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Selected Gelling Agents in Canned Dog Food Affect Nutrient Digestibilities and Fecal Characteristics of Ileal Cannulated Dogs1

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... In a study in dogs, feeding diets containing gelling agents, in particular a guar gum/carrageenan combination, resulted in higher faecal output (considered a negative effect), although nutritional benefits were reported (Karr-Lilienthal et al. 2002). ...
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A good, nutritious diet is essential for the health and well‐being of our domestic pets. Today, most pet dogs and cats are fed highly processed food bearing little resemblance to canine and feline ancestral diets. Additives are included in processed pet food to provide nutritional benefits, ensure food safety, and maintain the desirable features of colour, flavour, texture, stability and resistance to spoilage. This paper reviews the safety of various additives in processed pet food. Labelling, safety assessment, and ethical concerns regarding existing toxicity testing procedures are also considered. The adequacy of testing for many additives and the scientific basis for determining safety are questioned. Additives can be synthetic or ‘natural’ although the distinction can be blurred when naturally derived substances are synthesised in the laboratory, or extracted using a high level of physical and chemical processing. Although additives play important roles in processed food production, updated strategies and technologies may be required to establish their safety in the pet food industry.
... Dogs were fed canned diets without or with gelling agents (51,52). Two combinations of gelling agents were tested: guar gum plus carrageenan or carob meal plus carrageenan. ...
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Seed gums in petfood Gums derived from guar, carob, cassia or tara seeds may be found in wet dog and cat food. Those gums furnish galactomannans, carbohydrates composed of chains of mannose units with galactose side groups. The ratio of the two building blocks, which are akin to glucose, is variable. Galactomannans in processed wet, human or pet foods act as thickeners for optimum fluid stickiness and particle distribution. Some dog treats and dry foods contain whole carob seed, also known as locust bean and Saint John's bread, or galactomannan-rich, fenugreek seed. The inclusion levels of single or mixed seed gums in wet petfood range from 0.01 to 0.5%. Adding 0.5% guar gum, as sole thickener, reduces net intestinal uptake of protein in dogs and cats. The indigestible, gel-forming gum interferes with protein digestion. Then, upon reaching the hindgut, guar gum stimulates growth of resident bacteria and water holding, thereby increasing fecal excretion of bacterial protein and water. Mixing 0.5% guar gum into commercial wet food slightly softens and enlarges stool, but does not jeopardize protein supply or intestinal health. A brand of cat food purports that its guar gum constituent reduces blood cholesterol and glucose, and also effectively achieves satiety (1). The gum can lower dogs' blood cholesterol, but there is no known health benefit (2). In dogs, blood glucose after eating was inconsistently influenced by dietary guar gum. In the research literature there is no support for the satiety claim. A few petfoods make a "no guar gum" claim. That implies the gum is bad (3). Guar gum is belittled by stating that it is highly processed, has no nutritional value (4), causes loose stools and impairs protein digestion (5). Only the latter point is valid, but it has no adverse effects at the protein and guar-gum levels in commercial, wet petfoods. Legislation European legislation designates guar, carob and cassia gums as technological additives in feedingstuffs, falling within the subclass of emulsifying and stabilizing agents, thickeners and gelling agents (6-8, Note 1). Guar meal, carob and fenugreek seed are listed in the catalogue of feed materials (9). Galactomannans Seed galactomannans (GM) act as energy storage for germination in the endosperm. Their β-1,4-linked mannan backbones have single galactose units in α-1,6 linkages. The mannose:galactose ratio typifies gums, but also varies within kinds. The ratio is roughly 1 to 5 for GM from fenugreek, guar, tara, carob and cassia seeds. Since galactose imparts hydrophilicity to GM, through inhibiting inter-chain association, water solubility is higher for lower mannose:galactose ratios. To obtain GM-rich gums from seeds, the isolated endosperm is dissolved in water, followed by addition of alcohol as precipitation step. Whole seeds of the five gum sources contain 21-33% GM
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Two experimental tests were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of a biofermented semi-arid plant mix in diets of piglets in the initial weaning phase. In the first trial, the nutritional value and digestibility of nutrients and the digestible and metabolizable energy values of the bio-fermented plants mix were evaluated. To do so, eight piglets with an initial average weight of 15.2 ± 2.7 kg were used, housed in metabolic cages, and using the total collection of feces and urine. The bio-fermented plant mix diet presented 80.40% and 68.18% as digestibility coefficients for dry matter and crude fiber, respectively; 10.08% crude protein and 2,865 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy. In the second trial, the inclusion of 0, 3, 6 and 9% of bio-fermented plant mix was evaluated on performance, diarrhea incidence, plasma components, weight, and length of digestive organs of piglets in the initial weaning phase. To do so, 40 piglets with an initial average weight of 12.6 ± 3.5 kg were used, distributed in a randomized block design with four treatments, five replicates, and two animals per experimental unit. The inclusion of different levels of bio-fermented plant mix did not affect (P>0.05) the performance, weight, and length of digestive organs or serum parameters. However, the inclusion of bio-fermented plant reduced (P<0.01) the diarrhea incidence. It is concluded that bio-fermented plants adapted to the semi-arid region has the potential to be used in diets for pigs in the initial weaning phase.
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To gain knowledge on the precision of an in vitro method for characterisation of the fermentability of dietary fibres, this study aimed to evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of such a method. Substrates used were citrus pectin (CP), fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), guar gum (GG), sugar beet pulp (SBP) and wheat middlings (WM). Each substrate was incubated with faecal inoculum from five cats with three replicates for each substrate–cat combination. Gas production was measured continuously during the 48 h incubation and SCFA and organic matter disappearance (only SBP and WM) were determined after incubation. Four consecutive runs were performed. The within-run variability (repeatability) was generally lower for the more simple and pure substrates (CP, FOS, GG) than for the more complex substrates containing mixtures of fibres (SBP, WM). Replicates showed high variability, in particular for SCFA profiles and parameters of gas production kinetics. The between-run CV (reproducibility) for the measured parameters were, in general, below 10 % for CP, FOS and GG and higher values were obtained for SBP and WM. It is concluded that for precise dietary fibre characterisation, the number of replicates should be multiple and adjusted according to the variability of the parameters of interest and the complexity of fibres. The method yielded reproducible results with some variation in absolute values obtained, which may have an impact on the significance level of the differences among substrates.
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The present study aimed to evaluate the inter-individual variability in fermentation of standard fibrous substrates by faecal inocula from ten healthy adult female cats. Substrates were citrus pectin (CP), fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), guar gum (GG), sugar beet pulp (SBP) and wheat middlings (WM). Each substrate was incubated with faecal inoculum from each cat. Gas production was measured continuously during the 48 h incubation and SCFA and organic matter disappearance (only SBP and WM) after incubation. Out of ten cats, nine produced faeces on the days of inoculum preparation. The substrates contrasted in terms of fermentation parameters measured. The inter-individual variability was in general lower for the more simple and pure substrates (CP, FOS, GG) than for the more complex substrates containing mixtures of fibres (SBP, WM). Furthermore, for total SCFA and gas produced, inter-individual variability was lower than for proportions of butyrate and of branched-chain fatty acids and for the parameters of gas production kinetics. It is concluded that the variability in in vitro fermentation parameters is associated with the complexity of fibrous substrates. The presented data are instrumental for the calculation of number of faecal donors required for precise in vitro characterisation of the fermentability of dietary fibres. In addition, the number of faecal donors should be adjusted to the specific fermentation parameter(s) of interest.
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This study aimed to evaluate correlations between fermentation characteristics and end products of selected fermentable fibres (three types of fructans, citrus pectin, guar gum), incubated with faecal inocula from donor cats fed two diets, differing in fibre and protein sources and concentrations. Cumulative gas production was measured over 72 h, fermentation end products were analysed at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-incubation, and quantification of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and bacteroides in fermentation liquids were performed at 4 and 48 h of incubation. Partial Pearson correlations, corrected for inoculum, were calculated to assess the interdependency of the fermentation characteristics of the soluble fibre substrates. Butyric and valeric acid concentrations increased with higher fermentation rates, whereas acetic acid declined. Concentrations of butyric acid (highest in fructans) and propionic acid were inversely correlated with protein fermentation end products at several time points, whereas concentrations of acetic acid (highest in citrus pectin) were positively correlated with these products at most time points. Remarkably, a lack of clear relationship between the counts of bacterial groups and their typically associated products after 4 h of incubation was observed. Data from this experiment suggest that differences in fibre fermentation rate in feline faecal inocula coincide with typical changes in the profile of bacterial fermentation products. The observed higher concentrations of propionic and butyric acid as a result of fibre fermentation could possibly have beneficial effects on intestinal health, and may be confounded with a concurrent decrease in the production of putrefactive compounds. In conclusion, supplementing guar gum or fructans to a feline diet might be more advantageous compared with citrus pectin. However, in vivo research is warranted to confirm these conclusions in domestic cats.
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Verificou-se o efeito da inclusão de um complexo de ácidos orgânicos (AO) e diferentes níveis de fitase em dietas de leitões na creche. Foram utilizados 40 leitões desmamados (7,8±0,8kg), distribuídos em delineamento de blocos inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, durante um período experimental de 28 dias. Os tratamentos foram: T1- ração basal com 500UF/kg (controle); T2- ração basal com 500UF/kg + 0,2% do complexo de AO; T3- ração basal com 450UF/kg + 0,2% do complexo de AO; T4- ração basal com 400UF/kg + 0,2% do complexo de AO; e T5- ração basal com 350UF/kg + 0,2% do complexo de AO. A adição de AO à ração que continha 500UF propiciou maior (P<0,05) ganho de peso médio diário em relação ao tratamento-controle. Com relação aos níveis de fitase em dietas que continham AO não foram observadas diferenças (P>0,05) no ganho de peso. Para o consumo de ração médio diário, observou-se uma regressão quadrática (P<0,05), sendo o nível de 411UF o que propiciou o menor consumo de ração. O nível de 500UF + AO resultou em maior porcentagem de fezes normais em relação ao grupo-controle durante as duas últimas semanas do período experimental. Conclui-se que há efeito positivo da adição do complexo de ácidos orgânicos quando se suplementa fitase nas dietas de leitões na fase de creche dos oito aos 20kg.
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To produce a complete and balanced dog diet it is necessary to know the nutritional needs of the dog as well as the availability of nutrients from the diet. Petfood manufacturers are restricted in performing (invasive) studies with animals for ethical reasons. Therefore, it is necessary to search for in vitro alternatives to these studies as explained in Chapter 1. Based on a literature study on the physiology of the GI tract of the healthy, adult dog (Chapter 2), the dynamic in vitro model for human subjects, pigs and calves, as described by Minekus (1995), was modified to mimic the physiological conditions of the dog. The model is named FIDO ( f unctional gastro i ntestinal do g model).The aim of the study was to develop the in vitro model simulating the GI tract of the dog. The model should simulate the physiological conditions in the GI tract of the dog as closely as possible. In that way luminal processes as well as physical and chemical properties of diets could be investigated. This thesis describes the developmental experiments, the validation experiments in comparison to dog studies as well as application studies.Validation of the modelTechnical validationThe study started with an extended literature review on the physiology of the stomach and small intestine of the healthy, adult dog with a special emphasis on those parameters which are relevant for the development of the dog model (Chapter 2). With respect to digestion of food, such parameters as transit times, pH values, concentrations of electrolytes and activities of enzymes are important to mimic physiological conditions as closely as possible. Data found in the literature were translated to a computer program to simulate these parameters in FIDO. The features of the model are described in Chapters 2 to 7. Based on the simulation of the physiology of the dog dry and canned dog foods were used to test the technical possibilities of the model. After some technical modifications to the gastric compartment and the pre-filters connected to the jejunal and ileal compartments, a study was performed to test the effect of particle size of dry dog food on gastric emptying. Particles≤3 mm emptied more slowly than particles≤1 mm. The effect of transit time on the availability for absorption of nitrogen and calcium of canned dog food was also investigated. Like in vivo , in FIDO less nitrogen and calcium were available for absorption with faster transit times (Chapter 3).Validation in vitro versus in vivoValidation of the model in comparison to the in vivo situation was the next step in the development of the dog model (Chapter 4). Ileal protein digestibility and availability for absorption of nitrogen of eight different dry dog foods were tested in the model. The results were compared with data found in vivo with ileally cannulated dogs, performed at the University of Illinois. The experiments proved to be very reproducible and the results found in FIDO are similar to those found in vivo in the dogs.Based on these findings and those of former experiments simulating pigs, calves and human beings, it can be concluded that the model is a suitable tool as an alternative to animal experiments in nutritional research.Application of the modelThe validation study (Chapter 3) showed a low availability for absorption of calcium in the model. Based on these results it was decided to study calcium and phosphorus availability from three commercially available canned dog foods (Chapter 4). Effects of addition of calcium-phosphorus supplements or the enzyme phytase and the effect of a lower pH in the small intestine were also included in this study. A human standard breakfast was used as a control diet, because this diet had a high calcium availability under human conditions in the diet.The results showed that the canned dog foods had a low availability for absorption for calcium (maximum 21%) and phosphorus (maximum 44%). Differences in relative availability of calcium and phosphorus were found among these diets, which can probably be explained by the source of these minerals. Also the low availability of these minerals can be attributable to the source. Another possible explanation of the low availability are the (saturated) fatty acids in the diet, which can form calcium soaps in the model.The advantage of FIDO is that the availability for absorption of calcium and other nutrients can be studied without the influence of the physiological status of the animal. The real amount absorbed by the animal, however, cannot be studied. Absorption by the animal depends on its needs and the absorption is hence dependent on two different mechanisms: passive and active absorption. To get more insight into the absorption of calcium through the intestinal wall of the dog, experiments were performed with Great Danes (8 and 20 weeks of age; in cooperation with the Veterinary Faculty of Utrecht University), FIDO and intestinal segments (Chapter 7). The effect of vitamin D was taken into account in this study by studying two levels in the diet. The three different methods ( in vivo , FIDO and intestinal segments) are complementary and can be used to get a better understanding of the regulation of calcium absorption in the dog.In Chapter 6 experiments are described to investigate the effect of gelling agents on the digestibility and availability for absorption of nutrients ('chunks in gravy' products). Three different (combinations of) gelling agents added to the gravy were used in this study in different concentrations (0.2% and 0.5%): carrageenan plus guar gum, carrageenan plus locust bean meal, and wheat starch. A diet without gelling agent was used as a control diet. Neither the gelling agent nor the concentration had any effect on digestibility of proteins and carbohydrates, availability for absorption of calcium and phosphorus, viscosity or buffering capacity in the intestinal content. From the results it can be concluded that addition of the gelling agents used does not affect the nutritional quality of the diets at the low concentrations tested.Conclusions The dynamic in vitro model of the GI tract of dogs simulates the physiological parameters very accurately and reproducibly. Transit time of food has an effect on digestibility and availability for absorption, just like in dogs. Also ileal protein digestibility in the model is similar to the data found in vivo . It is possible to investigate specific questions regarding dog food in this model (e.g. the effect of gelling agents on digestibility). Another important aspect is the fact that the experiments in FIDO can be performed under highly standardized condition, in contrast to in vivo studies in which biological variance among animals plays a role. This comes to expression in the reproducibility and sensitivity of the results from FIDO compared to results of in vivo studies.The dynamic in vitro model of the gastrointestinal tract of the dog is a suitable alternative to in vivo studies with respect to digestibility and availability for absorption of nutrients from different types of dog food, such as canned and dry dog foods.
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Two experiments were conducted to evaluate single sources and blends of dietary fiber in dog food. In Exp. 1, 14 fibrous substrates were fermented in vitro using dog feces as the source of inoculum. Organic matter disappearance was lowest (P < .05; < 10%) for Solka Floc and oat fiber and greatest (P < .05; > 80%) for fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and lactulose. Solka Floc, oat fiber, gum karaya, and xanthan gum produced the least (P < .05; < 1 mmol/g of substrate OM) total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Lactulose, citrus pectin, and guar gum produced the greatest (P < .05; > 6.8 mmol/g of substrate OM) total SCFA. In Exp. 2, six diets were formulated based on results obtained in Exp. 1. Treatments included 1) beet pulp (BP), 2) Solka Floc (SF), 3) citrus pulp (CP), 4) stool blend (SB), 5) SCFA blend (SC), and 6) combination blend (CB). Digestibility of DM and total dietary fiber (TDF) was greatest (P < .05; 87.3 and 60.8%, respectively) for dogs consuming the SC diet. Feces from dogs fed SC were scored as more unformed and liquid in consistency than feces from dogs fed the other diets. Dogs consuming the SF and SB diets had the lowest (P < .05; 11.0 and 4.1%, respectively) TDF digestibilities. Organic matter disappearance values derived from substrates fermented in vitro reasonably predicted the fiber digestibility of diets fed to dogs. Moderately fermentable dietary fiber sources, such as BP, promote excellent stool characteristics without compromising nutrient digestibility, and may promote gastrointestinal tract health by optimizing SCFA production.
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Nine mature mongrel dogs were used to evaluate a surgical technique for the cannulation of the terminal ileum and used in two experiments to determine the effect of carbohydrate source on starch and dry matter digestion. Dogs (16.2 +/- 2.0 kg body weight; means +/- SD) were fitted with an ileal T-cannula constructed of polyvinyl chloride pipe. The cannula was inserted into the terminal ileum approximately 10 cm proximal to the ileocecal junction and the cannula was exteriorized through a small incision on the right flank. Dogs recovered quickly from surgery (5d). A preliminary study using Cr:EDTA in the food indicated that sampling for 12 h postprandially allowed near complete representation of digesta flow for a meal; peak flow occurred 4-to 8-h postfeeding. Two experiments were performed evaluating the effect of carbohydrate source on ileal starch and dry matter digestibility. Dogs were fed two meals daily with Cr2O3 used as a digesta marker. Diets contained 67% extruded grain (corn, rice, oats or barley) and 33% canned meat supplement on a dry matter basis. Starch digestion was complete (> 98%) within the small intestine and was unaffected by carbohydrate source. In experiment 1, prececal and total tract dry matter digestibilities were higher for rice than corn, and in experiment 2, barley was higher than oats. The ileal T-cannula allows for measurement of small intestinal nutrient disappearance without the confounding effects of colonic microflora. This method may be useful when applied to the study of other nutrients in dogs.
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A rapid and accurate atomic absorption method for the determination of chromium in faeces samples from pasture experiments using chromic oxide ‘markers’ is described. Of the elements present after ashing and digesting the samples in a phosphoric acid—manganese sulphate—potassium bromate solution silicate, aluminium, calcium and magnesium were found to interfere in the determination. The effects of these interferences were overcome by the addition of calcium to the test solution and by the addition of silicate to the standards, which were prepared in ‘blank’ solutions. The sensitivities of a number of alternate chromium resonance lines relative to that of Cr 3578·7 Å. are given. These lines may be used to increase the concentration range of the analysis. The results of a comparison of the atomic absorption method with a chemical method are given.
Article
Two test meals were taken in random order on separate days by 8 non-insulin-requiring diabetic volunteers after 14-hour overnight fasts. Addition of 16 g guar and 10 g pectin to the control meal containing 106 g carbohydrate decreased markedly and significantly the rise in blood-glucose between 30 and 90 minutes and also resulted in significantly lower insulin levels between 30 and 120 minutes. When these meals were fed to 3 insulin-dependent diabetic subjects, a similar flattening of the post-prandial glucose rise ensued. This addition of certain forms of dietary fibre to the diet of diabetics significantly decreases post-prandial hyperglycaemia and would be expected to improve the control of blood-glucose concentration.
Article
Meals (425 kcal) containing various doses of guar gum (0, 2.5, 7.5 or 12.5 g) were ingested by nine healthy male subjects after a 12-h fast. The rise in blood glucose was higher after the control meal without guar gum than after the guar gum-containing meals, which all gave a similar rise in glucose. In contrast, increased doses of guar gum led to a greater reduction in the postprandial rise in insulin. The postprandial increase in serum hydroxyproline, an amino acid added to all meals, was decreased in a similar manner by all of the guar gum doses. Gastric emptying was measured after the control meal without guar gum and the meal containing 12.5 g of guar gum by monitoring 51Cr, which was added to the meals. Guar gum was found to reduce the variation between individuals, as well as the initial rate of gastric emptying, which correlated with changes in both serum hydroxyproline (rs = 0.93, P less than 0.01) and blood glucose (rs = 0.83, P less than 0.01). The effectiveness of guar gum in reducing postprandial response was lost after heating and homogenization for canning. A threshold in the reduction in rise of glucose or hydroxyproline was reached with the lowest dose (2.5 g) of viscous guar gum; larger doses had no additional effects. The reduced absorption seems to be an effect of a slower gastric emptying rate.
A collaborative study was conducted to determine the total dietary fiber (TDF) content of food and food products, using a combination of enzymatic and gravimetric procedures. The method was basically the same as published earlier (J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. (1984) 67, 1044-1052), with changes in the concentration of alcohol and buffers, time of incubation, sample preparation, and some explanatory notes, all with the intent of decreasing the coefficient of variation (CV) of the method. Duplicate blind samples of soy isolate, white wheat flour, rye bread, potatoes, rice, wheat bran, oats, corn bran, and whole wheat flour were analyzed by 9 collaborators. TDF was calculated as the weight of the residue minus the weight of protein and ash. CV values of the data from all laboratories for 7 of the samples ranged from 1.56 to 9.80%. The rice and soy isolate samples had CV values of 53.71% and 66.25%, respectively; however, each sample contained only about 1% TDF. The enzymatic-gravimetric method for determining TDF has been adopted official first action.
Article
These experiments were undertaken in dogs with midintestinal fistulas to determine whether guar added to a meal of solid food would disrupt gastric sieving and give rise to maldigestion of solid food. Dogs were fed a standard meal of steak, chicken liver, bread, margarine, and water in which there was 0, 3.3, 7.5, or 15 g guar powder. The margarine or the liver contained [14C]triolein. Using an isotope ratio method, we determined how much [14C]triolein was absorbed at midintestine. We found that guar in a dose-related fashion increased the weight of chyme collected at midintestine, markedly reduced the percent of triolein absorbed by midintestine from 88 to 38%, and profoundly increased the passage to midintestine of large, poorly digestible pieces of steak and liver. The viscosity of the guar promoted the GI transit of large, poorly digestible pieces of food but also reduced absorption by other mechanisms.
Article
Sample preparations of protein hydrolyzates for amino acid analysis by ion-exchange chromatography has been accomplished without the removal of hydrochloric acid which was used for the hydrolysis. The technique involves partial neutralization of the available hydrochloric acid after hydrolysis with a solution which neutralizes and dilutes the sample hydrolyzate at the same time. The resulting sample solution which is employed for amino acid analysis produces an amino acid chromatogram having the same elution times and resolution as compared to a mixture of amino acids prepared in pH 2.2 sodium citrate buffer. Experimental data is also presented which shows that the amount of available hydrochloric acid in the final sample solution employed for amino acid analysis can affect both the resolution and elution time of many of the amino acids found in a protein hydrolyzate.
Article
The effect of dietary fiber viscosity on apparent ileal nitrogen and amino acid digestibility, proteolytic enzyme activity and digestive organ weights was investigated. Eighteen growing rats were fed for 21 d purified casein-based diets containing carboxymethylcellulose (50 g/kg) of low (20 cP), medium (800 cP) and high (2000 cP) viscosity (LV, MV and HV treatment groups, respectively). Dietary fiber viscosity did not significantly affect apparent ileal (terminal 15 cm of the ileum) nitrogen or amino acid digestibility, trypsin or chymotrypsin activity in the small intestinal contents and pancreatic tissue, aminopeptidase-N activity in the small intestinal contents and tissue, or the weights of the stomach, pancreas, small or large intestines. Intragastric pepsin activity in LV rats was significantly higher than in MV or HV rats (P < 0.01), but fiber viscosity did not affect pepsin activity in the stomach tissue. The intragastric pH of the HV and MV rats was significantly higher than that for the LV rats (P < 0.01). The stomach contents (dry matter) of MV and HV rats were greater than in LV rats (P < 0.05). Delayed passage rate of the more viscous digesta may have resulted in greater absorption of amino acids, because the HV rats had a higher estimated true ileal digestibility than the LV animals for threonine, serine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, histidine, tyrosine and phenylalanine.
Article
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of three fibres (sugar-beet fibre, guar gum and inulin) incorporated in the basal diet of healthy dogs at 7 per cent of dry matter (DM). Parameters examined included stool output, water consumption, nutrient digestibility and fasting and postprandial plasma metabolites. All fibres increased wet faecal output; an increase in faecal DM output being observed with sugar-beet fibre only. Sugar-beet fibre and inulin increased daily water consumption. Sugar-beet fibre and guar gum decreased DM digestibility. The three fibres diminished organic matter and crude protein digestibility while ether extract digestibility was decreased by guar gum and inulin. Guar gum induced lower postprandial insulin, alpha-amino-nitrogen and urea plasma concentrations. Guar gum also lowered fasting cholesterolaemia. Sugar-beet fibre and inulin showed no metabolic effects. These physiological properties suggest that guar gum would be a suitable ingredient for dietary therapy of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidaemia in the dog.
Canine and Feline Nutrition: A Resource for Companion Animal Professionals
  • L P Case
  • D P Carey
  • D A Hirakawa
  • L Daristotle
Case, L. P., Carey, D. P., Hirakawa, D. A. & Daristotle, L. (2000) Canine and Feline Nutrition: A Resource for Companion Animal Professionals. Mosby, St. Louis, MO.
Dietary guar gum effects on postprandial blood glucose, insulin, and hydroxyproline in humans
  • I Torsdottir
  • M Alpsten
  • H Anderson
  • S Einasson
Torsdottir, I., Alpsten, M., Anderson, H. & Einasson, S. (1989) Dietary guar gum effects on postprandial blood glucose, insulin, and hydroxyproline in humans. J. Nutr. 119: 1925-1931.
Official Methods of Analysis
AOAC. (1985) Official Methods of Analysis, 14th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
Determination of total dietary fiber in foods and products: collaborative study
  • Smeets-Peeters
Evaluation of nutrient utilization in the canine using the ileal cannulation technique
  • AOAC
The determination of chromic oxide in feces samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometry
  • AACC