely (i) the development of self-awareness and an understanding of self and others as intentional agents, (ii) advanced forms of social learning and (iii) prosocial cognition and behavior. Overall, the current cross-cultural research suggests universality without uniformity: the common suite of social-cognitive skills emerges reliably and, at the same time, there are culture-specific accentuations of social-cognitive development across domains that mostly are in line with cultural values, beliefs and practices. By following different agendas when providing and structuring physical and social settings for their children, caregivers coherently organize infants' nascent intuitions, sentiments, and inclinations into increasingly coherent patterns of attention, appraisal, experience and behavior that are in line with cultural ideals and beliefs. By doing so, culturally informed social interaction sets the stage for culture-specific modulations of social cognition already in the first years of life.
... An additional group of behaviors, which will be considered here, are bodily behaviors. These behaviors have occasionally been taken into account in the context of scaffolding play and learning situations (Hodapp et al., 1984;Maynard, 2002). ...
Article
In this study 9-month-old infants in rural and urban Gujarat, India were compared in how frequently and in which way they engage in triadic interactions. It was assumed that urban caregivers would engage in a child-centered interaction style, frequently creating triadic interactions and following infants' signals. It was also expected that they would engage in more gestural communication in line with results on young infants often being involved in distal interactions. Rural caregivers were assumed to engage in a hierarchical interaction style in which the caregiver directs the interactions. It was expected that they would engage more in bodily ways of communicating as young infants in these communities often experience large amounts of proximal interactions. Infants were observed in everyday situations to assess their everyday engagement in triadic interactions and experience with gestures. Additionally, infants' mothers were asked to show their children something distant to assess how triadic attention is created. These interactions were video recorded and analyzed in terms of gestures and bodily behaviors. The results indicate that urban infants experience more triadic interactions and have caregivers who are more likely to follow their initiatives than rural infants. In the observations, urban caregivers also used gestures more frequently than rural caregivers. For rural infants the results are less clear with some indications that caregivers directed their attention more, particularly using their bodies. These differences were only apparent in the video-recorded situations. Implications for infants' further development are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... The relative rarity of learning by instruction is consistent with a recent study among the Tsimane (South American horticulturalists) which found that adults spend less than 1 min/day in child-directed speech (Cristia et al., 2019). Other recent ethnographic research points to the extent to which children in traditional societies principally learn from and teach other children (Boyette & Hewlett, 2017;Lancy, 2016a, b;Lancy et al., 2010;Lew-Levy et al., 2017;Maynard, 2002;Maynard & Tovote, 2010;Zarger, 2002Zarger, , 2010;for discussion of parent-to-child, or vertical, learning in hunter-gatherers, see Hewlett et al., 2011). Together these studies raise the question of how common adult instruction is in hunter-gatherer societies. ...
Article
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Research in nonindustrial small-scale societies challenges the common perception that human childhood is universally characterized by a long period of intensive adult investment and dedicated instruction. Using return rate and time allocation data for the Savanna Pumé, a group of South American hunter-gatherers, age patterns in how children learn to become productive foragers and from whom they learn are observed across the transition from childhood to adolescence. Results show that Savanna Pumé children care for their siblings, are important economic contributors, learn by doing rather than by instruction, and spend their time principally in the company of other children. This developmental experience contrasts with that of children in postindustrial societies, who are dependent on adults, often well past maturity; learn in formal settings; and spend much of their time in the company of adults. These differences raise questions about whether normative behaviors observed in postindustrial societies are representative of human children. This comparison also identifies the potential mismatch between hunter-gatherer and postindustrial societies in the extent to which children may be well adapted to learn from and teach each other. In particular, spending time in autonomous work and play groups develops the cooperation and coordination skills that are foundational to human subsistence and growing up to be socially and productively adept adults and parents.
... Finally, home environment and the role of older siblings may be influenced by race or ethnicity and overall culture. In fact, much of the qualitative research on older siblings' role in younger children's development reflects patterns of sibling interactions in populations characterized by diverse and often underrepresented ethnicities and cultures (Kibler, Palacios, Simpson-Baird, Bergey, & Yoder, 2016;Maynard, 2002;Rabain-Jamin, Maynard, & Greenfield, 2003;Rogoff, 1990). Future quantitative research should examine whether the nature of this relationship changes for different racial or ethnic groups, as there may be potential differences in the role of siblings across different racial and ethnic groups. ...
Article
We used structural equation modeling in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten Cohort (N = 17,020) to explore the influence of having an older sibling on kindergarten‐age focal children's cognitive self‐regulation. In Model 1, we tested how having a sibling who is generally older than the focal child contributes to the focal child's working memory (WM) and cognitive flexibility (CF) upon entering kindergarten. In Model 2, we assessed the contribution to the focal child's kindergarten WM and CF of having an older sibling in a non‐proximal age range (age 12‐18) or not having siblings relative to having an older sibling in a proximal age range to the focal child (up to age 11). In Model 3, we considered the contribution of having an older sister, an older brother, or both an older sister and an older brother of any age. Having an older sibling in general was associated with increased kindergarten WM, whereas having an older sister was related to increased WM and CF. Compared to having a proximal older sibling, having no siblings and having a non‐proximal older sibling were related to decreased WM and CF. Findings have implications for involving siblings in family interventions in early childhood. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Beliefs around the role of families in learning, the practices they engage in to further their child's learning, and other aspects of these decisions have tended to be wrapped up in a theoretical construct labeled "parental involvement." While this research typically refers to parents as primary caregivers and educational deciders, we note that families are complex and multidimensional, and choices about a child's education often involve a wide variety of community members beyond biological parents (Gregory, 2001;Maynard, 2002;Tudge & Hogan, 2005). ...
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School closures due to teacher strikes or political unrest in low-resource contexts can adversely affect children’s educational outcomes and career opportunities. Phone-based educational technologies could help bridge these gaps in formal schooling, but it is unclear whether or how children and their families will use such systems during periods of disruption. We investigate two mobile learning technologies deployed in sub-Saharan Africa: a text-message-based application with lessons and quizzes adhering to the national curriculum in Kenya (N = 1.3 million), and a voice-based platform for supporting early literacy in Côte d’Ivoire (N = 236). We examine the usage and beliefs surrounding unexpected school closures in each context via system log data and interviews with families about their motivations and methods for learning during the disruption. We find that mobile learning is used as a supplement for formal and informal schooling during disruptions with equivalent or higher intensity, as parents feel responsible to ensure continuity in schooling.
Chapter
Previous research on sibling dyads in typically developing (TD) children has found that siblings may serve as an important factor influencing one another’s cognitive development (e.g., Abramovitch et al., 1986; Dunn et al., 1994; Klein et al., 2002, 2003; Knott et al., 1995, 2007; McAlister & Peterson, 2013; Pepler et al., 1981; Tzuriel & Hanuka-Levy, 2014, 2019; Zukow, 1989; Zukow-Goldring, 2002). Shared intentionality, or the ability to engage with others in collaborative activities with shared goals (e.g., Tomasello et al., 2005), is a key precursor to later understanding of cognitive development.
Article
Maternal and paternal teaching sequences directed to their preschool children in a naturalistic home environment were investigated. The sample included 37 middle-class sibling dyads, aged four and six, and both their mothers and fathers during ongoing interactions in the home for six 90-minute sessions. Sequences of parent–child teaching were identified and coded for teacher and learner roles, teaching strategies, child response, and context (e.g., games, conflict). Mothers and fathers did not differ in the overall proportion of their teaching. However, fathers taught significantly more in the game context than mothers, whereas mothers taught significantly more during conflicts. Directive teaching strategies were most commonly employed by parents; the only difference in parental teaching strategies was that mothers were more likely to use explanations compared to fathers. Further, parental differences in teaching initiation, sophisticated versus nonsophisticated teaching strategies, and children’s responses were examined. Findings are discussed in light of theory on teaching and learning.
Article
Family is an important context for cultural development, but little is known about the contributions of siblings. This study investigated whether older siblings’ cultural orientations and familism values predicted changes in younger siblings’ cultural orientations and familism values across 2 years and tested sibling characteristics and younger siblings’ modeling as moderators. Participants were 246 Mexican‐origin younger (Mage = 17.72; SD = 0.57) and older siblings (Mage = 20.65; SD = 1.57) and their parents. Findings revealed that older siblings’ Anglo orientations and familism values interacted with younger siblings’ modeling: When younger siblings reported high modeling, older siblings’ Anglo orientations and values predicted increases in younger siblings’ Anglo orientations and values. Discussion highlights the importance of siblings in cultural socialization.
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Cambridge Core - Anthropological Theory - The Anthropology of Childhood - by David F. Lancy
Chapter
Let’s review. We understand that teaching—when defined broadly as an aid to social learning, in which one individual (the “expert”) goes out of its way to help another (the “novice”) acquire some important skill or bit of knowledge—is widespread in the animal world. Ants, bees, chickens, raptors, whales, cheetahs, meerkats, dolphins, domestic cats, and nonhuman primates, among other animals, all seem to demonstrate, in their own ways, an instinct for something like teaching. Tandem-running ants slow their run toward a known food source so naive nest mates can keep up and don’t have to waste effort finding their own way.
Chapter
Culture can be defined as the set of beliefs, traditions, values, customs, and norms specific to a group of people; it is acquired through the socialization process and is dominant and effective in all of our daily practices. Culture refers to the traditions and values of our communities, and through play, children explore and learn the rules and symbols of their communities. People of each generation, as they engage in sociocultural endeavors with other people, make use of and extend cultural tools and practices inherited from previous generations. This chapter aims to compare the use of two historical toys in two different cultures as cultural tools ("Eyüp Toys" and "Nuremberg Toys"); two activities in two different cities as cultural practices ("World Play Day" activities in Istanbul and the Toys Fair in Nuremberg); and finally, two institutions in two different cities as cultural institutions (Ataşehir Municipiality Düştepe [Dreamhill] Game Museum in Istanbul and Toy Collection at Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg).
Article
In the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, a large number of indigenous Maya people have relocated from their villages to an urban centre where many families, especially mothers and children, work as street vendors. We were interested in the typical cultural expectations for the development of Maya girls, the ways that these expected patterns were interrupted by street work, and the ways that girls and families dealt with this novel situation. In order to provide a more complete picture, we compared the daily experiences of girls who work on the street with those of their male counterparts and with the routines of girls who lived in traditional, rural settings. Our data include ethnographic observations and a census (N = 250–300), informal chats (N = 250–300), and semi‐structured interviews with children (N = 51) and adults (N = 25). Using Greenfield's theory of social change and development, we found a coexistence of value matches and mismatches. These addressed adherence to tradition versus embracing ethnic variety and innovation valued in money‐based market economies and collective responsibility versus individual choice and expression. This mix of values occurred in the domains of gender roles for work, motivation for street work, leisure time, and schooling.
Chapter
For most people, the sibling relationship is the longest-standing relationship they will ever have, yet the sibling relationship cannot be taken for granted as being the same across cultural settings. The study of sibling relationships is an opportunity to examine socio-emotional and cognitive processes of development, as well as cultural values that shape the ways that siblings relate to one another and to their families and communities. Expectations for care, obedience, and helpfulness between or among siblings all vary across cultural groups. The level of emphasis on the sibling relationship is another part of a sociocultural complex of relationships. Rivalry develops out of competitiveness and a focus on independence. Sibling nurturance develops out of cooperation and a focus on interdependence and independence. Cultural expectations for the role of siblings after early childhood also vary, and these expectations are socialized in early childhood. The sibling relationship should be seen as culturally-embedded—shaped by and reflective of the cultural setting in which it develops.
Article
Children’s social networks comprise a variety of social partners who interact with the child in unique ways and contribute distinctly to her social and emotional development. This study examines the structure of children’s social networks from four different ethnic groups (Kamba, Kikuyu, Luo, and Maasai) residing in an informal urban settlement in Kenya. Twenty boys and 24 girls (M = 40 months) were observed on three different weekdays for 2 hr each day, to assess children’s experiences across daylight hours. Children’s social networks predominantly consisted of nonrelative children and nonrelative adults. However, larger social networks did not necessarily mean more highly involved members. Peers were observed to be in close proximity and to engage in play and conversation with the focal children more often than did adult social partners. The findings have implications for intervention programs that focus predominantly on nuclear family members, as they may overlook important roles that other social network members play in children’s lives. The low occurrence of play between adults and children in this study is consistent with studies in other non-Western contexts, where play is generally not considered part of parents’ role nor a fundamental characteristic of parent–child interactions.
Article
The goal of this study was to better understand similarities and differences in preschool children's expression of needs and prosocial responsiveness to peers’ needs across two culturally distinct contexts. Preschoolers were observed in a semi‐naturalistic design across rural Mexico and urban Canada, wherein they were instructed to build a tower with blocks. Three‐ to 6‐year‐olds (N = 306; 48% female) were divided into 64 peer groups. We coded for children's expression of needs (instrumental, material, or emotional), responses to prosocial opportunities (prosociality, denial, or no response), prosociality without an apparent need (spontaneous prosociality), and types of prosocial behavior (helping, sharing, or comforting). While instrumental and material needs were expressed similarly across both samples, Tzotzil Maya children expressed fewer emotional needs than Canadian children. Failing to respond to others’ needs, followed by denial, were the most frequent need‐provoked response in both countries; surprisingly, only 9% of needs received a prosocial response. Though need‐provoked prosociality was rare in both cultural contexts, children engaged in considerable spontaneous prosociality which varied as a function of age, gender, and cultural context. Lastly, Canadian more than Tzotzil Maya children denied emotional and instrumental needs (but not material needs). The findings inform how cultural practices may shape the presentation of needs and prosocial responsiveness in peer interactions.
Article
Full-text available
Based on a year-long micro-ethnography of a nursery school, this book presents a unique approach to childhood socialization by focusing directly upon the social, interactive, and communicative processes that make up the world of young children. It contains micro-sociolinguistic analyses of videotaped peer interactive episodes which are the basis of explanations of children's development and use of social concepts such as status, role, norms, and friendship. Stable features of peer culture in the nursery school are identified, and the importance of interpreting children's behavior from their own perspective is demonstrated. The author also addresses the implications of the findings for early childhood education.
Article
Full-text available
Ethnographic measures of sibling caretaking were correlated with attentiveness to a peer tutor. Boys from families who assigned childcare tasks to male siblings were more likely to be attentive in a dyadic peer-tutoring session. General classroom attentiveness was also highly correlated with attentiveness to a peer tutor and to male sibcare. Girl tutee attentiveness and female sibcare were not correlated. Families who assign major childcare tasks to boys apparently foster behaviors that generalize to the classroom. The transfer may not be specific from sibling interaction experiences to peer tutoring situations since family reliance on sibcare also correlated with generalized classroom attentiveness, and general (nonsibcare) chore demands
Article
Full-text available
The Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research (1969) included in its 1,182 pages virtually no reference to caretaking of children by anyone other than parents. Yet cross-cultural evidence indicates nonparental caretaking is either the norm or a significant form of caretaking in many societies. It is likely socialization research rarely takes sibling caretaking into account for social and historical reasons — mother-child dyadic analyses flourish in Western, industrialized nations, where mothers are primary caretakers. The first portion of this paper explores cross-cultural variations in child caretaking. The next section examines some of its antecedents. The final section reviews eight possible correlates and/or consequences of child caretaking for caretaker and/or charge. Though child caretaking is widespread cross-culturally, little is known of its ethnographic incidence. Relevant material is scattered through many ethnographic studies and is generally reported in a manner that makes comparative analysis difficult.
Article
Full-text available
The authors report a diachronic investigation of cultural appren-ticeship, creativity, and cognitive representation in a Zinacantec Maya community of Chiapas, Mexico. Focusing on the culturally central domain of weaving, they explore the implications of an ecocultural transition from agriculture to commerce for learning and development. Their studies cover 24 years and explore the im-plications of historical change in two generations of Zinacantec Maya children. The first wave was studied in 1969 and 1970. The next generation was studied in 1991 and 1993; it comprised mainly daughters and sons, nieces and nephews, and godchildren of the first generation. The results show that in the space of a single gener-ation, weaving apprenticeship moved from a more interdependent to a more independent style of learning, woven textiles changed from a small stock of defined patterns to widely varied and innova-tive patterns, and cognitive representation of woven patterns be-came less detailed and more abstract.
Article
Playing on the Mother-Ground: Cultural Routines for Children's Development. David Lancy. New York: Guilford. 1996. 240 pp. ISBN 1-57230215-1. $35.00 cloth, $17.95 paper. Lancy's book comes at a good time in the development of the study of culture, parenting, and socialization. It presents a complete picture of enculturation, rather than focusing only on adult, child, or interactive processes. Lancy presents a detailed ethnography of what it takes to become a competent Kpelle adult in Liberia, West Africa, and how children acquire those skills. The work extends culture and learning themes by showing how socializers within a culture emphasize forms of human cognition that are needed for success in the society and use different methods (e.g., observational learning vs. explicit teaching) to facilitate different kinds of learning. Lancy contrasts the openness of Kpelle life and knowledge with the hiddenness of the knowledge systems of literate cultures. A Kpelle child can learn much of what she or he needs to know by observing, imitating, practicing, and then participating in adult work in increasingly central ways. Children spend their days in public areas, on the mother ground, observing and practicing adult life. All competent Kpelle are their teachers, not just parents, and children, not adults, are responsible for their own learning. The basic curriculum includes instrumental skills needed for rice farming, hunting, fishing, gathering; social skills for establishing and maintaining harmonious relations; litigation skills for effective self-presentation in public courts; moral values (the need to work hard without complaint and to obey elders and traditions); and mental cleverness in games of strategy. Children who wish to attain specialist status need also to acquire skills in either weaving cloth, blacksmithing, or sorcery and medicine-the only knowledge bases that adults explicitly teach. The child must be selfmotivated, however, to enter an apprenticeship and must endure hardships to learn these skills. Lancy contrasts the demands of Kpelle culture with those of literate cultures. In the latter, adults need to process large amounts of information and use hidden operations such as reading, writing, and logic to do so. Children cannot learn to read or write by watching adults, nor can they learn by trial and error-the secrets must be explained. Parenting in literate societies requires that adults explicitly teach children and prepare them for being taught in school. …
Chapter
Although siblings act as socializing agents in cultures throughout the world (Weisner & Gallimore, 1977), historical and theoretical considerations have led many Western researchers to ignore or underestimate the positive contribution of siblings to the socialization of younger family members (Zukow, Chapter 1, this volume). Although the family is recognized as the matrix in which socialization first occurs, I will argue that siblings as well as adults engage in this process with younger family members. To assess the contribution of siblings to the socialization of younger siblings from a fresh perspective, I will address the social-interactive and perceptual processes underlying socialization. From this perspective, socialization is a process of co-construction in which caregivers and novice members are continuously building up and breaking down the social world from the ebb and flow of perceptual information. The degree to which siblings embody the role of socializing agent will be examined by evaluating evidence from Western and Third World studies. The discussion will consider the relative value, effectiveness, and uniqueness of socialization by siblings, including its impact on the direction of future research and the shape of emerging theories of socialization.
Chapter
Our older sibling is our older sibling, friend. You cannot just follow anybody and then when you need support, expect those people to help you . . . . No, your elder brother, your sister-in-law, and your other siblings will be the ones to help. Because of this, make the home that belongs to all of you your source.1
Chapter
Studying children with their siblings—with whom they share a daily life of great intimacy and emotional importance—is illuminating for those interested in development in two different ways. First, it gives us a new perspective on the development of social understanding—the understanding of others’ feelings and intentions, and of the social rules and roles of the world in which they grow up. The growth of such understanding is of central significance in human development, yet we are surprisingly ignorant of its early stages. Second, studying siblings enables us to explore the question of how far different family relationships influence a child’s development. In this chapter I will to consider both these issues, drawing on material from three longitudinal studies of siblings and their mothers that we have conducted in Cambridge, with working-class and middle-class English families. I will focus in particular on two studies, in which we followed families from a point when their second children were in their second year—a period of astonishingly rapid advance in understanding others (Dunn, 1988; Dunn & Munn, 1985, 1986a, 1986b).
Article
In this Monograph, we examine how toddlers and their caregivers from four cultural communities collaborate in shared activities. We focus both on similarities across communities in processes of guided participation--structuring children's participation and bridging between their understanding and that of their caregivers--and on differences in how guided participation occurs. We examine the idea that a key cultural difference entails who is responsible for learning--whether adults take this responsibility by structuring teaching situations or whether children take responsibility for learning through observation and through participating in adult activities with caregivers' support. We speculate that these two patterns relate to cultural variation in the segregation of children from adult activities of their community and in emphasis on formal schooling. The four communities of our study vary along these lines as well as in other ways: a Mayan Indian town in Guatemala, a middle-class urban group in the United States, a tribal village in India, and a middle-class urban neighborhood in Turkey. In each community, we visited the families of 14 toddlers (aged 12-24 months) for an interview that was focused on child-rearing practices, which included observations of caregivers helping the toddlers operate novel objects spontaneously during adult activities. Results are based on systematic analysis of patterns of communication and attention in each family in each community, combining the tools of ethnographic description, graphic analysis, and statistics.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
List of photographs Foreword by Shirley Brice Heath Acknowledgements 1. To know a language 2. Methodology 3. Introduction to Samoan language usage: grammar and register 4. The social contexts of childhood: village and household organisation 5. Ergative case marking: variation and acquisition 6. Word-order strategies: the two-constituent bias 7. Clarification 8. Affect, social control and the Samoan child 9. The linguistic expression of affect 10. Literacy instruction in a Samoan village 11. Language as a symbol and tool Appendix I. Transcription conventions Appendix II. Canonical transitive verb types in children's speech References Index.
Article
34 pairs of same-sex siblings were observed for two 1-hour periods in their homes. The younger siblings averaged 20 months of age, and the age interval between siblings was either large (2.5-4 years) or small (1-2 years). The sex of the dyad affected agonistic and prosocial behavior but not imitation. Males were more physically aggressive. Older females were more prosocial in their behavior than any of the other groups. Age of the children within the dyad affected agonistic, prosocial, and imitative behavior. Older children initiated agonistic and prosocial acts more often than their younger siblings. Younger siblings imitated their older siblings more often. The interval between siblings had little effect on the patterning of interaction. The findings of sex and age patterns and the high levels of interaction in all groups are discussed in terms of the potential importance of sibling interaction for social development.
Article
"Sibling Interaction Across Cultures" is a collection focusing on the positive role siblings play in each other's social, emotional, and cognitive development. Unlike much previous research on sibling relationships, these studies share the underlying assumption that social interaction plays a significant role in the acquisition and transmission of cultural knowledge and social understanding. The contributors evaluate the advantages as well as limitations of current methodological issues directly affecting sibling research and assess the various theoretical perspectives underlying these methodologies. Drawing from empirical, cross-, and intracultural research, this volume proposes new approaches for identifying universal, environmental, and culture-specific aspects of the role of siblings in child development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examined the effect of peer interaction and sibling status on cognitive activity of 68 boys and girls from grades 1 to 4 at different levels of cognitive equivalence (C-E) functioning. The children were assigned to solitary or peer-dyad game play (same grade and sex) or no-game groups based on C-E level (perceptual vs. functional) and sibling status (older sibling vs. youngest or only child). Results indicated that playing the game with a peer resulted in significant gains. Children who had younger siblings increased their use of the functional mode after playing the game, but youngest or only children did not. Shifts persisted for two weeks. Shifts for older siblings may have been a function of advantages accrued from teaching younger siblings.
Article
This chapter focuses on how young children and adults together manage children’s socialization through children’s participation in cultural activities with the guidance of adults. Interactions and arrangements between caregivers and infants or toddlers are the basis for the discussion.
Article
Very little research to date has been concerned with characterizing the nature or the effect of the linguistic interactions between beginning language learners and their older siblings. Although it has been suggested that 3-5-year-old preschoolers do adjust structural characteristics of their speech for infants, there are indications that they may not make adjustments in the pragmatic domain. The current study, therefore, was designed to explore sibling-infant linguistic interaction with a special emphasis on pragmatic factors. 10 infants were videotaped twice, once at 12-18 months and once at 18-24 months, in free play with their mothers and with their preschool-age siblings. Compared to mothers, siblings were highly directive in their linguistic interactions and showed little inclination to provide the infant with nonverbal information. They did not adjust the length and complexity of their utterances over time, as did the mothers. Conversations between siblings and infants were short or nonexistent and contained few of the conversation-maintaining devices that mothers used. The directiveness of siblings and their nonresponsiveness in conversations may contribute to the tendency of some later-borns to employ expressive styles of language acquisition.
Article
In a longitudinal follow-up study of sibling interaction, 28 pairs of same-sex siblings and 28 pairs of mixed-sex siblings were observed for 2 1-hour periods (in their homes), 18 months after the initial observations. The younger siblings averaged 38 months of age, and the age interval between siblings was either large (2.5-4 years) or small (1-2 years). The pattern of interaction remained quite stable over the 18 months separating the 2 periods of observation. Older children initiated prosocial and agonistic behavior more often, while the younger children imitated more. In addition, younger children responded more positively to prosocial behavior and submitted more often to agonism, suggesting that the younger sibling may play an important role in maintaining the interaction. Sex and interval had few effects at either time. From the initial to the follow-up observations, there was a marked increase in prosocial behavior by both the older and younger siblings. For the mixed-sex pairs, the frequency of aggression increased, while the frequency of imitation decreased over time, which suggests that sex typing may enter into early sibling interaction.
Article
Informal reports of observations of teaching interactions in classrooms suggest that children instruct each other primarily through demonstration and modeling of tasks, while adult teachers show a greater reliance on verbal instruction. Although child and adult teachers appear to utilize very different teaching strategies, a number of authors believe that children may serve as effective teachers, perhaps even more effective than adults. In the present investigation, using 2 laboratory classification tasks resembling home and school activities, the differences between child and adult teaching strategies mirrored those suggested to occur in classroom settings. 9-year-old teachers used more nonverbal than verbal instruction, and referred more frequently to specific items than to higher-order grouping of items. Adult teachers used more verbal than nonverbal instruction, provided more group relationship information than information specific to items, and also elicited (or allowed) greater participation from the learners. Learners taught by adult teachers performed better on a posttest of learning and generalization than did those taught by child teachers. The lesser effectiveness of the child teachers is likely related to the number of demands, both cognitive and social, placed on the young teachers by the classification tasks used. Also, the children's strategy of nonverbal instruction may have been less appropriate for communicating the category structure of the materials than it would be for other tasks. The examination of peer teaching of social tasks or of other material more familiar to children may indicate that children can under other circumstances serve as proficient teachers.
Article
Mother-child and sibling-sibling interactions on a problem-solving task were observed and compared in relation to the sexes of the 2 siblings and family size. 8 first-grade children with third- or fourth-grade siblings were subjects of the study. Half were from 2-child families and half from families with 3 or more children. The 4 sex combinations of sibling pairs were equally represented. Half the children were aided by the mother on the problem-solving task; half were aided by the sibling. Behaviors in the interaction session were observed and recorded. When the helper was a sibling, older sisters gave more explanation, feedback, and total verbalization than did older brothers; mothers gave more explanation, feedback, and total verbalization to children with older brothers. Children from large families sought and received more help than did children from small families. Findings are interpreted in terms of a family interaction system.
Article
The frequency of sharing, helping, comforting and cooperative behaviour shown by young siblings towards one another, their response to the other child's distress, and the relation between this prosocial behaviour and conflict behaviour was studied in 43 2-child families observed at home when the second child was 18 and 24 months old. By 18 months children were capable of sharing/helping/comforting, but apparently rarely motivated to respond in this way; in contrast cooperative behaviour was frequently shown. Conciliation, teasing and cooperative behaviour was more frequently shown by 2-year-olds whose siblings had previously been cooperative, and similarly conciliation and distraction was most frequently shown by older siblings whose younger siblings had shown cooperative behaviour 6 months previously. Sibling constellation variables did not account for individual differences in prosocial behaviour.
Article
Each culture defines the appropriate ways for people to use their bodies (Mauss 1934). In this paper we examine the uses of the body in a technical skill, that of Zinacantec Maya backstrap loom weaving. We hypothesize that native learners of weaving are different from non-native learners in that they are endowed from birth on with the biology and cultural experience needed for weaving. Maya newborns have distinctive patterns of motor behavior and visual attention. These patterns, reinforced by cultural experience, are utilized when girls learn to weave, highlighting the interplay between culture and biology. Non-native learners do not begin life with the same patterns of motor behavior or cultural experience and thus begin the acquisition of the body techniques involved in the complex skill of weaving with a deficit. Conclusions are based on an empirical, historical study of two generations of girls learning to weave in Nabenchauk, a Zinacantec Maya hamlet in Chiapas, Mexico.
Article
This chapter is followed by a commentary by T. D. Johnston from an ecological realist perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
present developmental data from imitation and theory-of-mind research [with children] to show that self-awareness and self-concepts develop hand in hand with other-awareness and concepts of others / argue that early imitation occurs virtually from birth and hence precedes MSR [mirror self-recognition] / analogize understanding of the other's and the self's body through imitation with the understanding of other's and self's mind through theory of mind [ToM] and trace the origins of ToM from imitation imitation, identification, and the developmental origins of theory of mind / understanding other minds / understanding your own mind / contingency, self–other differentiation, and making sense of mirrors (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes the use of peer helping, and the developmental principles on which it is based, to facilitate school counseling with elementary and middle grade students. A training model for the program is outlined. The model is based on a study with 34 5th graders selected to be trained as peer tutors and assigned to other students in kindergarten through Grade 3. Results showed that Ss who received the longest peer tutor training gained the most in emotional development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Presents a study of the effect of learning environments upon the social behavior of 3-11 yr old children. 12 categories of social behavior found to occur in the children of 6 cultures-Kenya, Okinawa, India, the Philippines, Mexico, and the US-are discussed, including nurturance, dependence, sociability, dominance, and aggression. (6 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The results of an observational study of 40 families showed a marked increase in confrontation between mother and the firstborn and a decrease in maternal attentive playfulness after birth of a 2nd child. The direct effects of the mother's attention to the 2nd child on her interaction with the 1st child were examined by comparing 3 situations: (a) feeding the 2nd child, (b) holding/caregiving the 2nd child, and (c) not involved with the 2nd child. When the mother was occupied with the 2nd child, there was an increase in confrontation but also in positive involvement between the mother and 1st child. The decrease in maternal attention after the sibling birth occurred in contexts in which the mother was not occupied with the baby. With younger 1st children, these effects were particularly marked. Confrontation was higher in bottle-feeding than in breast-feeding situations. Sex differences were not significant. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
56 3–5 yr old children, their mothers, and their infant siblings (aged 10–24 mo) were observed in a quasi-naturalistic setting. The preschoolers were asked to teach the infants the operation of a toy camera after receiving instruction concerning its use. Game-like tasks were used to assess the conceptual perspective-taking abilities of the children prior to the teaching situation. Analyses of 7-min observations of sibling teaching behaviors revealed that (a) perspective-taking children were more active and thorough teachers, especially within the same-sex dyads; (b) perspective-taking males were the only group to provide specific instruction in the mechanics of the camera's operation; and (c) females and nonperspective-taking males focused on descriptions of the pictures made by the camera. A systems perspective is used to describe the older sibling's ability to monitor the behavior of the younger sibling and to accommodate his/her teaching activities accordingly. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the relations among (a) the quality of the sibling relationship, (b) maternal socialization techniques about infants' emotions and skills, (c) first-born's perspective-taking skills, and (d) first-born's caretaking behavior in 32 sibling pairs (14 months; 3–5 years) and their mothers, observed both at home and a modified lab, strange situation. First-borns' references to second-borns about feelings and skills were positively associated with perspective-taking and friendly sibling relations during mothers' presence at home and when alone in the lab, indicating consistency interaction across settings. Maternal references to first-borns about second-borns were positively associated with friendly sibling relations in mothers' presence, whereas maternal interaction was negatively associated with friendly sibling relations in both settings. Results are discussed in light of previous studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The relationship between interaction with the caregiver and the emergence of play activities during the one-word period was examined in this research. In particular, Vygotsky's views regarding the importance of social interaction as the source of the child's knowledge of the world were discussed. In order to examine the role of the caregiver, observations were made of six children, two at each of three levels of semantic development within the one-word period. At each level of semantic development the children's performance during interactive play sequences was significantly more advanced than their performance during non-interactive sequences. These results lend support to Vygotsky's contention that children gain knowledge of the world through social interaction.
Book
• This work, a second edition of which has very kindly been requested, was followed by La Construction du réel chez l'enfant and was to have been completed by a study of the genesis of imitation in the child. The latter piece of research, whose publication we have postponed because it is so closely connected with the analysis of play and representational symbolism, appeared in 1945, inserted in a third work, La formation du symbole chez l'enfant. Together these three works form one entity dedicated to the beginnings of intelligence, that is to say, to the various manifestations of sensorimotor intelligence and to the most elementary forms of expression. The theses developed in this volume, which concern in particular the formation of the sensorimotor schemata and the mechanism of mental assimilation, have given rise to much discussion which pleases us and prompts us to thank both our opponents and our sympathizers for their kind interest in our work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)