Child, Parent, and Peer Predictors of Early-Onset Substance Use: A Multisite Longitudinal Study

Department of Psychology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.48). 07/2002; 30(3):199-216. DOI: 10.1023/A:1015183927979
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to identify kindergarten-age predictors of early-onset substance use from demographic, environmental, parenting, child psychological, behavioral, and social functioning domains. Data from a longitudinal study of 295 children were gathered using multiple-assessment methods and multiple informants in kindergarten and 1st grade. Annual assessments at ages 10, 11, and 12 reflected that 21% of children reported having initiated substance use by age 12. Results from longitudinal logistic regression models indicated that risk factors at kindergarten include being male, having a parent who abused substances, lower levels of parental verbal reasoning, higher levels of overactivity, more thought problems, and more social problem solving skills deficits. Children with no risk factors had less than a 10% chance of initiating substance use by age 12, whereas children with 2 or more risk factors had greater than a 50% chance of initiating substance use. Implications for typology, etiology, and prevention are discussed.

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    • "Further, the stability of ECF in such a young cohort, which was 0.67, across the 6-month period, the consistency of ECF relationships cross-sectionally and longitudinally, and the retention of significance of ECF effects even after controlling for demographic variables, physical activity, and exercising with parents in the model, all suggest that ECF shows potential to be considered as a major mediator of behavior change in future prevention programs (Pentz 2009; Riggs and Greenberg 2009; Riggs et al. 2006). The effects of parent influence variables were weaker and less consistent than findings from adolescent studies (Bailey et al. 2009; Kaplow et al. 2002; Li et al. 2002; Pokhrel et al. 2008; Riggs et al. 2006, 2009a). There are several possible explanations for these differences, some of which constitute study limitations. "
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    • "If so, in a second step, we tested the hypothesis that those with an early onset of risk behavior (i.e., in early adolescence), persisting into middle adolescence, were characterized by a problematic risk profile in late childhood, while those with a later onset, i.e., in middle adolescence were not. Previous research has suggested that parental and child functioning factors are the most significant predictors of early onset risk behavior (i.e., prior to adolescence), as opposed to more distal factors such as the neighborhood environment and social status among peers (Kaplow et al. 2002). Therefore, we assessed associations with factors from the family domain (i.e., parenting practices, parental substance use), the individual domain (e.g., personality and childhood behavior), as well as demographic factors (i.e., gender, age, socio-economic status and ethnic background). "
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    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
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    • "Patterns of prediction were generally similar across historical time, grade level, gender, and race/ethnicity, suggesting a robust web of infl uences predicting current heavy-alcohol-use behaviors. Although etiological research has progressed considerably in recent years in determining the risk and protective factors, continued research on the mechanisms and processes of multiple risk and protective factors is needed to increase our understanding of how heavy episodic alcohol use develops in adolescence (Kaplow et al., 2002; Schulenberg, 2006). "
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