Article

Direct Look Versus Evasive Glance and Compliance With a Request

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Everyday experience as well as extensive research in psychology and social cognitive neuroscience confirm the pivotal role of human gaze in social interactions and its impact on cognitive, affective and motivational processes (Argyle and Cook, 1976;Gueguen and Jacob, 2002;Hood and Macrae, 2007;Vuilleumier and Pourtois, 2007). "Social gaze" might be metaphorically considered as glue in interpersonal communication as it allows not only for the coordination of attention and activities (Argyle and Cook, 1976) but also influences our social perception and the evaluation of others (Argyle et al., 1974;Kleinke, 1986;Mason et al., 2005;Mirenda et al., 1983). ...
... The lack of unequivocal evidence with respect to MPFC recruitment during the processing of context-free and neutral direct gaze could be attributed to the confinement to rather simplistic, categorical experimental designs using static stimulus material and considering only gaze direction. However, in everyday human interactions, the interpretation of gaze behavior appears to depend crucially on subtle, dynamic parameters, among which gaze duration represents a prominent example (Argyle et al., 1974;Brooks et al., 1986;Droney and Brooks, 1993;Gueguen and Jacob, 2002;Knackstedt and Kleinke, 1991;Montgomery et al., 1998). Previous behavioral studies have demonstrated that the longer a person looked straight into the observer's eyes, the more favorably this person was judged with regard to likeability, potency and selfesteem (Argyle et al., 1974;Brooks et al., 1986;Droney and Brooks, 1993;Knackstedt and Kleinke, 1991). ...
... Previous behavioral studies have demonstrated that the longer a person looked straight into the observer's eyes, the more favorably this person was judged with regard to likeability, potency and selfesteem (Argyle et al., 1974;Brooks et al., 1986;Droney and Brooks, 1993;Knackstedt and Kleinke, 1991). Along the same line, Gueguen and Jacob (2002) were able to show that, when direct gaze was maintained, pedestrians were more likely to participate in an intercept survey. Argyle and Cook (1976) explain these results by postulating that in a social interaction prolonged gaze can convey approach signals including the need for feedback or affiliative needs. ...
Article
Full-text available
The interpretation of interpersonal gaze behavior requires the use of complex cognitive processes and guides social interactions. Among a variety of different gaze characteristics, gaze direction and gaze duration modulate crucially the meaning of the "social gaze". Nevertheless, prior neuroimaging studies disregarded the relevance of gaze duration by focusing on gaze direction only. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study focused on the differentiation of these two gaze parameters. Therefore direct gaze displayed by virtual characters was contrasted with averted gaze and, additionally, systematically varied with respect to gaze duration (i.e., 1, 2.5 or 4 s). Consistent with prior findings, behavioral data showed that likeability was higher for direct than for averted gaze and increased linearly with increasing direct gaze duration. On the neural level, distinct brain regions were associated with the processing of gaze direction and gaze duration: (i) the comparison between direct and averted gaze revealed activations in bilateral occipito-temporal regions including the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS); (ii) whereas increasing duration of direct gaze evoked differential neural responses in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) including orbitofrontal and paracingulate regions. The results suggest two complementary cognitive processes related to different gaze parameters. On the one hand, the recruitment of multimodal sensory regions in the pSTS indicates detection of gaze direction via complex visual analysis. On the other hand, the involvement of the MPFC associated with outcome monitoring and mentalizing indicates higher-order social cognitive processes related to evaluation of the ongoing communicational input conveyed by direct gaze duration.
... Eye-to-face gaze plays a significant role in interpersonal interactions. It influences a listener's perception of a speaker's intelligence (Murphy, Hall, & Colvin, 2003), increases the probability of compliance with a request (Gueguen & Jacob, 2002), and improves the accuracy and efficiency of dyadic task performance (Clark & Krych, 2004). It also may be a prerequisite for the development of theory of mind in early childhood (Baron-Cohen, 1995), and is thought to play a critical role in the development of parent-child attachment (see the review in Mirenda et al., 1983). ...
... An additional limitation of the existing gaze literature, particularly studies of adults, is that many studies (e.g., Baker & Edelmann, 2002;Gueguen & Jacob, 2002;Murphy et al., 2003) measure interactions between confederates and research participants, rather than participants and their peers. Although the resulting data may be relevant to clinical conversations, they are unlikely to generalize to typical social situations. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to address the lack of quantitative data on eye-to-face gaze (also known as eye contact) in the literature on pragmatic communication. The study focused on adolescents and young adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI), as gaze often is included in social skills intervention in this population. Gaze times were calculated for participants with TBI (n = 16) and their typically developing (TD) peers (n = 16) engaged in 3-min extemporaneous conversations. The TD group members looked at the face of their conversation partner an average of 62% of the time while listening and 43% of the time while speaking, versus 67% and 51%, respectively, for the TBI group. There were no significant between-groups differences in average gaze times, but the within-group variability was significantly greater in the TBI group. As there was no evidence of a uniform trend in gaze times among participants with TBI, general intervention to increase eye contact does not appear warranted. Instead, goals must consider that gaze is a highly complex behavior, not necessarily indicative of attention to one's partner, and that there are potential reasons for gaze aversion in individuals with cognitive limitations.
... Additionally, one of the most primal and powerful modes of communication is touch; research conclusively suggests that along with a suggestion, request, or directive, touch has a synergistic effect on reciprocal compliance. [31,32] In a series of foundational field experiments in varied natural settings over several years, Gueguen et al. [33][34][35][36][37] clearly demonstrated that brief touching with a direct gaze, when accompanied by a request, had a maximally positive influence on compliance-whether or not the subjects even were aware they had been touched. Hornik; [38] Smith; Gier; and Willis; [39] Willis and Hamm; [40] and Crusco and Wetzel found that tactile contact enhanced spontaneous compliance or improved compliance-even when no explicit verbal request was made. ...
... [48][49][50][51][52][53] It is simple yet very effective, when accompanied by touch. [33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42] ...
Article
Full-text available
A daunting challenge for health providers and medical practitioners is communicating the vital importance of health promotion and medical treatment adherence and compliance. This article is an evidence-based, best-practices commentary advocating the use of touch-accompanied verbal suggestions during the touching portions of routine, near-universal Health & Physical examinations. Notional case examples are presented; based on the professional literature, underlying Behavioral Mechanics are discussed. Touch-accompanied verbal health promotion messages skillfully deployed in routine Health & Physical examinations offer a non-harmful and efficient technique to synergistically and substantially enhance the probability of patient compliance with health improvement and medical treatment regimens. Though it is not a magic panacea, the public health applications, extensions and benefits are incalculable in terms of healthy behavior adoption. Additionally, if deftly conducted in accordance with best practices, it has the potential to greatly improve practitioner-patient relations and increase patient satisfaction. Further avenues of research inquiry are considered.
... In Martin and Gardner (1979) study, only male dyads were used, whereas there were only female dyads in our study. Compared to men, women tend to be more sensitive to facial communicative gestures (Gueguen and Jacob, 2002), and, especially, to feel more observed when interacting face-to-face with another person (Argyle and Williams, 1969). Furthermore, we employed a valence-rating task during viewing of the faces, but, in Martin and Gardner (1979) study, the other person was passively observed. ...
Article
Face and gaze processing were studied using magnetoencephalography in 10 children with autism and 10 normally developing children, aged between 7 and 12 years. The children performed two tasks in which they had to discriminate whether images of faces presented sequentially in pairs were identical. The images showed four different categories of gaze: direct gaze, eyes averted (left or right) and closed eyes but there was no instruction to focus on the direction of gaze. Images of motorbikes were used as control stimuli. Faces evoked strong activity over posterior brain regions at about 100 ms in both groups of children. A response at 140 ms to faces observed over extrastriate cortices, thought to be homologous to the N170 in adults, was weak and bilateral in both groups and somewhat weaker (approaching significance) in the children with autism than in the control children. The response to motorbikes differed between the groups at 100 and 140 ms. Averted eyes evoked a strong right lateralized component at 240 ms in the normally developing children that was weak in the clinical group. By contrast, direct gaze evoked a left lateralized component at 240 ms only in children with autism. The findings suggest that face and gaze processing in children with autism follows a trajectory somewhat similar to that seen in normal development but with subtle differences. There is also a possibility that other categories of object may be processed in an unusual way. The inter-relationships between these findings remain to be elucidated.
... Studies conducted by Vinkhuyzen and Cefkin [16] indicate that employment of gestures like waving are common practice between drivers and pedestrians while negotiating right of way. Additionally, earlier research has concluded that a pedestrian's direct stare towards an oncoming driver invokes more compliant and yielding behavior [5,6]. Šucha [15] determined from his study that interaction between a driver's choice of speed and a pedestrian's crossing decision is dependent on gaining "a maximum, whether it means time, safety, or comfort". ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a study that aimed to identify the importance of eye contact and gestures between pedestrians and drivers. A video-based observation and coding was undertaken to categorize the road-crossing and communication behavior of pedestrians and drivers in busy traffic situations where efficient negotiation is necessary. The evidence in the study suggests that eye contact does not play a major role in manual driving, that explicit communication is rare to non-existent, and that motion patterns and behaviors of vehicles play a more significant role for pedestrians in efficient traffic negotiations.
... In Martin and Gardner (1979) study, only male dyads were used, whereas there were only female dyads in our study. Compared to men, women tend to be more sensitive to facial communicative gestures (Gueguen and Jacob, 2002), and, especially, to feel more observed when interacting face-to-face with another person (Argyle and Williams, 1969). Furthermore, we employed a valence-rating task during viewing of the faces, but, in Martin and Gardner (1979) study, the other person was passively observed. ...
Article
Full-text available
In our previous studies we have shown that seeing another person "live" with a direct vs. averted gaze results in enhanced skin conductance responses (SCRs) indicating autonomic arousal and in greater relative left-sided frontal activity in the electroencephalography (asymmetry in the alpha-band power), associated with approach motivation. In our studies, however, the stimulus persons had a neutral expression. In real-life social interaction, eye contact is often associated with a smile, which is another signal of the sender's approach-related motivation. A smile could, therefore, enhance the affective-motivational responses to eye contact. In the present study, we investigated whether the facial expression (neutral vs. social smile) would modulate autonomic arousal and frontal EEG alpha-band asymmetry to seeing a direct vs. an averted gaze in faces presented "live" through a liquid crystal (LC) shutter. The results showed that the SCRs were greater for the direct than the averted gaze and that the effect of gaze direction was more pronounced for a smiling than a neutral face. However, in this study, gaze direction and facial expression did not affect the frontal EEG asymmetry, although, for gaze direction, we found a marginally significant correlation between the degree of an overall bias for asymmetric frontal activity and the degree to which direct gaze elicited stronger left-sided frontal activity than did averted gaze.
... Because this was the first study in which we attempted to investigate the possible effects of stimulus face sex on neural approach-avoidance -related responses, we recruited female participants only. Previous research has shown that females show greater physiological responses to emotion-related facial cues than males (e.g., Anokhin and Golosheykin, 2010), and females are behaviourally more sensitive to eye gaze as compared to males (Gueguen and Jacob, 2002). Four main hypotheses were tested: i) perceiving a direct gaze would elicit relative left-sided frontal EEG asymmetry indicative of a motivational tendency to approach and averted gaze would elicit smaller relative left-sided asymmetry or even relative right-sided asymmetry indicative of avoidance, ii) the SCR would be greater for the direct vs. averted gaze, iii) public selfawareness would be heightened in response to a direct vs. averted gaze, and iv) to extend and corroborate the earlier findings , we expected to obtain all these effects in the live but not in the picture presentation mode also when we apply a concomitant behavioural task to ensure comparable attention allocation to faces in both stimulus presentation modes. ...
Article
Recently, we showed that another person's gaze direction influenced the perceiver's frontal EEG asymmetry and autonomic arousal in response to freely viewed real faces, but not in response to face pictures. However, the lack of a task during the viewing may have resulted in less attention allocation to face pictures vs. live faces. In the present study, the participants performed two online tasks while viewing the faces presented live through an electronic shutter and as pictures on a computer screen. The results replicated those from our previous experiment showing that direct gaze elicited greater relative left-sided frontal EEG asymmetry and autonomic arousal than averted gaze but, again, only in the live condition. However, the results also showed that two live stimulus faces (male and female) elicited differential EEG asymmetry responses in our participants (all females), and the effects of gaze direction were observed only for the (live) female faces. The results suggest that the discriminative responses to live faces vs. pictures are likely to reflect the participants' enhanced mental-state attributions and self-awareness when looking at and being looked by live faces. Thus, the motivation- and affect-related psychophysiological responses to gaze direction are most discriminative in the presence of another person, regardless of whether the face/gaze is actively monitored or not.
... Among the possible interactional behaviours to be studied, eye gaze was chosen in part because of evidence that gaze timing might be atypical in individuals with TBI (Turkstra, 2005), but also because it serves a critical role in regulating interpersonal interactions. Gaze direction influences a listener's perception of a speaker's intelligence (Murphy, Hall, & Colvin, 2003), increases the probability of compliance with a request (Gueguen & Jacob, 2002), and improves the accuracy and efficiency of dyadic task performance (Clark & Krych, 2004). In face-toface conversations, gaze contributes to the regulation of turn taking. ...
... In the present study, we used faces of females only, yet gender, and more specifically sexual preference, seems to affect face perception. It has been shown that women, in general, are behaviourally more sensitive to eye contact than men (Gueguen and Jacob, 2002), and that in the reward areas of the brain (ventral striatum), the effect of gaze direction is dependent on the sexual relevance (Kranz and Ishai, 2006) and attractiveness (Kampe et al., 2001) of the faces. Gaze direction has also been shown already to interact with facial expression Kleck, 2003, 2005;Lobmaier et al., 2008;Doi and Shinohara, 2009), in the early visual processing stages (Klucharev and Sams, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Several recent studies have begun to examine the neurocognitive mechanisms involved in perceiving and responding to eye contact, a salient social signal of interest and readiness for interaction. Laboratory experiments measuring observers' responses to pictorial instead of live eye gaze cues may, however, only vaguely approximate the real-life affective significance of gaze direction cues. To take this into account, we measured event-related brain potentials and subjective affective responses in healthy adults while viewing live faces with a neutral expression through an electronic shutter and faces as pictures on a computer screen. Direct gaze elicited greater face-sensitive N170 amplitudes and early posterior negativity potentials than averted gaze or closed eyes, but only in the live condition. The results show that early-stage processing of facial information is enhanced by another person's direct gaze when the person is faced live. We propose that seeing a live face with a direct gaze is processed more intensely than a face with averted gaze or closed eyes, as the direct gaze is capable of intensifying the feeling of being the target of the other's interest and intentions. These results may have implications for the use of pictorial stimuli in the social cognition studies.
... Pour proposer des systèmes qui soient adaptés à l'usage des utilisateurs, les concepteurs peuvent jouer sur (a) le choix du dispositif technique adapté aux tâches à réaliser, (b) dans le cas d'utilisation d'une table, l'orientation des interlocuteurs autour de celle-ci et (c) le partage de l'orientation de l'interface avec son partenaire. (Bales, 1950;Bell, 1806;Birdwhistell, 1970;Brown & Fraser, 1979;Darwin, 1872;Duchenne, 1862;Ekman, 1992;Gibson, 1979;Guéguen & Jasob, 2002;Marey, 1894;Oviatt & Cohen, 1991) La communication est un tout, où la signification naît de l'ensemble des éléments verbaux : acoustiques, physiques et visuels. Le verbal a plus été étudié que le non verbal. ...
Article
Speaking is not essential when several people collaborate to achieve a task. They can collaborate very well using only gestures and gaze. It is therefore important to investigate nonverbal communication when studying collaborative activities. The objective of this thesis is to better understand communication systems for collaboration at a distance and co-presence. This is the case when completing a two-person task using a computer application. By collecting nonverbal indicators, the collaboration process can be better understood. A nonverbal behaviour collection method is proposed and tested. These indicators tend to be arm and hand gestures, and eye gaze orientation towards another. A category of nonverbal indicators is proposed that is based on existing categories. This category takes both the manipulation of surrounding objects and social interactions into account at the same time. This method allows nonverbal patterns to be brought out, which vary according to several factors. The results of three experiments show that nonverbal patterns vary with respect to the task, technical device used and communication location. Using this method, other factors have been discovered, such as activity phases resulting from several communications' locations (e.g. visibility and co-presence).
... Integrating both interpersonal functions and intrapersonal mechanisms social gaze defines a paradigmatic case, which allows to exemplify the multifunctionality of NVB and the multiple cognitive processes and neural mechanisms involved in social information processing. Everyday experience as well as extensive research in social psychology and social cognitive neuroscience confirm the crucial role of human gaze behavior in social interactions and its impact on cognitive, affective and motivational processes (Argyle & Cook, 1976;Gueguen & Jacob, 2002;Hood & Macrae, 2007;Vuilleumier & Pourtois, 2007). It allows to coordinate attention and activities with others (Argyle & Cook, 1976) and also influences processes of person perception and evaluation (Argyle, Lefebvre, & Cook, 1974;Kleinke, 1986;Mason, Tatkow, & Macrae, 2005;Mirenda, Donnellan, & Yoder, 1983). ...
Article
Full-text available
"Artificial humans", so-called "Embodied Conversational Agents" and humanoid robots, are assumed to facilitate human-technology interaction referring to the unique human capacities of interpersonal communication and social information processing. While early research and development in artificial intelligence (AI) focused on processing and production of natural language, the "new AI" has also taken into account the emotional and relational aspects of communication with an emphasis both on understanding and production of nonverbal behavior. This shift in attention in computer science and engineering is reflected in recent developments in psychology and social cognitive neuroscience. This article addresses key challenges which emerge from the goal to equip machines with socio-emotional intelligence and to enable them to interpret subtle nonverbal cues and to respond to social affordances with naturally appearing behavior from both perspectives. In particular, we propose that the creation of credible artificial humans not only defines the ultimate test for our understanding of human communication and social cognition but also provides a unique research tool to improve our knowledge about the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms.
... Hall (1984) also argues that men are less likely to display facial expressions in an effort to maintain that neutrality. Oculesics Establishing and maintalnlng eye contact has been shown in a large number of studies to initiate and foster trust (Gueguen and Jacob 2002), create favorable evaluations in nonthreatening interactions (Knackstedt and Kleinke 1991), as well as to create and display a transparency of understanding in interpersonal transactions (Ucok 2006). In a study of sales call anxiety, Verbeke and Bagozzi (2000) ...
Article
As more women enter into the traditionally male-dominated occupations of sales and purchasing, an understanding of gender differences in communication can provide salespeople with added information to increase their effectiveness. 1his paper begins with a review of the research on gender differences in verbal and non-verbal communication and then applies these findings to the field of sales. The paper concludes with managerial implications and recommendations for how salespeople might account for gendered aspects of their communications and by so doing potentially increase the effectiveness of their sales process.
... 4). One study found that people who looked more at their communication partner were perceived more positively than those who did not (Murphy, 2007), while another found that people who averted their gaze were less effective than those who did not (Guéguen, and Jacob, 2002). ...
Article
The three experiments presented here examined the effectiveness of restaurant servers who memorize customers’ orders rather than writing orders down. In the experiments, participants viewed videos of simulated server-diner interactions and provided ratings of service quality and expected tip amount. Experiment 1 found no advantage to memorizing orders over writing them down. Experiment 2 found that memorized and correctly delivered entrees resulted in statistically significant increases in customers’ perceptions of service quality and in marginally higher tips. In addition, muddled (versus correct) orders resulted in lower ratings of service quality and dramatically lower anticipated tips. Experiment 3 found that memorizing and muddling complex orders had no effect on perceptions of service quality but led to significantly lower expected tips. The applied and theoretical implications of these results are discussed.
... That is, EPSI's locus (as with non-video mediated social encounters) is in the psychological space established when the video persona looks into the camera and the viewer brings online the faux sense of a social encounter that the media persona is present and is reacting to the viewer. In face-to-face settings, direct looks of a source-as compared to evasive glances-increased compliance with a request (Guéguen & Jacob, 2002), and cues to being watched-like a picture of a pair of eyes-instigated cooperative behavior (Bateson, Nettle, & Roberts, 2006). For example, placing a photo of eyes above a soap dispenser at hospitals increased hand hygiene, as people felt observed and obliged to comply with hygienic standards (e.g., King et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Does the experience of parasocial interaction (EPSI) increase the persuasiveness of a video message? In a between-subjects experiment (N = 465) we used bodily addressing to successfully vary EPSI in viewers of three brief video-recorded health messages. This manipulation, however, yielded no significant effect on viewers’ perceived persuasiveness of the message and their attitude toward the recommended behavior, and the effect on viewers’ felt obligation to comply with the presenter of the message was only marginally significant. However, self-reported EPSI was significantly positively correlated with all persuasion measures, and exploratory analyses yielded significant indirect effects of the manipulation on persuasion via self-reported EPSI. Limitations and implications are discussed.
... Among the possible interactional behaviours to be studied, eye gaze was chosen in part because of evidence that gaze timing might be atypical in individuals with TBI (Turkstra, 2005), but also because it serves a critical role in regulating interpersonal interactions. Gaze direction influences a listener's perception of a speaker's intelligence (Murphy, Hall, & Colvin, 2003), increases the probability of compliance with a request (Gueguen & Jacob, 2002), and improves the accuracy and efficiency of dyadic task performance (Clark & Krych, 2004). In face-toface conversations, gaze contributes to the regulation of turn taking. ...
Article
Full-text available
Most studies of conversational discourse in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have used summary measures averaged over time. These measures have yielded useful aggregate data but do not capture the temporal dynamics of interpersonal interactions. To fully characterise the conversational discourse of individuals with TBI, it may be useful to consider individuals and behaviours as systems changing over time. In this article, we review dynamic systems approaches that have been used to study conversational interactions, and present data to illustrate their potential utility in characterising the conversational discourse of individuals with TBI.
... Studies like the one by Vinkhuyzen and Cefkin (2016) indicate that gestures like waving are common practice between drivers and pedestrians when negotiating right of way. Additionally, earlier research has concluded that a pedestrian's direct stare towards an oncoming driver invokes more compliant and yielding behaviour (Guéguen & Jacob 2002, Guéguen, Meineri & Eyssartier 2015. Šucha (2014b) determined from his study that interaction between a driver's choice of speed and a pedestrian's crossing decision is dependent on gaining "a maximum, whether it means time, safety, or comfort". ...
Article
Full-text available
For a smooth, safe and comfortable cooperation of all actors in traffic good communication is essential. In view of the progressing automation in traffic the impacts on communication have to be considered. This paper puts a special focus on car automation's impact on the communication between road users including interaction between highly automated vehicles and vulnerable road users (VRUs). The main research objective was to develop relevant assumptions concerning changing conditions of communication. To reach this objective, interviews with experts were carried out. The results show that various developments between the two poles - (1) implementation controlled by certain societal strategies or (2) implementation that just takes its course - are considered possible. Enhanced automation could lead to the decrease in the use of interpersonal communication while the use of digital communication gains the upper hand. Such a development, on the one hand is seen as a chance for the improvement of traffic safety and efficiency. On the other hand, interviewed experts also identify risks such as misunderstandings between VRUs and automated cars, with fatal outcomes, or reductions in traffic flow. This is expected to be the case especially during the transition phase where vehicles with different degrees of automation are on the road and where many road users outside vehicles move about, e.g. in densely inhabited areas, where ~70% of the citizens in industrial countries live nowadays.
... [13; 16-19] One of the most primal modes of communication is touch: research shows that; along with a suggestion or request; touch has a synergistic effect on compliance.+ In a series of foundational experiments in a variety of natural settings (e.g.; medication noncompliance; product sales; solicitations for gifts or favors; or help; information; and even free rides and violations of prohibited behavior; etc.) over several years; Gueguen and associates [20][21][22][23][24][25] convincingly demonstrated that a brief touch and a direct gaze accompanied by a request had a positive influence on compliance-despite the size of the request from the person doing the touching and whether recipients were even aware they were touched at all. Indeed; Hornik; [26] Smith; Gier; and Willis; [27] Willis and Hamm; [28] and Crusco and Wetzel [29] found that tactile contact enhanced spontaneous compliance and improved sales-even when no request was made. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This research brief reports results from an exploratory pilot study on the use of socially acceptable touch in a public setting that accompanies a request to improve program compliance with "street level" crack cocaine users. Methods: Study participants consisted of 120 crack cocaine-using participants in a larger community-based HIV/STD prevention and research program targeting at-risk African-Americans. They were required to return for a series of four booster health education sessions over 2-5 days and 6 month and 1 year follow-up assessments. The most difficult aspect of this program was no-shows for the second booster session; study participants who attended at least two sessions were much more likely to attend all sessions and complete the entire lengthy program. The program director randomly approached some participants after the first visit in a public setting and briefly touched them as part of a handshake; then, the director asked them to return for their follow-up sessions. Whether they were approached or not was random. Analysis comprised descriptive and non-parametric statistics. Results: Ninety-three percent of participants who were asked to return and were touched returned for the second session; only 75% returned who had been asked to do so but were not touched. A statistically significant difference favored being touched and complying, as measured by second-session returning participants (p < .01), though it appeared the touch / request had more of a preventive than a promotional effect. Extraneous demographic and background factors were ruled out with the exception of age (older participants), which contributed slightly. Conclusions: Results suggest that a request "anchored" to a socially acceptable public touch is promising in terms of improving program participation and engagement. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.
... In current traffic, drivers and other road users communicate in one of two ways: (1) Vehicle-centric cues such as the vehicle's velocity, deceleration, and stopping distances [3,4,36,48], and (2) driver-centric cues such as gestures, eye-contact, and posture [15,19,20,35,36,39,40,43]. It has been argued that in the absence of driver-centric communication, automated vehicles (AVs) may need external Human-Machine-Interfaces (eHMI) to communicate safely and effectively with pedestrians in road-crossing situations [9,26]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Figure 1. We evaluated user preferences for a light band eHMI with 3 colors (green, cyan, and red), and 5 animation patterns (flashing, pulsing, wiping inwards, wiping outwards, and wiping alternatively inwards as well as outwards). ABSTRACT In this paper, we report user preferences regarding color and animation patterns to support the interaction between Automated Vehicles (AVs) and pedestrians through an external Human-Machine-Interface (eHMI). Existing concepts of eHMI differ-among other things-in their use of colors or animations to express an AV's yielding intention. In the absence of empirical research, there is a knowledge gap regarding which color and animation leads to highest usability and preferences in traffic negotiation situations. We conducted an online survey (N=400) to investigate the comprehensibility of a light band eHMI with a combination of 5 color and 3 animation patterns for a yielding AV. Results show that cyan is considered a neutral color for communicating a yielding intention. Additionally, a uniformly flashing or pulsing animation is preferred compared to any pattern that animates sideways. These insights can contribute in the future design and standardization of eHMIs.
... Road usage is a social activity that requires interactions between all road users to maintain a good flow of traffic and to guarantee the safety of all involved parties [50]. In current traffic situations, drivers perform these interactions in two ways: (1) through vehicle-centric cues, such as velocity, deceleration and stopping distances [4,5,17,54], and (2) through driver-centric cues such as eye contact, posture and gestures [23,25,26,49,54,56,57,58]. These communication cues often revolve around assessing the intentions of other road users [19,61,63]. ...
Conference Paper
Figure 1. We evaluated pedestrian interaction with automated vehicles under four conditions: Baseline (no eHMI or conspicuous sensor system), eHMI (shown in non-yielding state-glowing steadily), visible sensors (a conspicuous sensor system on the rooftop), and both manipulations simultaneously (with eHMI shown in yielding state, animating in a pattern with light segments moving inwards). ABSTRACT In this paper, we investigate the effect of an external human-machine interface (eHMI) and a conspicuous external vehicle appearance due to visible sensors on pedestrian interactions with automated vehicles (AVs). Recent research shows that AVs may need to explicitly communicate with the environment due to the absence of a driver. Furthermore, in interaction situations, an AV that looks different and conspicuous owing to an extensive sensor system may potentially lead to hesitation stemming from mistrust in automation. Thus, we evaluated in a virtual reality study how pedestrian attitude, the presence/absence of an eHMI, and a conspicuous sensor system affect their willingness to cross the road. Results recommend the use of an eHMI. A conspicuous appearance of automated-driving capability had no effect for the sample as a whole, although it led to more efficient crossing decisions for those with a more negative attitude towards AVs. Our findings contribute towards the effective design of future AV interfaces.
... To make it a commonplace, AVs need to perform appropriate social interactions like human drivers do in conventional cars for increased public acceptance [4][5]. Human drivers deliver these interactions mainly in two different ways: through explicit communication cues such as gestures, posture, eye contact [6][7][8][9] and through implicit communication cues such as deceleration, stopping distance, speed, etc. [10][11][12][13]. Implicit cues are built-in features of any vehicle, no matter human-driven or automated. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In AV (automated vehicle) and pedestrian interaction studies, a plethora of researchers have focused on studying how the interaction design (both implicit and explicit) influences pedestrian behaviors (e.g., [1-2]). Even though a few studies look at response differences in different pedestrian segments, such as considering gender, education, and age, few works examine the differences across individuals who have different risk perceptions, and who live in different areas. This study preliminarily explores if and how the effect of an AV's eHMI (external Human-machine Interface) varies across individuals that have different perceived risk levels and living areas through an online study. The results show that eHMI had a larger effect, in terms of increased trust in an AV, on individuals who perceived the scenario risk as low compared to the effect on individuals who perceived it as medium or high. The effect on crossing decisions was diminished for participants when their perceived risk went higher. In addition, the presence of an eHMI had a smaller influence on individuals that live in cities than those living in suburban or rural areas. The results indicate that the effect of an eHMI is limited when the condition itself is perceived as high risk and when the target audiences are mainly people in cities who typically experience high-density traffic. More appropriate communication might be needed in this case, such as standard traffic signals, or a secondary communication cue that confirms the AV's yielding intent. The overall findings indicate the necessity to consider pedestrians' perceptions such as risk and living area when implementing eHMIs for the purpose of enhanced AV-pedestrian interaction experience.
... If the driver returns the eye contact, pedestrians assume that they have been seen and that the driver will act accordingly [87]. This assumption is supported by studies showing that a pedestrian's direct stare towards an oncoming driver invokes more compliant and yielding behavior [40,41]. ...
Chapter
As the control of driving tasks is increasingly transferred from the human driver to the on-board sensor and computer systems, a potential gap in communication is created between the car as an entity, and other road users. How can pedestrians, cyclists, and other drivers be certain that an automated vehicle is aware of the different road users in its environment and will do the ‘right thing’? In the need for creating a sense of optimal trust in automated vehicles, particularly in the nascent stages of their development and introduction to traffic, this communication gap needs to be filled. This chapter looks at the state of the art of the research that tries to answer this question, and lays out some common considerations and recommendations for the design of such systems.
... To make it a commonplace, AVs need to perform appropriate social interactions like human drivers do in conventional cars for increased public acceptance [4,5]. Human drivers deliver these interactions mainly in two different ways: through explicit communication cues such as gestures, posture, eye contact [6][7][8][9] and through implicit communication cues such as deceleration, stopping distance, speed, etc. [10][11][12][13]. Implicit cues are built-in features of any vehicle, no matter human-driven or automated. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In AV (automated vehicle) and pedestrian interaction studies, a plethora of researchers have focused on studying how the interaction design (both implicit and explicit) influences pedestrian behaviors (e.g., Dey et al. in Communicating the intention of an automated vehicle to pedestrians: the contributions of eHMI and vehicle behavior, 2020 [1]; de Clercq et al. in Hum Factors 61(8):1353–1370, 2019 [2]). Even though a few studies look at response differences in different pedestrian segments, such as considering gender, education, and age, few works examine the differences across individuals who have different risk perceptions, and who live in different areas. This study preliminarily explores if and how the effect of an AV’s eHMI (external Human–machine Interface) varies across individuals that have different perceived risk levels and living areas through an online study. The results show that eHMI had a larger effect, in terms of increased trust in an AV, on individuals who perceived the scenario risk as low compared to the effect on individuals who perceived it as medium or high. The effect on crossing decisions was diminished for participants when their perceived risk went higher. In addition, the presence of an eHMI had a smaller influence on individuals that live in cities than those living in suburban or rural areas. The results indicate that the effect of an eHMI is limited when the condition itself is perceived as high risk and when the target audiences are mainly people in cities who typically experience high-density traffic. More appropriate communication might be needed in this case, such as standard traffic signals, or a secondary communication cue that confirms the AV’s yielding intent. The overall findings indicate the necessity to consider pedestrians’ perceptions such as risk and living area when implementing eHMIs for the purpose of enhanced AV-pedestrian interaction experience.
... Evasive glances and limited duration eye contact, on the part of a communicator, tend to reduce compliance with requests (Gueguen & Jacob, 2002). Research has revealed that nonverbal communication can enhance clients' reactions to communications from service providers (Gabbott & Hogg, 2000;Sundaram & Webster, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the potential effectiveness of training in nonverbal communication for sales representatives. The literature on this subject was reviewed, and a study using students as sales representatives was conducted to evaluate the potential of training in body language. The research results provide support for the proposition that such training can be of value in academic and practical applications.
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown that a person receives more help when smiling. Nevertheless, this effect of smiling was only tested when the smiler was requesting help. An experiment was completed in which 8 confederates (4 young men and 4 young women) tested 800 passersby. In half of the cases, the confederate smiled at the passerby. A few seconds after this interaction, the passersby had the opportunity to help another confederate who dropped his/her computer diskettes on the ground. This research found that the previous smile of a stranger enhanced later helping behavior. A positive mood induced by the smile of the first confederate could help to explain this result.
Article
Mimicry is generally associated with a feeling of similarity that often results in a positive perception of the mimicker. We hypothesized that participants would become less reluctant to respond to highly intimate questions when these questions were administered by a mimicking interviewer. A female confederate approached female students for their participation in a survey on sexual behavior in which the questions became increasingly intimate. During the survey, confederates mimicked or did not mimic the participants. It was found that participants in the mimicry condition responded to more questions than did nonparticipants.
Article
People interact more readily with someone who they think they have something in common with. We hypothesized that participants would become less reluctant to respond to intimate questions when these questions were administered by an interviewer who possessed an incidental similarity with the participant. Male and female confederates approached male and female passersby respectively for their participation in a survey on sexual behavior in which the questions became increasingly intimate. At the beginning of the survey, the interviewer pointed out (similarity condition) or not (no similarity condition) that he/she shared the same birthday as the participant. It was found that the participants in the similarity condition responded to more questions.
Article
The Global Internet Video Classroom (GIVC) Project connected Chicago Civil Rights activists of the 1960s with Cape Town Anti-Apartheid activists of the 1960s in a classroom setting where learners from Cape Town and Chicago engaged activists in conversations about their motivation, principles, and strategies. The project was launched in order to provide a connection between the generations.
Purpose – The research concerns the effect of frontline employees’ averted or direct gaze on consumers’ evaluation of the encounter. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that in normal interactions, a direct or averted gaze affects people’s evaluation of others. The question was whether this finding would hold true in commercial interactions. Design/methodology/approach – The authors conducted three experiments using a written scenario with a photograph among a total sample of 612 participants. Findings – This research showed that consumers’ social impression of the frontline employees mediated the effect of the employees’ gazing behaviour on consumers’ emotions and satisfaction with the encounters. The findings also showed that averting gaze had a negative effect on consumers’ first impression of the frontline employee, which affected consumers’ satisfaction with the encounter. The findings also showed that a direct gaze had a negative effect on encounter satisfaction when consumers sought to purchase embarrassing products. Originality/value – The research demonstrated that the effect of gaze on encounter satisfaction was mediated by the social impression and moderated by consumers’ approach/avoidance motivation.
Chapter
Automated driving is transforming the driving experience in the 21st-century vehicle. As a result, interacting with in-vehicle information systems, infotainment, in-car productivity or social interactions and real-life experiences with other passengers in the car, are slowly emerging as primary activities. UX researchers focus more and more on the users not only by developing products and services for them and enhancing their experiences but also actively involving them in co-designing for their own experience. Our research with designers inside the automotive industry suggests that the industry is exceptionally traditional regarding the methods and tools used to design and evaluate interactive experiences in comparison to other domains. In this chapter, we will report on the limitations of the industry in comparison to academia. Besides, we will report on the needs of the automotive UX practitioners and discuss the state of the art methods and tools that are most valued in the automotive industry.
Book
Full-text available
The book groups social influence techniques according to a common characteristic: for instance, early chapters describe "sequential" techniques, and techniques involving egotistic mechanisms, such as using the name of one’s interlocutor. Later chapters present techniques based on gestures and facial movements, and others based on the use of specific words, re-examining on the way whether "please" really is a magic word. In every case, author Dariusz Dolinski discusses the existing experimental studies exploring their effectiveness, and how that effectiveness is enhanced or reduced under certain conditions. The book draws on historical material as well as the most up-to-date research, and unpicks the methodological and theoretical controversies involved. The ideal introduction for psychology graduates and undergraduates studying social influence and persuasion, Techniques of Social Influence will also appeal to scholars and students in neighbouring disciplines, as well as interested marketing professionals and practitioners in related fields.
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
Leaflets were offered to 600 male and 600 female pedestrians by gazing and non-gazing male and female experimenters with a conciliatory tone ("Excuse me. Would you like one?"), a demanding tone ("Take one!"), or with no verbalization. Significant main effects showed that subjects took more leaflets when the experimenter gazed and when the experimenter was female. There were no main effects for subject sex and tone of request. Significant interactions resulted in the following conclusions: (a) female subjects complied significantly more with a demanding request than male subjects; (b) experimenter gaze had greater influence on compliance to male experimenters than on compliance to female experimenters; (c) the influence of gaze on compliance was greater when experimenters were silent or conciliatory then when they were demanding.
Article
American male (n = 60) and female (n = 60) college undergraduates were randomly assigned to 12 same-sex groups of 10 subjects each. The groups individually viewed one of six 60-s videotapes. The male or female model in the tape maintained eye contact with an alleged interviewer for a total of 5 s, 30 s, or 50 s. Thus, the design factorially combined gender of subject, gender of model, and duration of eye contact, with all comparisons between subjects. After viewing the tape, subjects rated the model on a series of bipolar adjectives designed to assess the perceived potency (e.g., strength, aggression, and leadership) of the model. The results consistently showed that as eye contact increased, the models were perceived as more potent. In addition, the models were judged to have higher grade point averages (GPAs) as their eye contact increased. The effects of gender (of both model and subject) were mostly nonsignificant, following no systematic pattern.
Article
A number of studies have examined in the laboratory the effects of an individual's eye-gaze upon the behavior of another. In this study the effects of gaze were investigated in a real-life setting in which a collector of money for a charity either looked a possible donor in the eye when asking for money or looked at the collecting tin. Significantly more money was donated in the former condition. While neither the style of dress of the collector nor the locality in which the collections were made had an overall effect, significant interactive effects were noted for gaze and style of dress, for style of dress and locality, and for gaze and locality. Gaze was a more potent factor when the collector was dressed casually than smartly, and when the collections were made in high-rise flats as opposed to terraced houses.
Article
Approximately 3000 male and female pedestrians (mostly college students) were solicited for a donation to a charitable organization. Three male and three female undergraduates served as solicitors and made either a direct, face-to-face appeal or a less direct, impersonal appeal. As hypothesized, the direct appeal was more successful than the impersonal appeal. Also, donors receiving the direct appeal gave larger amounts when the traffic was comparatively light, but the proportion giving was unaffected by traffic density. The sex of the solicitor made a difference only with the impersonal appeal. Females may be viewed as more trustworthy in situations in which suspicion of the genuineness of the request is most relevant; face-to-face requests of a relatively nonsuspicious kind may appear equally trustworthy whether made by male or female solicitors.
Article
The present study was designed to explore further the effects of nonverbal behaviors and sex on compliance. Male and female subjects who had just found a dime in a phone booth were approached by a male or female experimenter and were asked to return the dime that the experimenter had supposedly just lost. In the Eye Contact condition, the experimenter gazed at the subject as the request was made, whereas in the No-Eye Contact condition he/she did not. In addition, the experimenter lightly touched half of the subjects while making his/her request, but did not touch the other half. Replicating previous findings, it was found that both eye contact (significantly) and touching (marginally) produced increased rates of compliance. Extending prior results, these effects were obtained for male experimenters. Furthermore, a Sex of experimenter times Sex of subject interaction effect was obtained, such that subjects were much more willing to comply with the request of an opposite, rather than same sex experimenter. Questionnaire data suggested that: 1) subjects were aware of the touch, but not of the eye contact variable, and 2) the requesters were perceived as much more attractive when they were of the opposite, rather than the same sex as the subjects.
Article
It was hypothesized that experimenter gaze would lead to increased compliancewith a legitimate request and decreased compliance with an illegitimate request. Subjects (95 males, 73 females) in Experiment 1 gave more dimes for a phone call to gazing rather than non-gazing female experimenters. Experimenter gaze did not influence dimes given by subjects for a candy bar. Experiment 2 replicated Experiment 1 with a different legitimacy manipulation and with an additional treatment including both gaze and touch. A significant interaction showed that subjects (56 males, 58 females) gave more dimes for a legitimate request (phone call) when they received gaze alone or gaze and touch from a female experimenter. Subjects gave more dimes for an illegitimate request (buying gum) when the experimenter did not gaze at or touch them.
Article
American male and female college students who were randomly assigned to one of six groups viewed a 60-s videotape. The content of the tape was derived from the factorial combination of sex of model (both American and White) on the tape with duration of eye contact (5 s, 30 s, or 50 s) maintained by the model with an interviewer. After viewing the tape, the subjects completed the Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory (O'Brien & Epstein, 1988) as they thought the model in the tape would. For all 10 self-esteem component scales, scores significantly increased as amount of eye contact increased. For 7 of the 10 scales, self-esteem scores for the female model were higher than those for the male model. The data generally extend and support previous research demonstrating that, as eye contact increases between Americans, American observers rate them more favorably.