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International Table of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Values

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Abstract

Reliable tables of glycemic index (GI) compiled from the scientific literature are instrumental in improving the quality of research examining the relation between GI, glycemic load, and health. The GI has proven to be a more useful nutritional concept than is the chemical classification of carbohydrate (as simple or complex, as sugars or starches, or as available or unavailable), permitting new insights into the relation between the physiologic effects of carbohydrate-rich foods and health. Several prospective observational studies have shown that the chronic consumption of a diet with a high glycemic load (GI x dietary carbohydrate content) is independently associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers. This revised table contains almost 3 times the number of foods listed in the original table (first published in this Journal in 1995) and contains nearly 1300 data entries derived from published and unpublished verified sources, representing > 750 different types of foods tested with the use of standard methods. The revised table also lists the glycemic load associated with the consumption of specified serving sizes of different foods.
ABSTRACT Reliable tables of glycemic index (GI) com-
piled from the scientific literature are instrumental in improving
the quality of research examining the relation between GI,
glycemic load, and health. The GI has proven to be a more use-
ful nutritional concept than is the chemical classification of car-
bohydrate (as simple or complex, as sugars or starches, or as
available or unavailable), permitting new insights into the rela-
tion between the physiologic effects of carbohydrate-rich foods
and health. Several prospective observational studies have shown
that the chronic consumption of a diet with a high glycemic load
(GI dietary carbohydrate content) is independently associated
with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovas-
cular disease, and certain cancers. This revised table contains
almost 3 times the number of foods listed in the original table
(first published in this Journal in 1995) and contains nearly 1300
data entries derived from published and unpublished verified
sources, representing >750 different types of foods tested with
the use of standard methods. The revised table also lists the
glycemic load associated with the consumption of specified
serving sizes of different foods. Am J Clin Nutr
2002;76:5–56.
KEY WORDS Glycemic index, carbohydrates, diabetes,
glycemic load
INTRODUCTION
Twenty years have passed since the first index of the relative
glycemic effects of carbohydrate exchanges from 51 foods was
published by Jenkins et al (1) in this Journal. Per gram of carbo-
hydrate, foods with a high glycemic index (GI) produce a higher
peak in postprandial blood glucose and a greater overall blood glu-
cose response during the first 2 h after consumption than do foods
with a low GI. Despite controversial beginnings, the GI is now
widely recognized as a reliable, physiologically based classifica-
tion of foods according to their postprandial glycemic effect.
In 1997 a committee of experts was brought together by the
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations
and the World Health Organization (WHO) to review the avail-
able research evidence regarding the importance of carbohy-
drates in human nutrition and health (2). The committee
endorsed the use of the GI method for classifying carbohydrate-
rich foods and recommended that the GI values of foods be used
in conjunction with information about food composition to guide
food choices. To promote good health, the committee advocated
the consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet ( 55% of energy
from carbohydrate), with the bulk of carbohydrate-containing
foods being rich in nonstarch polysaccharides with a low GI. In
Australia, official dietary guidelines for healthy elderly people
specifically recommend the consumption of low-GI cereal foods
for good health (3), and a GI trademark certification program is
in place to put GI values on food labels as a means of helping
consumers to select low-GI foods (4). Commercial GI testing of
foods for the food industry is currently conducted by many
laboratories around the world, including our own. Many recent
popular diet books contain extensive lists of the GI values of
individual foods or advocate the consumption of low-GI, carbo-
hydrate-rich foods for weight control and good health (5).
Reliable tables of GI compiled from the scientific literature
are instrumental in improving the quality of research examining
the relation between the dietary glycemic effect and health. The
first edition of International Tables of Glycemic Index, published
in this Journal in 1995 with 565 entries (6), has been cited as a
reference in many scientific papers. In particular, these tables
provided the basis for the GI to be used a dietary epidemiologic
tool, allowing novel comparisons of the effects of different
carbohydrates on disease risk, separate from the traditional
classification of carbohydrates into starches and sugars. Sev-
eral large-scale, observational studies from Harvard University
(Cambridge, MA) indicate that the long-term consumption of a
diet with a high glycemic load (GL; GI dietary carbohydrate
content) is a significant independent predictor of the risk of
developing type 2 diabetes (7, 8) and cardiovascular disease (9).
More recently, evidence has been accumulating that a low-GI
diet might also protect against the development of obesity (10,
11), colon cancer (12), and breast cancer (13). The EURODIAB
(Europe and Diabetes) study, involving >3000 subjects with type 1
diabetes in 31 clinics throughout Europe, showed that the GI rat-
ing of self-selected diets was independently related to blood
concentrations of glycated hemoglobin in men and women (14)
Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:5–56. Printed in USA. © 2002 American Society for Clinical Nutrition
International table of glycemic index and glycemic load
values: 2002
1, 2
Kaye Foster-Powell, Susanna HA Holt, and Janette C Brand-Miller
5
1
From the Human Nutrition Unit, School of Molecular and Microbial Bio-
sciences, University of Sydney, Australia.
2
Reprints not available. Address correspondence to JC Brand-Miller, Human
Nutrition Unit, School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences (G08), University
of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. E-mail: j.brandmiller@biochem.usyd.edu.au.
Received November 20, 2001.
Accepted for publication March 26, 2002.
Special Article
and to waist circumference in men (15). In addition, higher
blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations were observed in patients
consuming low-GI diets from the northern, eastern, and western
European centers participating in the study (15). Indeed, several
studies have shown that the dietary GI is a good predictor of
HDL concentrations in the healthy population, whereas the
amount and type of fat are not (16–18). Thus, the GI has proven
to be a more useful nutritional concept than is the chemical clas-
sification of carbohydrate (as simple or complex, as sugars or
starches, or as available or unavailable), providing new insights
into the relation between foods and health.
In parallel with these advances have been studies document-
ing the importance of postprandial glycemia per se for all-cause
mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality in healthy popu-
lations (19). For example, in the Hoorn study there was a signi-
ficant association between the 8-y risk of cardiovascular death
and 2-h postload blood glucose concentrations in subjects
with normal fasting glucose concentrations, even after adjust-
ment for known risk factors (20). Multiple mechanisms are prob-
ably involved. Recurring, excessive postprandial glycemia could
decrease blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations, increase
triglyceridemia, and also be directly toxic by increasing protein
glycation, generating oxidative stress, and causing transient
hypercoagulation and impaired endothelial function (21, 22). If
postprandial glycemia is indeed important, then dietary treat-
ment for the prevention or management of chronic diseases must
consider both the amount and type of carbohydrate consumed.
An issue that is still being debated, particularly within the
United States, is whether the GI has practical applications for the
clinical treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Three
intervention studies in adults and children with type 1 diabetes
showed that low-GI diets improve glycated hemoglobin concen-
trations (23–25). In subjects with cardiovascular disease, low-GI
diets were shown to be associated with improvements in insulin
sensitivity and blood lipid concentrations (23, 26). In addition,
evidence from both short-term and long-term studies in animals
and humans indicates that low-GI foods may be useful for weight
control. Laboratory studies examining the short-term satiating
effects of foods have shown that low-GI foods are relatively more
satiating than are their high-GI counterparts (10). Compared with
low-GI meals, high-GI meals induce a greater rise and fall in
blood glucose and a greater rise in blood insulin, leading to lower
concentrations of the body’s 2 main fuels (blood glucose and fatty
acids) in the immediate postabsorptive period. The reduced avail-
ability of metabolic fuels may act as a signal to stimulate eat-
ing (11). It is also important to emphasize that many low-GI
foods are relatively less refined than are their high-GI counter-
parts and are more difficult to consume. The lower energy density
and palatability of these foods are important determinants of their
greater satiating capacity. In obese children, the ad libitum con-
sumption of a low-GI diet has been associated with greater reduc-
tions in body mass indexes (27). However, some experts have
raised concerns about the difficulties of putting advice about GI
values into practice and of the potentially adverse effects on food
choice and fat intake. For this reason, the American Diabetes
Association does not recommend the use of GI values for dietary
counseling. However, the European Association for the Study of
Diabetes (28), the Canadian Diabetes Association (29), and the
Dietitians Association of Australia (30) all recommend high-fiber,
low-GI foods for individuals with diabetes as a means of improv-
ing postprandial glycemia and weight control.
REVISED INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GI VALUES
For all clinical and research applications, reliable GI values
are needed. Therefore, the purpose of this revised table is to
bring together all the relevant data published between 1981 and
2001 (Table 1). Unpublished figures from our laboratory and
those from others have also been included when the quality of
the data could be verified on the basis of the method used [ie, the
method is in line with the principles advocated by the FAO/WHO
Expert Consultation (2)]. In total, the new table contains nearly
1300 separate entries, representing >750 different types of foods.
This number of foods represents an increase of almost 250%
over the number provided when the international tables were
first published in 1995. As in the original tables, the GI value for
each food (with either glucose or white bread used as the refer-
ence food), the type and number of subjects tested, the reference
food and time period used, and the published source of the data
are provided. For many foods there are 2 published values;
therefore, the mean (± SEM) GIs were calculated and are listed
underneath the data for the individual foods. Thus, the user can
appreciate the variation for any one food and, if possible, use the
GI value for the food found in their country. It is hoped that the
table will reduce unnecessary repetition in the testing of individ-
ual foods and facilitate wider research and application of the GI.
In some cases, the GI values for different varieties of the same
type of food listed in the table indicate the glycemic-lowering
effects of different ingredients and food processing methods (eg,
porridges made from rolled grains of different thicknesses and
breads with different proportions of whole grains). This infor-
mation could assist food manufacturers to develop a greater
range of low-GI processed foods.
WHY DO GI VALUES FOR THE SAME TYPES OF FOODS
SOMETIMES VARY?
Many people have raised concerns about the variation in pub-
lished GI values for apparently similar foods. This variation may
reflect both methodologic factors and true differences in the
physical and chemical characteristics of the foods. One possibil-
ity is that 2 similar foods may have different ingredients or may
have been processed with a different method, resulting in signi-
ficant differences in the rate of carbohydrate digestion and hence
the GI value. Two different brands of the same type of food, such
as a plain cookie, may look and taste almost the same, but dif-
ferences in the type of flour used, in the moisture content, and in
the cooking time can result in differences in the degree of starch
gelatinization and consequently the GI values. In addition, it
must be remembered that the GI values listed in the table for
commercially available processed foods may change over time if
food manufacturers make changes in the ingredients or process-
ing methods used.
Another reason GI values for apparently similar foods vary is
that different testing methods are used in different parts of the
world. Differences in testing methods include the use of different
types of blood samples (capillary or venous), different experimen-
tal time periods, and different portions of foods (50 g of total
rather than of available carbohydrate). Recently, 7 experienced GI
testing laboratories around the world participated in a study to
determine the degree of variation in GI values when the same cen-
trally distributed foods were tested according to the laboratories’
normal in-house testing procedures (31). The results showed that
the 5 laboratories that used finger-prick capillary blood samples to
6 FOSTER-POWELL ET AL
measure changes in postprandial glycemia obtained similar GI
values for the same foods and less intersubject variation. Although
capillary and venous blood glucose values have been shown to be
highly correlated, it appears that capillary blood samples may be
preferable to venous blood samples for reliable GI testing. After
the consumption of food, glucose concentrations change to a
greater degree in capillary blood samples than in venous blood
samples. Therefore, capillary blood may be a more relevant indi-
cator of the physiologic consequences of high-GI foods.
Although it is clear that GI values are generally reproducible
from place to place, there are some instances of wide variation
for the same food. Rice, for example, shows a large range of GI
values, but this variation is due to inherent botanical differences
in rice from country to country rather than to methodologic dif-
ferences. Differences in the amylose content could explain much
of the variation in the GI values of rice (and other foods) because
amylose is digested more slowly than is amylopectin starch (32).
GI values for rice cannot be reliably predicted on the basis of the
size of the grain (short or long grain) or the type of cooking
method. Rice is obviously one type of food that needs to be
tested brand by brand locally. Carrots are another example of a
food with a wide variation in published GI values; the oldest
study showed a GI of 92 ± 20 and the latest study a GI of 32 ± 5.
However, the results of an examination of the SEs (20 compared
with 5) and the number of subjects tested (5 compared with 8)
suggest that the latest value for carrots is more reliable, although
differences in nutrient content and preparation methods con-
tributed somewhat to this variation.
An important reason GI values for similar foods sometimes
vary between laboratories is because of the method used for
determining the carbohydrate content of the test foods. GI test-
ing requires that portions of both the reference foods and test
foods contain the same amount of available carbohydrate, typi-
cally 50 or 25 g. The available or glycemic carbohydrate fraction
in foods, which is available for absorption in the small intestine,
is measured as the sum of starch and sugars and does not include
resistant starch. Most researchers rely on food-composition
tables or food manufacturers’ data, whereas others directly meas-
ure the starch and sugar contents of the foods.
This difference in the accuracy of measurements of the carbo-
hydrate content might explain some of the variation in reported
GI values for fruit and potatoes and other vegetables. Food labels
may or may not include the dietary fiber content of the food in
the total carbohydrate value, leading to confusion that can
markedly affect GI values, especially those for high-fiber foods.
Consequently, researchers should obtain accurate laboratory
measurements of the available carbohydrate content of foods as
an essential preliminary step in GI testing. The available carbo-
hydrate portion of test and reference foods should not include
resistant starch, but, in practice, this can be difficult to ensure
because resistant starch is difficult to measure. There is also dif-
ficulty in determining the degree of availability of novel carbo-
hydrates, such as sugar alcohols, which are incompletely
absorbed at relatively high doses.
Measuring the rate at which carbohydrates in foods are digested
in vitro has been suggested as a cheaper and less time-consuming
method for predicting the GI values of foods (33). However, only
a few foods have been subjected to both in vitro and in vivo test-
ing, and it is not yet known whether the in vitro method is a reli-
able indication of the in vivo postprandial glycemic effects of all
types of foods. It is possible that some factors that significantly
affect glycemia in vivo, such as the rate of gastric emptying, will
not change the rate of carbohydrate digestion in vitro. For exam-
ple, high osmolality and high acidity or soluble fiber slow down
the gastric emptying rate and reduce glycemia in vivo, but they
may not alter the rate of carbohydrate digestion in vitro. It is dif-
ficult to mimic all of the human digestive processes in a test
tube. In fact, research results from our laboratory have shown
that GI values measured in vivo can be significantly different for
the same foods measured in vitro. Until we know more about the
validity of in vitro methods, it is not recommended that they be
used in clinical or epidemiologic research applications or for
food labeling purposes because of the potential for large over- or
underestimates of true GI values.
GUIDE TO THE USE OF THE REVISED TABLE
The GI values listed in the revised table represent high-quality
data published in refereed journals or unpublished values gener-
ated by Sydney University’s Glycemic Index Research Service,
often as a result of contract research by industry. The foods have
been described as unambiguously as possible by using descriptive
data about the food given in the original publication. In some
cases, descriptive details were extensive, including the species or
variety of plant food, the brand name of the processed food, and
the preparation and cooking methods. In other cases, the only
description was a single word (eg, potatoes or apple). If the cook-
ing method and cooking time were stated in the original reference,
the details are given. The user should bear in mind that countries
often have different names for the same food product or, alterna-
tively, the same name for different items. For example, Kellogg’s
Special K breakfast cereal is a very different product in North
America (Kellogg Canada Inc) than in Australia (Kellogg, Sydney,
Australia), each of which has a different GI value. Similarly, food
names may mean different things in different countries. For exam-
ple, biscuits, muffins,and scones have different meanings in North
America and in Europe. The terms used in the revised table have
been selected to be as internationally relevant as possible.
Some research laboratories continue to use white bread as the
reference food for measuring GI values, whereas others use glu-
cose (dextrose); therefore, 2 GI values are given for each food.
The first value is the GI with glucose as the reference food (GI
value for glucose = 100; GI value for white bread = 70), and the
second value is the GI for the same food with white bread as the
reference food (GI value for white bread = 100; GI value for glu-
cose = 143). When bread was the reference food used in the orig-
inal study, the GI value for the food was multiplied by 0.7 to
obtain the GI value with glucose as the reference food. The table
lists the reference food that was originally used to measure the
GI value of each food.
The foods in the table are separated into the following food
groups: bakery products, beverages, breads, breakfast cereals and
related products, breakfast cereal bars, cereal grains, cookies,
crackers, dairy products and alternatives, fruit and fruit products,
infant formula and weaning foods, legumes and nuts, meal-
replacement products, mixed meals and convenience foods,
nutritional-support products, pasta and noodles, snack foods and
confectionery, sports bars, soups, sugars and sugar alcohols, veg-
etables (including roots and tubers), and indigenous or tradi-
tional foods of different ethnic groups. Within each section, foods
are arranged in alphabetical order by common name. This classi-
fication of the foods was made on a practical rather than a sci-
INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD 7
entific basis. There are no GI values given for meat, poultry, fish,
avocados, salad vegetables, cheese, or eggs because these foods
contain little or no carbohydrate and it would be exceedingly dif-
ficult for people to consume a portion of the foods containing 50 g
or even 25 g of available carbohydrate. Even in large amounts,
these foods when eaten alone are not likely to induce a signifi-
cant rise in blood glucose.
GLYCEMIC LOAD
Both the quantity and quality (ie, nature or source) of carbo-
hydrate influence the glycemic response. By definition, the GI
compares equal quantities of carbohydrate and provides a meas-
ure of carbohydrate quality but not quantity. In 1997 the concept
of GL was introduced by researchers at Harvard University to
quantify the overall glycemic effect of a portion of food (7–9).
Thus, the GL of a typical serving of food is the product of the
amount of available carbohydrate in that serving and the GI of
the food. The higher the GL, the greater the expected elevation
in blood glucose and in the insulinogenic effect of the food. The
long-term consumption of a diet with a relatively high GL
(adjusted for total energy) is associated with an increased risk of
type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (9).
In the revised table, 3 columns of data not given in the 1995
table are included: GL values, a nominal serving size for each
food (weight in g or volume in mL), and the carbohydrate con-
tent of each food (in g/serving). The GL values are included for
most of the foods and were calculated by multiplying the amount
of carbohydrate contained in a specified serving size of the food
by the GI value of that food (with the use of glucose as the ref-
erence food), which was then divided by 100. The nominal serv-
ing sizes were chosen after consideration of typical serving sizes
in different countries. The carbohydrate content was obtained
from the reference paper or, when not available, from appropri-
ate food-composition tables (34–38). For indigenous foods, val-
ues were extrapolated from Western foods thought to be closest
in composition when the nutrient content was not available.
The purpose of including GL values in the revised table was
to allow comparisons of the likely glycemic effect of realistic
portion sizes of different foods. The data should be used cau-
tiously because they are not applicable to all situations. Portion
sizes vary markedly from country to country and between people
in the same country. Researchers and health professionals should
therefore calculate their own GL data by using appropriate serv-
ing sizes and carbohydrate-composition data. In the interest of
future editions of the table, we ask that reliable published and
unpublished data be sent to us for consideration.
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INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD 9
TABLE 1
International table of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values: 2002
1
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
BAKERY PRODUCTS
Cakes
1 Angel food cake (Loblaw’s, Toronto, 67 95 ± 7 Type 1 and 2, 9 White bread, 3 h 1 50 29 19
Canada)
2 Banana cake, made with sugar 47 ± 8 67 Healthy, 8 White bread, 2 h 2 80 38 18
3 Banana cake, made without sugar 55 ± 10 79 Healthy, 7 White bread, 2 h 2 80 29 16
4 Chocolate cake made from packet mix 38 ± 3 54 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
111 52 20
with chocolate frosting (Betty Crocker;
General Mills Inc, Minneapolis, MN, USA)
5 Cupcake, strawberry-iced (Squiggles; 73 ± 12 104 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
38 26 19
Farmland, Grocery Holdings, Tooronga,
Australia)
6 Lamingtons (sponge dipped in chocolate 87 ± 17 124 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
50 29 25
and coconut) (Farmland, Australia)
7 Pound cake (Sara Lee Canada, Bramalea, 54 77 ± 8 Type 1 and 2, 10 White bread, 3 h 1 53 28 15
Canada)
8 Sponge cake, plain 46 ± 6 66 Healthy, 5 Glucose, 2 h 3 63 36 17
9 Vanilla cake made from packet mix with 42 ± 4 60 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
111 58 24
vanilla frosting (Betty Crocker, USA)
10 Croissant (Food City, Toronto, Canada) 67 96 ± 6 Type 1 and 2, 13 White bread, 3 h 1 57 26 17
11 Crumpet (Dempster’s Corporate Foods 69 98 ± 4 Type 1 and 2, 13 White bread, 3 h 1 50 19 13
Ltd, Etobicoke, Canada)
12 Doughnut, cake type (Loblaw’s, Canada) 76 108 ± 10 Type 1 and 2, 10 White bread, 3 h 1 47 23 17
13 Flan cake (Weston’s Bakery, Toronto, 65 93 ± 6 Type 1 and 2, 10 White bread, 3 h 1 70 48 31
Canada)
14 Muffins
Apple, made with sugar
5
44 ± 6 63 Healthy, 8 White bread, 2 h 2 60 29 13
Apple, made without sugar
5
48 ± 10 69 Healthy, 8 White bread, 2 h 2 60 19 9
Apple, oat, and sultana, made from 54 ± 478± 6 Healthy, 9 White bread, 2 h UO
4
50 26 14
packet mix (Defiance Milling Co,
Acacia Ridge, Australia)
Apricot, coconut, and honey, made from 60 ± 486± 6 Healthy, 9 White bread, 2 h UO
4
50 26 16
packet mix (Defiance Milling Co,
Australia)
Banana, oat and honey, made from packet 65 ± 11 93 ± 16 Healthy, 10 White bread, 2 h UO
4
50 26 17
mix (Defiance Milling Co, Australia)
Bran (Grandma Martin’s Muffins; 60 85 ± 8 Type 1 and 2, 14 White bread, 2 h 1 57 24 15
Culinar Inc, Aurora, Canada)
(Continued)
10 FOSTER-POWELL ET AL
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
Blueberry (Culinar Inc, Canada) 59 84 ± 8 Type 1 and 2, 10 White bread, 3 h 1 57 29 17
Carrot (Culinar Inc, Canada) 62 88 ± 12 Type 1 and 2, 11 White bread, 3 h 1 57 32 20
Chocolate butterscotch, made from 53 ± 575± 7 Healthy, 10 White bread, 2 h UO
4
50 28 15
packet mix (Defiance Milling Co,
Australia)
Corn muffin, low-amylose 102 146 Type 2, 9 Glucose, 3 h
6
4572930
Corn muffin, high-amylose 49 70 Type 2, 9 Glucose, 3 h
6
4
Oatmeal, made from mix (Quaker Oats 69 98 ± 15 Type 1 and 2, 9 White bread, 3 h 1 50 35 24
Co of Canada, Peterborough, Canada)
15 Pancakes, prepared from shake mix 67 ± 5 96 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
80 58 39
(Green’s General Foods, Glendenning,
Australia)
16 Pancakes, buckwheat, gluten-free, made 102 ± 11 146 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
77 22 22
from packet mix (Orgran Natural Foods,
Carrum Downs, Australia)
17 Pastry 59 ± 6 84 Healthy, 5 Glucose, 2 h 3 57 26 15
18 Pikelets (Golden brand; Tip Top Bakeries, 85 ± 14 121 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
40 21 18
Chatswood, Australia)
19 Scones, plain, made from packet mix 92 ± 8 131 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
25 9 7
(Defiance Milling Co, Australia)
20 Waffles (Aunt Jemima; Quaker Oats Co 76 109 ± 6 Type 1 and 2, 10 White bread, 3 h 1 35 13 10
of Canada)
BEVERAGES
21 Coca Cola
Coca Cola, soft drink (Coca Cola Amatil, 53 ± 7 76 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 26 14
Sydney, Australia)
Coca Cola, soft drink (Atlanta, GA, USA) 63 90 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h 5 250 mL 26 16
Mean of 2 types 58 ± 583± 7
22 Cordial, orange, reconstituted (Berri Ltd, 66 ± 8 94 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 2 250 mL 20 13
Berri, Australia)
23 Fanta, orange soft drink (Coca Cola 68 ± 6 97 Healthy, 7 Bread, 2 h 2 250 mL 34 23
Amatil, Australia)
24 Lucozade, original (sparkling glucose 95 ± 10 136 Healthy, 5 Glucose, 2 h 3 250 mL 42 40
drink) (Glaxo Wellcome Ltd, Uxbridge, UK)
25 Smoothie, raspberry (Con Agra Inc, 33 ± 948± 13 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 41 14
Omaha, NE, USA)
26 Smoothie drink, soy, banana (So Natural 30 ± 3 43 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 22 7
Foods, Tarren Point, Australia)
6
27 Smoothie drink, soy, chocolate hazelnut 34 ± 3 49 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 25 8
(So Natural Foods, Australia)
6
28 Solo, lemon squash, soft drink (Cadbury 58 ± 5 83 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 29 17
Schweppes, Sydney, Australia)
6
29 Up and Go, cocoa malt flavor (soy milk, 43 ± 5 61 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 26 11
rice cereal liquid breakfast) (Sanitarium
Health Foods, Berkeley Vale, Australia)
6
30 Up and Go, original malt flavor (soy milk, 46 ± 5 66 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 24 11
rice cereal liquid breakfast) (Sanitarium
Health Foods, Australia)
6
31 Xpress, chocolate (soy bean, cereal and 39 ± 2 56 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 34 13
legume extract drink with fructose) (So
Natural Foods, Australia)
6
Juices
32 Apple juice
Apple juice, pure, unsweetened, 39 ± 555± 7 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
——
reconstituted (Berri Ltd, Berri, Australia)
Apple juice, unsweetened 40 57 Type 2, 7 Glucose, 5 h
6
6—
Apple juice, unsweetened (Allens, 41 59 ± 8 Type 2, 6 Bread, 3 h 7
Toronto, Canada)
Mean of 3 studies 40 ± 157± 1 250 mL 29 12
(Continued)
INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD 11
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
33 Apple juice, pure, clear, unsweetened 44 ± 2 63 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 30 13
(Wild About Fruit, Wandin, Australia)
34 Apple juice, pure, cloudy, unsweetened 37 ± 3 53 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 28 10
(Wild About Fruit, Australia)
35 Apple and cherry juice, pure, 43 ± 3 61 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 33 14
unsweetened (Wild About Fruit, Australia)
36 Carrot juice, freshly made (Sydney, 43 ± 3 61 Healthy, 9 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 23 10
Australia)
6
37 Cranberry juice cocktail (Ocean Spray, 52 ± 3 74 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 31 16
Melbourne, Australia)
38 Cranberry juice cocktail (Ocean Spray 68 ± 3 97 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 36 24
Inc, Lakeville-Middleboro, MA, USA)
39 Cranberry juice drink, Ocean Spray 56 ± 4 80 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 29 16
(Gerber Ltd, Bridgewater, UK)
40 Grapefruit juice, unsweetened (Sunpac, 48 69 ± 5 Type 2, 13 Bread, 3 h 7 250 mL 22 11
Toronto, Canada)
41 Orange juice
Orange juice (Canada) 46 ± 6 66 Healthy, 6 Glucose, 2 h 3
Orange juice, unsweetened, reconstituted 53 ± 6 76 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 2
(Quelch; Berri Ltd, Carlton, Australia)
Mean of 2 studies 50 ± 471± 5 250 mL 26 13
42 Pineapple juice, unsweetened (Dole 46 66 ± 3 Type 2, 13 Bread, 3 h 7 250 mL 34 16
Packaged Foods, Toronto, Canada)
43 Tomato juice, canned, no added sugar 38 ± 4 54 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 9 4
(Berri Ltd, Berri, Australia)
6
44 Yakult, fermented milk drink with 46 ± 6 66 Healthy, 7–10 Bread, 2 h 8 65 mL 12 6
Lactobacillus casei (Yakult, Dandenong,
Australia)
Sports drinks
45 Gatorade (Spring Valley Beverages Pty 78 ± 13 111 Healthy, 7–10 Bread, 2 h 8 250 mL 15 12
Ltd, Cheltenham, Australia)
46 Isostar (Novartis Consumer Health, 70 ± 15 100 Healthy, 7–10 Bread, 2 h 8 250 mL 18 13
Nyon, Switzerland Australia)
47 Sports Plus (Berri Ltd, Australia) 74 ± 6 106 Healthy, 7–10 Bread, 2 h 8 250 mL 17 13
48 Sustagen Sport (Mead Johnson, 43 ± 9 61 Healthy, 7–10 Bread, 2 h 8 250 mL 49 21
Rydalmere, Australia)
Drinks made from drinking mix powders
49 Build-Up nutrient-fortified drink, vanilla 41 ± 4 59 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 33 14
with fiber, (Nestlé, Sydney, Australia)
50 Complete Hot Chocolate mix made with 51 ± 3 73 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 23 11
hot water (Nestlé, Australia)
51 Hi-Pro energy drink mix, vanilla, 36 ± 3 51 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 19 7
containing soy protein and whey powder
(Harrod foods, Sefton, Australia) mixed in
reduced-fat (1.5%) cow milk
52 Malted milk powder in full-fat cow milk 45 ± 3 64 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 26 12
(Nestlé, Australia)
53 Milo (chocolate nutrient-fortified drink
powder)
Milo (Nestlé, Australia) dissolved in water 55 ± 379± 4 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 16 9
Milo (Nestlé, Auckland, New Zealand) 52 ± 574± 7 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 16 9
dissolved in water
Mean of 2 studies 54 ± 277± 3
Milo (Nestlé, Australia) dissolved in 35 ± 2 50 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 25 9
full-fat cow milk
Milo (Nestlé, New Zealand) dissolved in 36 ± 3 51 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 26 9
full-fat cow milk
Mean of 2 studies 36 ± 151
54 Nutrimeal, meal replacement drink, Dutch 26 ± 3 37 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 17 4
Chocolate (Usana, Salt Lake City, UT, USA)
(Continued)
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
55 Quik (sweet drink powder)
Quik, chocolate (Nestlé, Sydney, Australia), 53 ± 576± 8 Healthy, 9 Bread, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 7 4
dissolved in water
Quik, chocolate (Nestlé, Australia), 41 ± 4 59 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 11 5
dissolved in 1.5%-fat milk
Quik, strawberry (Nestlé, Australia), 64 ± 892± 12 Healthy, 9 Bread, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 8 5
dissolved in water
Quik, strawberry (Nestlé, Australia), 35 ± 3 50 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 12 4
dissolved in 1.5%-fat milk
BREADS
56 Bagel, white, frozen (Lender’s Bakery, 72 103 ± 5 Type 1 and 2, 13 Bread, 3 h 1 70 35 25
Montreal, Canada)
57 Baguette, white, plain (France) 95 ± 15 136 Type 2, 3 Glucose, 3 h 9 30 15 15
58 French baguette with chocolate spread 72 ± 8 101 Healthy, 14 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
70 37 27
(France)
59 French baguette with butter and 62 ± 7 89 Healthy, 14 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
70 41 26
strawberry jam (France)
60 Pain au lait (Pasquier, France) 63 ± 10 90 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
60 32 20
61 Bread stuffing, Paxo (Campbell Soup Co 74 106 ± 10 Type 1 and 2, 10 Bread, 3 h 1 30 21 16
Ltd, Toronto, Canada)
Barley breads
62 Coarse barley kernel bread, 75–80%
kernels
75% kernels 27 39 ± 7 Type 2, 5 Bread, 3 h 10 30 20 5
80% scalded intact kernels (20% 34 48 ± 10 Healthy, 10 Bread, 1.5 h 11 30 20 7
white-wheat flour)
80% intact kernels (20% white-wheat flour) 40 57 ± 10 Healthy, 10 Bread, 1.5 h 11 30 20 8
Mean of 3 studies 34 ± 448± 9—
63 Barley kernel bread, 50% kernels
50% kernels (Canada) 43 62 ± 4 Type 2, 5 Bread, 3 h 10 30 20 9
50% kibbled barley (Australia) 48 69 ± 7 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 12 30 20 10
Mean of 2 studies 46 ± 266± 3 30 20 9
64 Sunflower and barley bread (Riga 57 ± 6 81 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 13 30 11 6
bakeries, Sydney, Australia)
65 Barley flour breads
100% barley flour (Canada) 67 96 ± 6 Type 2, 6 Bread, 3 h 10 30 13 9
Whole-meal barley flour (80%) bread 67 95 ± 15 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h 11 30 20 13
(20% white-wheat flour) (Sweden)
Whole-meal barley bread, flat, thin, soft 50 71 ± 11 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 14 30 15 7
(50% regular barley flour, 50% high-fiber
barley flour) (Sweden)
Whole-meal barley bread, flat, thin, soft 43 61 ± 7 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 14 30 11 5
(20% regular barley flour, 80% high-fiber
barley flour) (Sweden)
66 Whole-meal barley flour (80%) and
white-wheat flour (20%) bread fermented
or with added organic acids or
salts (Sweden)
Whole-meal barley flour bread (used as 70 100 Healthy, 11 Whole-meal barley 15 30 20 14
reference for the 5 breads below)
8
bread, 2 h
Whole-meal barley flour bread with 53 76 Healthy, 11 Whole-meal barley 15 30 20 10
sourdough (lactic acid)
8
bread, 2 h
Whole-meal barley flour bread with lactic 66 94 Healthy, 11 Whole-meal barley 15 30 19 12
acid
8
bread, 2 h
Whole-meal barley flour bread with 59 84 Healthy, 11 Whole-meal barley 15 30 20 12
calcium lactate
8
bread, 2 h
Whole-meal barley flour bread with 65 93 Healthy, 11 Whole-meal barley 15 30 20 13
sodium propionate
8
bread, 2 h
(Continued)
12 FOSTER-POWELL ET AL
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
Whole-meal barley flour bread with higher 57 82 Healthy, 11 Whole-meal barley 15 30 19 11
dose sodium propionate
8
bread, 2 h
Buckwheat bread
67 Buckwheat bread, 50% dehusked 47 67 ± 10 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h 16 30 21 10
buckwheat groats and 50% white-wheat
flour (Sweden)
Fruit bread
68 Bürgen fruit loaf (Tip Top Bakeries, 44 ± 563± 7 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h 17 30 13 6
Australia)
69 Fruit and spice loaf, thick sliced 54 ± 6 77 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 15 8
(Buttercup Bakeries, Moorebank, Australia)
70 Continental fruit loaf, wheat bread with 47 ± 6 67 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 2 30 15 7
dried fruit (Australia)
71 Happiness (cinnamon, raisin, and pecan 63 ± 589± 7 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 14 9
bread) (Natural Ovens, Mannitowoc, WI, USA)
72 Muesli bread, made from packet mix in 54 ± 677± 9 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 12 7
bread making machine (Con Agra Inc, USA)
73 Hamburger bun (Loblaw’s, Canada) 61 87 ± 5 Type 1 and 2, 12 Bread, 3 h 1 30 15 9
74 Kaiser rolls (Loblaw’s, Canada) 73 104 ± 5 Type 1 and 2, 12 Bread, 3 h 1 30 16 12
75 Melba toast, Old London (Best Foods 70 100 ± 6 Type 1 and 2, 11 Bread, 3 h 1 30 23 16
Canada Inc, Etobicoke, Canada)
Gluten-free bread
76 Gluten-free multigrain bread (Country 79 ± 13 113 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 13 10
Life Bakeries, Dandenong, Australia)
77 Gluten-free white bread (gluten-free
wheat starch) (UK)
Unsliced 71 101 ± 22 Type 2, 11 White bread, 3 h 18 30 15 11
Sliced 80 114 ± 21 Type 2, 12 White bread, 3 h 18 30 15 12
Mean of 2 studies 76 ± 5 108 ± 7 30 15 11
78 Gluten-free fiber-enriched
Unsliced (gluten-free wheat starch, 69 99 ± 12 Type 2, 12 White bread, 3 h 18 30 13 9
soya bran) (UK)
Sliced (gluten-free wheat starch, soya 76 109 ± 13 Type 2, 12 White bread, 3 h 18 30 13 10
bran) (UK)
Mean of 2 studies 73 ± 4 104 ± 5 30 13 9
Oat bread
79 Coarse oat-kernel bread, 80% intact oat 65 93 ± 11 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h 11 30 19 12
kernels and 20% white-wheat flour (Sweden)
Oat-bran bread
80 50% Oat bran (Australia) 44 63 ± 10 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 12 30 18 8
81 45% Oat bran and 50% wheat flour 50 72 ± 10 Healthy, 10 Bread, 1.5 h 19 30 18 9
(Sweden)
Mean of 2 studies 47 ± 368± 5 30 18 9
Rice bread
82 Rice bread, low-amylose Calrose rice 72 ± 9 103 ± 10 Healthy, 12 Bread, 2 h 8 30 12 8
(Pav’s Allergy Bakery, Ingleburn,
Australia)
83 Rice bread, high-amylose Doongara rice 61 ± 988± 13 Healthy, 12 Bread, 2 h 8 30 12 7
(Pav’s Allergy Bakery, Australia)
Rye bread
84 Rye-kernel (pumpernickel) bread
Coarse rye-kernel bread, 80% intact kernels 41 58 ± 8 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h 11 30 12 5
and 20% white-wheat flour (Sweden)
Rye-kernel bread, pumpernickel (Canada) 41 58 Diabetic, Glucose, time NS 20 30 12 5
number NS
Whole-grain pumpernickel (Holtzheuser 46 66 ± 7 Type 1 and 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 1 30 11 5
Brothers Ltd, Toronto, Canada)
Rye-kernel bread, pumpernickel (80% 55 78 ± 3 Type 1 and 2, 14 Bread, 3 h 21 30 12 7
kernels) (Canada)
(Continued)
INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD 13
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
Cocktail, sliced (Kasselar Food Products, 55 79 ± 3 Type 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 22 30 12 7
Toronto, Canada)
Cocktail, sliced (Kasselar Food Products, 62 88 ± 13 Type 1, 6 Bread, 3 h 22 30 12 8
Canada)
Mean of 6 studies 50 ± 471± 7 30 12 6
85 Whole-meal rye bread
Whole-meal rye bread (Canada) 41 58 Type 2, number NS Glucose, time NS 23
Whole-meal rye bread (Canada) 62 89 ± 6 Type 1 and 2, 14 Bread, 3 h 21
Whole-meal rye bread (Canada) 63 90 ± 7 Type 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 22
Whole-meal rye bread (Canada) 66 94 ± 10 Type 1, 6 Bread, 3 h 22
Mean of 4 studies 58 ± 683± 8 30 14 8
Specialty rye breads
86 Blackbread, Riga (Berzin’s Specialty 76 ± 14 109 Healthy, 7 Glucose, 2 h 24 30 13 10
Bakery, Sydney, Australia)
87 Bürgen Dark/Swiss rye
Bürgen Dark/Swiss rye (Tip Top 55 ± 12 79 Healthy, 9 Glucose, 2 h 25
Bakeries, Australia)
Bürgen Dark/Swiss rye (Tip Top 74 ± 6 106 Type 2, 14 Glucose, 2 h 25
Bakeries, Australia)
Mean of 2 studies 65 ± 10 93 ± 14 30 10 7
88 Klosterbrot whole-meal rye bread 67 95 ± 6 Type 1 and 2, 10 Bread, 3 h 1 30 13 9
(Dimpflmeier Bakery Ltd, Canada)
89 Light rye (Silverstein’s Bakery, Toronto, 68 97 ± 6 Type 1 and 2, 12 Bread, 3 h 1 30 14 10
Canada)
90 Linseed rye (Rudolph’s Specialty 55 78 ± 8 Type 1 and 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 1 30 13 7
Bakery Ltd, Canada)
91 Roggenbrot, Vogel’s (Stevns and Co, 59 ± 5 84 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 13 30 14 8
Sydney, Australia)
92 Schinkenbrot, Riga (Berzin’s Specialty 86 ± 15 123 Healthy, 7 Glucose, 2 h 24 30 14 12
Bakery, Sydney, Australia)
93 Sourdough rye
Sourdough rye (Canada) 57 83 Type 2, 13 Bread, 3 h 26
Sourdough rye (Australia) 48 69 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
——
Mean of 2 studies 53 ± 576± 7 30 12 6
94 Volkornbrot, whole-meal rye bread 56 80 ± 5 Type 1 and 2, 10 Bread, 3 h 1 30 13 7
(Dimpflmeier Bakery Ltd, Canada)
Wheat bread
95 Coarse wheat-kernel bread, 80% intact 52 74 ± 7 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h 11 30 20 10
kernels and 20% white-wheat flour (Sweden)
96 Cracked wheat kernel (bulgur) bread
50% cracked wheat kernel (Canada) 58 83 ± 4 Type 2, 6 Bread, 3 h 10 30 20 12
75% cracked wheat kernels (Canada) 48 69 ± 4 Type 2, 6 Bread, 3 h 10 30 20 10
Mean of 2 studies 53 ± 376± 4 30 20 11
Spelt wheat bread
97 White spelt wheat bread (Slovenia)
9
74 105 Healthy, 6 Bread, 3 h 27 30 23 17
98 Whole-meal spelt wheat bread 63 91 Healthy, 6 Bread, 3 h 27 30 19 12
(Slovenia)
9
99 Scalded spelt wheat-kernel bread 67 96 Healthy, 6 Bread, 3 h 27 30 22 15
(Slovenia)
9
100 Spelt multigrain bread (Pav’s bakery, 54 ± 10 77 ± 14 Healthy, 12 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 12 7
Australia)
101 White-wheat-flour bread
White flour (Canada) 69 ± 5 99 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h 3 30 14 10
White flour (USA) 70 100 Type 2, 5; IGT, 6
10
Bread, 3 h 28 30 14 10
White flour (Sunblest; Tip Top Bakeries, 70 100 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 14 10
Australia)
White flour (Dempster’s Corporate 71 101 ± 9 Type 1 and 2, 12 Bread, 3 h 1 30 14 10
Foods Ltd, Canada)
White flour (South Africa) 71 ± 7 101 Healthy, 7 Glucose, 2 h 29 30 13 9
(Continued)
14 FOSTER-POWELL ET AL
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
White flour (Canada) 71 102 ± 5 Type 2, 6 Bread, 3 h 30 30 14 10
Mean of 6 studies 70 ± 0 101 ± 0 30 14 10
102 White-wheat-flour bread, hard, toasted 73 104 ± 5 Type 2, 17 Glucose, 3 h 31 30 15 11
(Italian)
103 Wonder, enriched white bread (Interstate
Brands Companies, Kansas City, MO, USA)
Wonder, enriched white bread 71 ± 9 101 ± 13 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
——
Wonder, enriched white bread 72 ± 4 103 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
——
Wonder, enriched white bread 77 ± 3 110 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
——
Mean of 3 studies 73 ± 2 105 ± 3 30 14 10
104 White Turkish bread (Turkey) 87 124 Type 2, 52; Glucose, 2 h 32 30 17 15
healthy, 31
White bread with enzyme inhibitors
105 White bread + acarbose (200 mg)
(Mexico)
White bread + acarbose (200 mg) 18 26 ± 13 Type 2, 12 Bread, 3 h 33 30 17 3
(Mexico)
White bread + acarbose (200 mg) 50 70 ± 5 Healthy, 10 Bread, 3 h 33 30 17 8
(Mexico)
Mean of 2 groups of subjects 34 ± 16 48 ± 22 30 17 6
106 White bread roll + 3 mg trestatin 48 69 Type 2, 6 Bread, 4 h
11
34 30 12 6
(pancreatic -amylase inhibitor)
(Switzerland)
7
107 White bread roll + 6 mg trestatin 29 42 Type 2, 6 Bread, 4 h
11
34 30 12 4
(Switzerland)
8
White bread with soluble fiber
108 White bread + 15 g psyllium fiber
(Plantago psyllium)
White bread + 15 g psyllium fiber 41 59 ± 10 Type 2, 12 Bread, 3 h 33 30 17 7
(Plantago psyllium) (Mexico)
White bread + 15 g psyllium fiber 65 93 ± 24 Healthy, 10 Bread, 3 h 33 30 17 11
(Plantago psyllium) (Mexico)
Mean of 2 groups of subjects 53 ± 12 76 ± 17 30 17 9
109 White bread eaten with vinegar as 45 64 Healthy, 10 Bread, 1.6 h 35 30 15 7
vinaigrette (Sweden)
110 White bread eaten with powdered 48 68 Healthy, 12 Bread, 2 h 36 30 15 7
dried seaweed Nori alga (Spain)
111 White bread containing Eurylon 42 60 ± 6 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2.8 h
12
37 30 19 8
high-amylose maize starch (France)
12
White fiber-enriched bread
112 White, high-fiber (Dempster’s Corporate 67 96 ± 6 Type 1 and 2, 13 Bread, 3 h 1
Foods Ltd, Canada)
113 White, high-fiber (Weston’s Bakery, 69 98 ± 5 Type 1 and 2, 12 Bread, 3 h 1
Toronto, Canada)
Mean of 2 studies 68 ± 197± 1 30 13 9
White resistant starch-enriched bread
114 Fibre white (Nature’s Fresh, Auckland, 77 ± 10 110 Healthy, 14 Glucose, 2 h 25 30 15 11
New Zealand)
115 Wonderwhite (Buttercup Bakeries, 80 ± 8 114 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 13 30 14 11
Australia)
116 Whole-meal (whole-wheat) wheat-flour
bread
Whole-meal flour (Canada) 52 74 ± 15 Type 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 38 30 12 6
Whole-meal flour (Canada) 64 92 ± 11 Type 2, 6 Bread, 3 h 10 30 12 8
Whole-meal flour (Canada) 65 93 Diabetic, Glucose, time NS 20 30 12 8
number NS
Whole-meal flour (Canada) 67 95 ± 7 Type 2, 11 Bread, 3 h 22 30 12 8
Whole-meal flour (Canada) 67 96 ± 5 Type 1 and 2, 14 Bread, 3 h 21 30 12 8
Whole-meal flour (Canada) 69 98 ± 5 Type 1, 5 Bread, 3 h 22 30 12 8
(Continued)
INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD 15
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
Whole-meal flour (Canada) 71 102 ± 6 Type 2, 6 Bread, 3 h 30 30 12 8
Whole-meal flour (Canada) 72 ± 6 103 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h 3 30 12 8
Whole-meal flour (USA)
8
73 104 Type 2, 8 Glucose, 3 h 4 30 14 10
Whole-meal flour (South Africa) 75 ± 9 107 Healthy, 8 Glucose, 2 h 29 30 13 9
Whole-meal flour (Tip Top Bakeries, 77 ± 9 110 Healthy, 8 Glucose, 2 h 39 30 12 9
Australia)
Whole-meal flour (Tip Top Bakeries, 78 ± 16 111 Healthy, 7 Glucose, 2 h 24 30 12 9
Australia)
Whole-meal flour (Kenya) 87 124 ± 40 Type 2, 9 Bread, 2.5 h 40 30 13 11
Mean of 13 studies 71 ± 2 101 ± 3 30 13 9
117 Whole-meal Turkish bread 49 70 Type 2, 52; Glucose, 2 h 32 30 16 8
healthy, 31
Specialty wheat breads
118 Bürgen Mixed-Grain bread (Australia)
Bürgen Mixed-Grain (Tip Top Bakeries, 34 ± 4 49 Healthy, 10–12 Bread, 2 h 17
Chatswood, Australia)
Bürgen Mixed-Grain 45 ± 12 64 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h 25
Bürgen Mixed-Grain 69 ± 6 99 Type 2, 13 Glucose, 2 h 25
Mean of 3 studies 49 ± 10 71 ± 15 30 11 6
119 Bürgen Oat Bran and Honey Loaf with 31 ± 3 44 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 13 30 10 3
Barley (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia)
120 Bürgen Soy-Lin, kibbled soy (8%) and 36 ± 4 51 Healthy, 10–12 Bread, 2 h 17 30 9 3
linseed (8%) loaf (Tip Top Bakeries,
Australia)
121 English Muffin bread (Natural Ovens, 77 ± 7 109 ± 11 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 14 11
USA)
122 Healthy Choice Hearty 7 Grain (Con 55 ± 6 79 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 14 8
Agra Inc, USA)
123 Healthy Choice Hearty 100% Whole 62 ± 6 89 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 14 9
Grain (Con Agra Inc, USA)
124 Helga’s Classic Seed Loaf (Quality 68 ± 9 97 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 14 9
Bakers, Sydney, Australia)
125 Helga’s traditional whole-meal bread 70 ± 14 100 Healthy, 8 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 13 9
(Quality Bakers, Australia)
126 Hunger Filler, whole-grain bread 59 ± 884± 12 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 13 7
(Natural Ovens, USA)
127 Molenberg (Goodman Fielder, Auckland,
New Zealand)
Molenberg 75 ± 10 107 Healthy, 15 Glucose, 2 h 25
Molenberg 84 ± 8 120 Type 2, 14 Glucose, 2 h 25
Mean of 2 studies 80 ± 5 114 ± 7 30 14 11
128 9-Grain Multi-Grain (Tip Top Bakeries, 43 ± 5 61 Healthy, 10–12 Bread, 2 h 17 30 14 6
Australia)
129 Multigrain loaf, spelt wheat flour 54 ± 10 77 Healthy, 7–10 Bread, 2 h 8 30 15 8
(Australia)
130 Multigrain (50% kibbled wheat grain) 43 61 ± 7 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 12 30 14 6
(Australia)
131 Nutty Natural, whole-grain bread 59 ± 785± 11 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 12 7
(Natural Ovens, USA)
132 Performax (Country Life Bakeries, 38 ± 355± 4 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 13 5
Dandenong, Australia)
133 Ploughman’s Whole-grain, original recipe 47 67 ± 4 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 12 30 14 7
(Quality Bakers, Australia)
134 Ploughman’s Whole-meal, smooth milled 64 ± 10 91 Healthy, 12 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 13 9
(Quality Bakers, Australia)
135 Semolina bread (Kenya) 64 92 ± 7 Type 2, 10 Bread, 3 h 41
136 Sourdough wheat (Australia) 54 77 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 14 8
137 Soy and linseed bread (made from packet 50 ± 671± 9 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 10 5
mix in bread maker) (Con Agra Inc, USA)
(Continued)
16 FOSTER-POWELL ET AL
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
138 Stay Trim, whole-grain bread (Natural 70 ± 10 101 ± 15 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 15 10
Ovens, USA)
139 Sunflower and barley bread, Riga brand 57 ± 6 81 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 13 30 13 7
(Berzin’s Specialty Bakery, Australia)
140 Vogel’s Honey and Oats (Stevns and Co, 55 ± 5 79 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 13 30 14 7
Australia)
141 Vogel’s Roggenbrot (Stevns and Co, 59 ± 5 84 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 13 30 14 8
Australia)
142 Whole-wheat snack bread (Ryvita Co 74 105 ± 8 Type 1 and 2, 11 Bread, 3 h 1 30 22 16
Ltd, Poole, Dorset, UK)
143 100% Whole-grain bread (Natural 51 ± 11 73 ± 15 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 13 7
Ovens, USA)
144 White-wheat-flour flatbread (Sweden) 79 113 ± 13 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 14 30 16 13
Unleavened bread
145 Lebanese bread, white (Seda Bakery, 75 ± 9 107 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 16 12
Sydney, Australia)
146 Middle Eastern flatbread 97 ± 29 139 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h 42 30 16 15
147 Pita bread, white (Canada) 57 82 ± 10 Type 1 and 2, 7 Bread, 3 h 1 30 17 10
148 Wheat-flour flatbread (India) 66 ± 9 94 Type 2, 6 Glucose, 2 h 43 30 16 10
149 Amaranth:wheat (25:75) composite 66 ± 10 94 Type 2, 6 Glucose, 2 h 43 30 15 10
flour flatbread (India)
150 Amaranth:wheat (50:50) composite 76 ± 20 109 Type 2, 6 Glucose, 2 h 43 30 15 11
flour flatbread (India)
BREAKFAST CEREALS AND RELATED
PRODUCTS
151 All-Bran (high-fiber, extruded
wheat-bran cereal)
All-Bran (Kellogg’s, Pagewood, Australia)
13
30 43 ± 3 Healthy, 7 Bread, 3 h 44 30 15 4
All-Bran (Kellogg’s, Battle Creek, MI, USA) 38 54 Healthy, 8 Glucose, 3 h
14
45 30 23 9
All-Bran (Kellogg’s Inc, Etobicoke, Canada) 50 72 ± 5 Type 2, 6 Bread, 3 h 30 30 23 9
All-Bran (Kellogg’s Inc, Canada) 51 ± 5 73 Healthy, 6 Glucose, 2 h 3 30 23 9
Mean of 4 studies 42 ± 560± 7—
152 All-Bran Fruit ’n Oats (Kellogg’s, 39 56 Healthy, 10–12 Bread, 2 h 17 30 17 7
Australia)
153 All-Bran Soy ’n Fibre (Kellogg’s, 33 ± 347± 4 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 14 4
Australia)
154 Amaranth (Amaranthus esculentum) 97 ± 19 139 Healthy, 6 Glucose, 3 h 43 30 19 18
popped, eaten with milk and nonnutritive
sweetener (India)
Barley porridge
155 Whole-meal barley flour porridge 68 97 ± 16 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 14 50 (dry) 34 23
(100% regular barley) (flour:water, 1:3),
boiled 2.5 min (Sweden)
156 Whole-meal high-fiber barley flour 55 78 ± 8 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 14 50 (dry) 15 8
porridge (50% regular barley flour:
50% high-fiber barley flour) (Sweden)
157 Barley porridge made from steamed thin 62 88 ± 6 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h 46 50 (dry) 28 17
(0.5 mm) dehulled barley flakes (Sweden)
158 Barley porridge made from steamed thick 65 93 ± 9 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h 46 50 (dry) 28 18
(1.0 mm) dehulled barley flakes (Sweden)
159 Bran Buds (Kellogg’s Inc, Canada)
15
58 83 ± 11 Type 1 and 2, 8 Bread, 3 h 1 30 12 7
160 Bran Buds with psyllium (Kellogg’s Inc, 47 67 ± 4 Type 1 and 2, 13 Bread, 3 h 1 30 12 6
Canada)
15
161 Bran Chex (Nabisco Brands Ltd, 58 83 ± 6 Type 1 and 2, 10 Bread, 3 h 1 30 19 11
Toronto, Canada)
15
162 Bran Flakes (Kellogg’s, Australia) 74 106 Healthy, 12 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 18 13
163 Cheerios (General Mills Inc, Etobicoke, 74 106 ± 9 Type 1 and 2, 10 Bread, 3 h 1 30 20 15
Canada)
15
164 Chocapic (Nestlé, France) 84 ± 9 120 Healthy, 13 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
30 25 21
(Continued)
INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD 17
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subject Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
165 Coco Pops (cocoa-flavored puffed rice)
Coco Pops (Kellogg’s, Australia) 77 ± 8 110 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 2
Coco Pops (Kellogg’s, Australia) 77 ± 3 110 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
——
Mean of 2 studies 77 110 30 26 20
166 Corn Bran (Quaker Oats Co of Canada)
15
75 107 ± 6 Type 1 and 2, 10 Bread, 3 h 1 30 20 15
167 Corn Chex (Nabisco Brands Ltd, 83 118 ± 11 Type 1 and 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 1 30 25 21
Canada)
15
168 Cornflakes
Cornflakes (Kellogg’s, Auckland, New 72 ± 16 103 Healthy, 11 Glucose, 2 h 25 30 25 18
Zealand)
Cornflakes (Kellogg’s, Australia) 77 110 Healthy, 6 Glucose, 2 h 47 30 25 20
Cornflakes (Kellogg’s Inc, Canada) 80 ± 6 114 Healthy, 6 Glucose, 2 h 3 30 26 21
Cornflakes (Kellogg’s Inc, Canada) 86 123 ± 5 Type 2, 7 Bread, 3 h 30 30 26 22
Cornflakes (Kellogg’s, USA)
7
92 130 Type 2, 9 Glucose, 3 h 4 30 26 24
Mean of 5 studies 81 ± 3 116 ± 5 30 26 21
169 Cornflakes, high-fiber (Presidents Choice; 74 105 ± 6 Type 1 and 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 1 30 23 17
Sunfresh Ltd, Toronto, Canada)
15
170 Cornflakes, Crunchy Nut (Kellogg’s, 72 ± 4 103 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 24 17
Australia)
171 Corn Pops (Kellogg’s, Australia) 80 ± 4 114 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 26 21
172 Cream of Wheat (Nabisco Brands Ltd, 66 94 ± 4 Type 1 and 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 1 250 26 17
Canada)
15
173 Cream of Wheat, Instant (Nabisco 74 105 ± 8 Type 1 and 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 1 250 30 22
Brands Ltd, Canada)
15
174 Crispix (Kellogg’s Inc, Canada)
15
87 124 ± 5 Type 1 and 2, 12 Bread, 3 h 1 30 25 22
175 Energy Mix (Quaker, France) 80 ± 7 112 Healthy, 14 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
30 24 19
176 Froot Loops (Kellogg’s, Australia) 69 ± 998± 13 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 26 18
177 Frosties, sugar-coated cornflakes 55 79 Healthy, 12 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 26 15
(Kellogg’s, Australia)
178 Fruitful Lite (Hubbards, New Zealand) 61 ± 20 86 Healthy, 9 Glucose, 2 h 25 30 20 12
179 Fruity-Bix, berry (Sanitarium, 113 ± 10 161 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h 25 30 22 25
Auckland, New Zealand)
180 Golden Grahams (General Mills Inc, 71 102 ± 12 Type 1 and 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 1 30 25 18
Canada)
15
181 Golden Wheats (Kellogg’s, Australia) 71 ± 8 101 ± 11 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 23 16
182 Grapenuts
Grapenuts (Post, Kraft General Foods 67 96 ± 9 Type 1 and 2, 11 Bread, 3 h 1 30 19 13
Inc, Toronto, Canada)
15
Grapenuts (Kraft Foods Inc, Port Chester, 75 ± 6 107 ± 8 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 22 16
NY, USA)
Mean of 2 studies 71 ± 4 102 ± 6 30 21 15
183 Grapenuts Flakes (Post, Kraft General 80 114 ± 8 Type 1 and 2, 10 Bread, 3 h 1 30 22 17
Foods Inc, Canada)
15
184 Guardian (Kellogg’s, Australia) 37 ± 9 53 Healthy, 10–12 Bread, 2 h 17 30 12 5
185 Healthwise for bowel health (Uncle 66 ± 9 94 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 18 12
Toby’s, Wahgunyah, Australia)
186 Healthwise for heart health (Uncle 48 ± 5 69 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 19 9
Toby’s, Australia)
187 Honey Rice Bubbles (Kellogg’s, 77 ± 4 110 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 27 20
Australia)
188 Honey Smacks (Kellogg’s, Australia) 71 ± 10 101 Healthy, 10–12 Bread, 2 h 17 30 23 11
189 Hot cereal, apple and cinnamon (Con 37 ± 653± 8 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 22 8
Agra Inc, USA)
190 Hot cereal, unflavored (Con Agra 25 ± 536± 7 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 19 5
Inc, USA)
191 Just Right (Kellogg’s, Australia) 60 ± 15 86 Healthy, 10–12 Bread, 2 h 17 30 22 13
192 Just Right Just Grains (Kellogg’s, 62 ± 11 88 ± 16 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 23 14
Australia)
193 Komplete (Kellogg’s, Australia) 48 ± 568± 7 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 21 10
(Continued)
18 FOSTER-POWELL ET AL
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
194 Life (Quaker Oats Co, Canada)
15
66 94 ± 8 Type 1 and 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 1 30 25 15
195 Mini Wheats, whole wheat (Kellogg’s, 58 ± 8 83 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 13 30 21 12
Australia)
196 Mini Wheats, blackcurrant (Kellogg’s, 72 ± 10 103 Healthy, 10–12 Bread, 2 h 17 30 21 15
Australia)
Muesli —— 302112
197 Muesli, NS (Canada) 66 ± 9 94 Healthy, 6 Glucose, 2 h 3 30 24 17
198 Alpen Muesli (Wheetabix, France) 55 ± 10 77 Healthy, 14 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
30 19 10
199 Muesli, gluten-free (Freedom Foods, 39 ± 6 56 Healthy, 9 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 19 7
Cheltenham, Australia) with 1.5%-fat milk
200 Muesli, Lite (Sanitarium, New Zealand) 54 ± 12 77 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h 25 30 18 10
201 Muesli, Natural (Sanitarium, New 57 ± 9 81 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h 25 30 19 11
Zealand)
202 Muesli, Natural (Sanitarium, Australia) 40 ± 6 57 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 19 8
Mean of 2 studies 49 ± 969± 12 30 20 10
203 Muesli, No Name (Sunfresh Ltd, Toronto, 60 85 ± 12 Type 1 and 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 1 30 18 11
Canada)
15
204 Muesli, Swiss Formula (Uncle Toby’s, 56 ± 8 80 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 2 30 16 9
Australia)
205 Muesli, toasted (Purina, Sydney, Australia) 43 ± 4 61 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 2 30 17 7
206 Nutrigrain (Kellogg’s, Australia) 66 ± 12 94 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 2 30 15 10
207 Oat ’n Honey Bake (Kellogg’s, Australia) 77 ± 11 111 ± 16 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 17 13
208 Oat bran
Oat bran, raw (Quaker Oats Co, Canada)
15
50 72 ± 6 Type 1 and 2, 11 Bread, 3 h 1 10 5 2
Oat bran, raw 59 84 Type 2, 13 Bread, 3 h 26 10 5 3
Mean of 2 studies 55 ± 578± 6— 1053
209 Porridge made from rolled oats
Porridge (Uncle Toby’s, Australia)
13
42 60 ± 5 Healthy, 7 Bread, 3 h 44 250 21 9
Porridge (Canada)
16
49 ± 8 70 Healthy, 6 Glucose, 2 h 3 250 23 11
Traditional porridge oats (Lowan Whole 51 ± 873± 12 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
250 21 11
Foods, Box Hill, Australia)
Porridge (Hubbards, New Zealand) 58 ± 9 82 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h 25 250 21 12
Porridge (Australia) 58 ± 4 83 Healthy, 7 Bread, 2 h 48 250 21 12
Porridge (Canada) 62 88 Diabetic, Glucose, time NS 20 250 23 14
number NS
Porridge (Canada) 69 98 ± 9 Type 2, 6 Bread, 3 h 30 250 23 16
Porridge (USA)
6
75 107 Type 2, 8 Glucose, 3 h 4 250 23 17
Mean of 8 studies 58 ± 483± 5 250 22 13
210 Whole-meal oat-flour porridge 74 106 ± 19 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 14 50 (dry) 32 24
(flour:water, 1:3), boiled 2.5 min (Sweden)
211 Oat porridge made from thick (1.0 mm) 55 78 ± 9 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h 46 250 27 15
dehulled oat flakes (Sweden)
212 Oat porridge made from roasted thin 69 99 ± 10 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h 46 250 27 19
(0.5 mm) dehulled oat flakes (Sweden)
213 Oat porridge made from roasted thick 50 72 ± 9 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h 46 250 27 14
(1.0 mm) dehulled oat flakes (Sweden)
214 Oat porridge made from roasted and 80 114 ± 12 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h 46 250 27 22
steamed thin (0.5 mm) dehulled oat flakes
(Sweden)
215 Oat porridge made from steamed thick 53 76 ± 8 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h 46 250 27 14
(1.0 mm) dehulled oat flakes (Sweden)
216 Instant porridge
Quick Oats (Quaker Oats Co, Canada) 65 93 Type 2, 6 Bread, 3 h 49
One Minute Oats (Quaker Oats Co, 66 94 ± 10 Type 1 and 2, 7 Bread, 3 h 1
Canada)
15
Mean of 2 studies 66 ± 194± 1 250 26 17
217 Pop Tarts, double chocolate (Kellogg’s, 70 ± 2 100 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
50 36 25
Australia)
218 Pro Stars (General Mills Inc, Canada)
15
71 102 ± 7 Type 1 and 2, 10 Bread, 3 h 1 30 24 17
(Continued)
INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD 19
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
219 Puffed wheat
Puffed Wheat (Quaker Oats Co, Canada)
15
67 96 ± 7 Type 1 and 2, 10 Bread, 3 h 1 30 20 13
Puffed Wheat (Sanitarium, Sydney, 80 ± 11 114 Healthy, 8 Glucose, 2 h 38 30 21 17
Australia)
Mean of 2 studies 74 ± 7 105 ± 9 30 21 16
220 Raisin Bran (Kellogg’s, USA) 61 ± 587± 7 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 19 12
221 Red River Cereal (Maple Leaf Mills, 49 70 ± 5 Type 1 and 2, 9 Bread, 3 h
13
1302213
Toronto, Canada)
222 Rice Bran, extruded (Rice Growers 19 ± 3 27 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 48 30 14 3
Co-Operative Ltd, Leeton, Australia)
223 Rice Bubbles (puffed rice)
Rice Bubbles (Kellogg’s, Australia)
13
81 116 ± 11 Healthy, 7 Bread, 3 h 44
Rice Bubbles (Kellogg’s, Australia) 85 ± 3 121 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
——
Rice Bubbles (Kellogg’s, Australia) 95 136 Healthy, 6 Glucose, 2 h 47
Mean of 3 studies 87 ± 4 124 ± 6 30 26 22
224 Rice Chex (Nabisco Brands Ltd, Canada)
15
89 127 ± 5 Type 1 and 2, 11 Bread, 3 h 1 30 26 23
225 Rice Krispies (Kellogg’s Inc, Canada)
15
82 117 ± 5 Type 1 and 2, 12 Bread, 3 h 1 30 26 22
226 Shredded wheat 30 25 22
Shredded Wheat (Canada) 67 ± 10 96 Healthy, 6 Glucose, 2 h 3 30 20 13
Shredded Wheat (Nabisco Brands Ltd, 83 118 ± 6 Type 1 and 2, 14 Bread, 3 h 1 30 20 17
Canada)
15
Mean of 2 studies 75 ± 8 107 ± 11 30 20 15
Special K (formulation of this cereal varies in
different countries)
227 Special K (Kellogg’s, Australia) 54 ± 4 77 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 13 30 21 11
228 Special K (Kellogg’s, USA) 69 ± 598± 7 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 21 14
229 Special K (Kellogg’s, France) 84 ± 12 118 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
30 24 20
230 Soy Tasty (flaked grains, soy nuts, dried 60 ± 5 86 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 20 12
fruit) (Sanitarium, Australia)
231 Soytana, Vogel’s, soy and linseed bran 49 ± 3 70 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
45 25 12
crunch with sultanas (20.1 g fiber/100 g)
(Specialty Cereals, Mt Kuring-gai,
Australia)
232 Sultana Bran (Kellogg’s, Australia) 73 ± 13 104 Healthy, 7–10 Bread, 2 h 8 30 19 14
233 Sustain (Kellogg’s, Australia)
13
68 97 ± 9 Healthy, 7 Bread, 3 h 44 30 22 15
234 Team (Nabisco Brands Ltd, Canada)
15
82 117 ± 9 Type 1 and 2, 10 Bread, 3 h 1 30 22 17
235 Thank Goodness (Hubbards, New 65 ± 18 93 Healthy, 11 Glucose, 2 h 25 30 23 15
Zealand)
236 Total (General Mills Inc, Canada)
15
76 109 ± 6 Type 1 and 2, 10 Bread, 3 h 1 30 22 17
237 Ultra-bran, Vogel’s, soy and linseed 41 ± 4 59 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 13 5
extruded wheat bran cereal (30.2 g fiber/100 g)
(Specialty Cereals, Australia)
238 Wheat-bites (Uncle Toby’s, Australia) 72 ± 11 103 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 13 30 25 18
239 Wheat biscuits (plain flaked wheat)
Vita-Brits (Uncle Toby’s, Australia)
13
61 87 ± 14 Healthy, 7 Bread, 3 h 44 30 20 12
Vita-Brits (Uncle Toby’s, Australia) 68 ± 6 97 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 20 13
Weet-Bix (Sanitarium, Australia) 69 99 Healthy, 12 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 17 12
Weet-Bix (Sanitarium, Australia) 69 ± 4 99 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 17 12
Weetabix (Weetabix of Canada Ltd, 74 105 ± 8 Type 1 and 2, 11 Bread, 3 h 1 30 22 16
Thornhill, Canada)
15
Weetabix (Weetabix of Canada Ltd) 75 ± 10 107 Healthy, 6 Glucose, 2 h 3 30 22 16
Whole-wheat Goldies (Kellogg’s, 70 ± 4 100 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 20 14
Australia)
Mean of 7 studies 70 ± 296± 4 30 19 13
Wheat biscuits (flaked wheat) with
additional ingredients
240 Good Start, muesli wheat biscuits 68 ± 4 96 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 20 14
(Sanitarium, Australia)
241 Hi-Bran Weet-Bix, wheat biscuits with 61 ± 4 87 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 17 10
extra wheat bran (Sanitarium, Australia)
(Continued)
20 FOSTER-POWELL ET AL
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
242 Hi-Bran Weet-Bix with soy and linseed 57 ± 3 81 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 16 9
(Sanitarium, Australia)
243 Honey Goldies (Kellogg’s Australia) 72 ± 3 103 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 21 15
244 Lite-Bix, plain, no added sugar 70 ± 3 97 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 20 14
(Sanitarium, Australia)
245 Oat bran Weet-Bix (Sanitarium, Australia) 57 ± 4 82 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 20 11
246 Sultana Goldies (Kellogg’s Australia) 65 ± 6 93 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 21 13
BREAKFAST CEREAL BARS
247 Crunchy Nut Cornflakes bar (Kellogg’s, 72 ± 6 102 ± 8 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 26 19
Australia)
248 Fibre Plus bar (Uncle Toby’s, Australia) 78 ± 9 111 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 13 30 23 18
249 Fruity-Bix bar, fruit and nut, wheat 56 ± 4 80 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 19 10
biscuit cereal with dried fruit and nuts
with yogurt coating (Sanitarium, Australia)
250 Fruity-Bix bar, wild berry, wheat biscuit 51 ± 4 73 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 19 9
cereal with fruit and covered with yogurt
coating (Sanitarium, Australia)
251 K-Time Just Right bar (Kellogg’s, 72 ± 4 103 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 24 17
Australia)
252 K-Time Strawberry Crunch bar 77 ± 5 110 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 25 19
(Kellogg’s, Australia)
253 Rice Bubble Treat bar (Kellogg’s, 63 ± 11 90 ± 15 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 24 15
Australia)
254 Sustain bar (Kellogg’s, Australia) 57 ± 10 82 ± 15 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 25 14
CEREAL GRAINS
Amaranth
255 Amaranth (Amaranthus esculentum) 97 ± 19 139 Type 2, 6 Glucose, 3 h 43 30 22 21
popped, eaten with milk and nonnutritive
sweetener (India)
Barley
256 Pearl barley
Barley, pearled (Canada) 22 32 ± 3 Type 2, 12 Bread, 3 h 22
Barley (Canada) 22 31 Type 2, 13 Bread, 3 h 26
Barley, pot, boiled in salted water 20 min 25 ± 2 36 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
——
(Gouda’s foods, Concord, Canada)
Barley (Canada) 27 39 ± 6 Type 2, 4 Bread, 3 h 10
Barley, pearled (Canada) 29 41 ± 10 Type 1, 7 Bread, 3 h 22
Mean of 5 studies 25 ± 136± 2 150 42 11
257 Barley (Hordeum vulgare) (India)
Barley (Hordeum vulgare) (India) 37 53 Type 2, 14 Bread, 3 h 50
Barley (Hordeum vulgare) (India) 48 69 Healthy, 18 Bread, 3 h 50
Mean of 2 groups of subjects 43 ± 661± 8 150 42 26
258 Barley, cracked (Malthouth, Tunisia) 50 72 ± 7 Type 1 and 2, 10 Bread, 3 h 1 150 42 21
259 Barley, rolled (Australia) 66 ± 5 94 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 48 50 (dry) 38 25
260 Buckwheat
Buckwheat (Canada) 49 70 ± 6 Type 2, 12 Bread, 3 h 22
Buckwheat (Canada) 51 ± 10 73 Healthy, 5 Glucose, 2 h 3
Buckwheat (Canada) 63 90 ± 8 Type 1, 6 Bread, 3 h 22
Mean of 3 studies 54 ± 478± 6 150 30 16
261 Buckwheat groats, hydrothermally 45 64 ± 10 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h 16 150 30 13
treated, dehusked, boiled 12 min (Sweden)
Corn and maize
262 Maize (Zea mays), flour made into 59 85 Healthy, 18 Bread, 3 h 50
chapatti (India)
263 Maize meal porridge, gruel (Kenya) 109 156 ± 15 Type 2, 13 Bread, 2.5 h 40
264 Cornmeal
Cornmeal, boiled in salted water 2 min 68 97 ± 5 Type 1 and 2, 12 Bread, 3 h 1 150 13 9
(McNair Products Co Ltd, Toronto,
Canada)
(Continued)
INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD 21
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
Cornmeal + margarine (McNair Products 69 99 ± 10 Type 1 and 2, 12 Bread, 3 h 1 150 12 9
Co Ltd, Canada)
Mean of 2 studies 69 ± 198± 1 150 13 9
265 Sweet corn
Sweet corn, honey and pearl variety 37 ± 12 53 Healthy, 9 Glucose, 2 h 25 150 30 11
(New Zealand)
Sweet corn, on the cob, boiled 20 min 48 69 Healthy, 6 Glucose, 2 h 47 150 30 14
(Australia)
Sweet corn (Canada) 59 ± 11 84 Healthy, 5 Glucose, 2 h 3 150 33 20
Sweet corn (USA) 60 86 Healthy, 16 Bread, 3 h 51 150 33 20
Sweet corn (USA) 60 85 Type 2, 5; IGT, 6
10
Bread, 3 h 28 150 33 20
Sweet corn (South Africa) 62 ± 5 89 Healthy, 7 Glucose, 2 h 29 150 33 20
Mean of 6 studies 53 ± 478± 6 150 32 17
266 Sweet corn, whole kernel, canned, 46 66 Type 2, 20 Bread, 3 h 52 150 28 13
diet-pack, drained, featherweight (USA)
267 Sweet corn, frozen, reheated in microwave
(Green Giant Pillsbury Ltd, Toronto, Canada) 47 67 ± 4 Type 1 and 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 1 150 33 16
268 Taco shells, cornmeal based, baked (Old 68 97 ± 9 Type 1 and 2, 10 Bread, 3 h 1 20 12 8
El Paso Foods Co, Toronto, Canada)
Couscous
269 Couscous, boiled 5 min
Couscous, boiled 5 min (Near East Food 61 87 ± 7 Type 1 and 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 1
Products Co, Leominster, MA, USA)
Couscous, boiled 5 min (Tunisia) 69 99 ± 6 Type 1 and 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 1
Mean of 2 studies 65 ± 493± 6 150 35 23
Millet
270 Millet, boiled (Canada) 71 ± 10 101 Healthy, 5 Glucose, 2 h 3 150 36 25
271 Millet flour porridge (Kenya) 107 153 ± 14 Type 2, 13 Bread, 2 h 40
Rice, white
272 Arborio, risotto rice, boiled (Sun Rice 69 ± 7 99 Healthy, 10 Glucose 2 h UO
4
150 53 36
brand, Rice Growers Co-Op, Leeton,
Australia)
273 White (Oryza sativa), boiled (India) 69 ± 15 99 Type 2, 6 Glucose, 3 h 43 150 43 30
274 Rice, boiled white, type NS
Type NS, eaten alone (France) 45 64 Type 2, 30 Glucose, 3 h
14
53 150 30 14
Type NS (India) 48 68 Healthy, 6 Wheat chapatti, 2 h
17
54 150 38 18
Type NS (Canada) 51 73 Diabetic NS Glucose, time NS 20 150 42 21
Type NS (France) 52 74 ± 9 Type 2, 6 Bread, 3 h 55 150 36 19
Type NS (Canada) 56 80 ± 5 Type 2, 6 Bread, 3 h 30 150 42 23
Type NS (Pakistan) 69 98 Type 2, 22 Wheat chapatti, 3 h
17
56 150 38 26
Type NS (Canada) 72 ± 9 103 Healthy, 7 Glucose, 2 h 3 150 42 30
Type NS, boiled in salted water (India) 72 103 Healthy, 8 Bread, 3 h 57 150 38 27
Type NS, boiled 13 min (Italy) 102 146 Healthy, 14 Glucose, 2 h 58 150 30 31
Type NS (Kenya) 112 160 ± 34 Type 2, 10 Bread, 2 h 40 150 42 47
Type NS, boiled (France) 43 61 Type 2, 14 Glucose, 3 h
14
53 150 30 13
Type NS, boiled (France) 47 66 Type 2, 16 Glucose, 3 h
14
53 150 30 14
Mean of 12 studies 64 ± 791± 9 150 36 23
275 Type NS, boiled in salted water, 53 76 Healthy, 8 Bread, 3 h 57 150 38 20
refrigerated 16–20 h, reheated (India)
276 Type NS, boiled 13 min, then baked 104 149 Healthy, 14 Glucose, 2 h 58 150 30 31
10 min (Italy)
277 Long grain, boiled
Long grain, boiled 5 min (Canada) 41 58 ± 4 Type 2, 13 Bread, 3 h 59 150 40 16
Long grain, white, unconverted, boiled 50 71 Healthy, 6 Glucose, 2 h 47 150 43 21
15 min (Mahatma brand; Riviana Foods,
Wetherill Park, Australia)
Gem long grain (Dainty Food Inc, 55 79 Type 2, 10 Bread, 3 h 60 150 40 22
Toronto, Canada)
Long grain, white (Uncle Bens, Auckland, 56 ± 7 80 Healthy, 14 Glucose, 2 h 25 150 43 24
New Zealand)
(Continued)
22 FOSTER-POWELL ET AL
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
Long grain, boiled 25 min (Surinam) 56 ± 2 80 Type 2, 3 Glucose, 3 h 9 150 43 24
Gem long grain (Dainty Food Inc, Canada) 57 82 Type 1, 6 Bread, 3 h 60 150 40 23
Long grain, boiled 15 min 58 83 ± 5 Type 1, 5; Bread, 3 h 59 150 40 23
type 2, 13
Gem long grain (Dainty Food Inc, 60 86 ± 6 Type 2, 13 Bread, 3 h 22 150 40 24
Canada)
Gem long grain (Dainty Food Inc, 60 86 ± 11 Type 1, 6 Bread, 3 h 22 150 40 24
Canada)
Long grain, white, boiled 7 min (Star 64 ± 3 91 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
150 40 26
brand; Gouda foods, Concord, Canada)
Mean of 10 studies 56 ± 280± 3 150 41 23
Rice, long grain, quick-cooking varieties
278 Long grain, parboiled 10 min cooking 68 ± 6 97 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
150 37 25
time (Uncle Ben’s; Masterfoods, Belgium)
279 Long grain, parboiled, 20 min cooking 75 ± 7 107 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
150 37 28
time (Uncle Ben’s; Masterfoods, Belgium)
280 Long grain, white, precooked, 52 ± 5 74 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
150 37 19
microwaved 2 min (Express Rice, plain,
Uncle Ben’s; King’s Lynn, Norfolk, UK)
Rice, specialty rices
281 Cajun Style (Uncle Ben’s; Effem Foods 51 72 ± 13 Type 1 and 2, 8 Bread, 3 h 1 150 37 19
Ltd, Bolton, Canada)
282 Garden Style (Uncle Ben’s; Effem Foods 55 79 ± 6 Type 1 and 2, 11 Bread, 3 h 1 150 37 21
Ltd, Canada)
283 Long Grain and Wild (Uncle Ben’s; 54 77 ± 9 Type 1 and 2, 8 Bread, 3 h 1 150 37 20
Effem Foods Ltd, Canada)
284 Mexican Fast and Fancy (Uncle Ben’s; 58 83 ± 7 Type 1 and 2, 11 Bread, 3 h 1 150 37 22
Effem Foods Ltd, Canada)
285 Saskatchewan wild rice (Canada) 57 81 ± 8 Type 1 and 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 1 150 32 18
286 Broken rice, white, cooked in rice cooker 86 ± 10 123 ± 14 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
150 43 37
(Lion Foods, Bangkok, Thailand)
287 Glutinous rice, white, cooked in rice 98 ± 7 140 ± 10 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
150 32 31
cooker (Bangsue Chia Meng Rice Mill,
Bangkok, Thailand)
288 Jasmine rice, white long grain, cooked 109 ± 10 156 ± 14 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
150 42 46
in rice cooker (Golden World Foods,
Bangkok, Thailand)
Rice, white low-amylose
289 Calrose, white, medium grain, boiled 83 ± 13 119 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 48 150 43 36
(Rice Growers Co-op, Australia)
290 Sungold, Pelde, parboiled (Rice Growers 87 ± 7 124 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 48 150 43 37
Co-op, Australia)
291 Waxy (0–2% amylose) (Rice Growers 88 ± 11 126 Healthy, 7 Bread, 2 h 48 150 43 38
Co-op, Australia)
292 Pelde, white (Rice Growers Co-op, 93 ± 11 133 Healthy, 7 Bread, 2 h 48 150 43 40
Australia)
293 White, low-amylose, boiled (Turkey) 139 199 Type 2, 52; Glucose, 2 h 32 150 43 60
healthy, 31
Rice, white high-amylose
294 Bangladeshi rice variety BR16
Bangladeshi rice variety BR16 37 53 ± 7 Type 2, 12 Bread, 3 h 61 150 39 14
(28% amylose)
Bangladeshi rice variety BR16, white, 39 55 ± 5 Type 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 62 150 39 15
long grain (27% amylose), boiled 17.5 min
Mean of 2 studies 38 54 ± 1 150 39 15
295 Doongara, white (Rice Growers Co-op,
Australia)
Doongara, white (Rice Growers Co-op, 50 ± 6 69 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 63
Australia)
(Continued)
INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD 23
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
Doongara, white (Rice Growers Co-op, 64 ± 9 91 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 48
Australia)
Doongara, white (Rice Growers Co-op, 54 ± 7 75 Healthy, 9 Bread, 2 h 63
Australia)
Mean of 3 studies 56 ± 478± 7 150 39 22
296 Koshikari (Japonica), white, short-grain, 48 ± 8 68 Healthy, 8 Glucose, 3 h 64 150 38 18
boiled 15 min then steamed 10 min (Japan)
297 Basmati
Basmati, white, boiled (Mahatma brand, 58 ± 8 83 Healthy, 9 Bread, 2 h 63 150 38 22
Sydney, Australia)
Precooked basmati rice in pouch, white, 57 ± 4 81 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
150 41 24
reheated in microwave (Uncle Ben’s
Express; Masterfoods. Kings Lynn,
Norfolk, UK)
Quick-cooking white basmati, cooked 60 ± 5 86 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
150 38 23
10 min (Uncle Ben’s Superior;
Masterfoods Olen, Belgium)
298 Rice, brown
Brown (Canada) 66 ± 5 94 Healthy, 7 Glucose, 2 h 3 150 33 21
Brown, steamed (USA)
8
50 72 Healthy, 8 Glucose, 3 h
18
45 150 33 16
Brown (Oryza sativa), boiled (South 50 ± 19 72 Healthy, 12–15 Glucose, 3 h
18
65 150 33 16
India)
8
Mean of 3 studies 55 ± 579± 6 150 33 18
Calrose brown (Rice Growers Co-op, 87 ± 8 124 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 48 150 38 33
Australia)
Doongara brown, high-amylose (Rice 66 ± 7 94 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 48 150 37 24
Growers Co-op, Australia)
Pelde brown (Rice Growers Co-op, 76 ± 6 109 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 48 150 38 29
Australia)
Parboiled, cooked 20 min (Uncle Ben’s 64 ± 7 91 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
150 36 23
Natur-reis; Masterfoods Olen, Belgium)
Sunbrown Quick (Rice Growers Co-op, 80 ± 7 114 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 48 150 38 31
Australia)
299 Instant or puffed rice
Instant rice, white, boiled 1 min (Canada) 46 65 ± 5 Type 2, 13 Bread, 3 h 59 150 42 19
Instant rice, white, cooked 6 min (Trice 87 124 Healthy, 6 Glucose, 2 h 47 150 42 36
brand; Australia)
Puffed, white, cooked 5 min (Uncle Ben’s 74 ± 5 106 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
150 42 31
Snabbris; Masterfoods Olen, Belgium)
Mean of 3 studies 69 ± 12 98 ± 17 150 42 29
Instant doongara, white, cooked 5 min 94 ± 7 132 Healthy, 9 Bread, 2 h 63 150 42 35
(Rice Growers Co-op, Australia)
300 Parboiled rice
Parboiled rice (Canada) 48 68 ± 6 Type 2, 13 Bread, 3 h 22 150 36 18
Parboiled rice (USA) 72 103 Type 2, 5; Bread, 3 h 28 150 36 26
IGT, 6
10
Converted, white (Uncle Ben’s; Effem 45 64 ± 7 Type 1, 5 Bread, 3 h 22 150 36 16
Foods Ltd, Canada)
Converted, white, boiled 20–30 min (Uncle 38 54 Healthy, 16 Bread, 3 h 51 150 36 14
Ben’s; Masterfoods USA, Vernon, CA)
Converted, white, long grain, boiled 50 72 Type 2, 20 Bread, 3 h 52 150 36 18
20–30 min (Uncle Ben’s; Masterfoods USA)
Boiled, 12 min (Denmark)
6
39 55 ± 10 Type 2, 7 Bread, 2 h 66 150 36 14
Boiled, 12 min (Denmark) 42 60 ± 8 Type 2, 7 Bread, 2 h 66 150 36 15
Boiled, 12 min (Denmark) 43 62 ± 9 Type 2, 11 Bread, 5 h 67 150 36 16
Boiled, 12 min (Denmark) 46 66 ± 5 Type 2, 12 Bread, 5 h 67 150 36 17
Long grain, boiled 5 min (Canada) 38 54 ± 5 Type 2, 13 Bread, 3 h 59 150 36 14
Long grain, boiled, 10 min (USA)
8
61 87 Type 2, 8 Glucose, 3 h 4 150 36 22
Long grain, boiled 15 min (Canada) 47 67 ± 5 Type 1, 5; Bread, 3 h 59 150 36 17
type 2, 13
(Continued)
24 FOSTER-POWELL ET AL
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
Long grain, boiled 25 min (Canada) 46 66 ± 4 Type 2, 13 Bread, 3 h 59 150 36 17
Mean of 13 studies 47 ± 368± 4 150 36 17
301 Parboiled rice, eaten as part of a 99 141 Type 2, 20 Glucose, 2 h 68
traditional Indian meal (India)
8
302 Parboiled, low-amylose
Bangladeshi rice variety BR2, parboiled 51 73 ± 7 Type 2, 12 Bread, 3 h 61 150 38 19
(12% amylose)
Parboiled, low-amylose, Pelde, Sungold 87 ± 7 124 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 48 150 39 34
(Rice Growers Co-op, Australia)
303 Parboiled, high-amylose
Parboiled, high-amylose (28%), Doongara 50 ± 6 69 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 63 150 39 19
(Rice Growers Co-op, Australia)
Bangladeshi rice variety BR16, parboiled 35 50 ± 7 Type 2, 12 Bread, 3 h 61 150 37 13
(28% amylose)
Bangladeshi rice variety BR16, 32 46 ± 8 Type 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 62 150 38 12
traditionally parboiled (27% amylose)
Bangladeshi rice variety BR16, pressure 27 39 ± 6 Type 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 62 150 41 11
parboiled (27% amylose)
Bangladeshi rice variety BR4, parboiled 33 47 ± 4 Type 2, 12 Bread, 3 h 61 150 38 13
(27% amylose)
Mean of 5 studies 35 ± 450± 5 150 39 14
304 Rye, whole kernels
Rye, whole kernels (Canada) 29 42 ± 7 Type 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 22 50 (dry) 38 11
Rye, whole kernels, pressure cooked 34 47 ± 5 Type 1, 5; Bread, 3 h 21 50 (dry) 38 13
(15 psi) 30 min in 2 L water (Canada) type 2, 9
Rye, whole kernels (Canada) 39 56 ± 12 Type 1, 7 Bread, 3 h 22 50 (dry) 38 15
Mean of 3 studies 34 ± 348± 4 50 (dry) 38 13
Wheat
305 Wheat, whole kernels
Wheat, whole kernels (Triticum aestivum)30± 9 43 Healthy, 12–15 Glucose, 3 h
18
65 50 (dry) 38 11
(India)
11
Wheat, whole kernels (Canada) 42 60 ± 8 Type 2, 11 Bread, 3 h 22 50 (dry) 33 14
Wheat, whole kernels, pressure cooked 44 63 ± 6 Type 1, 6; Bread, 3 h 21 50 (dry) 33 14
(15 psi) 30 min in 2 L water (Canada) type 2, 11
Wheat, whole kernels (Canada) 48 69 ± 7 Type 1, 7 Bread, 3 h 22 50 (dry) 33 16
Mean of 4 studies 41 ± 359± 4 50 (dry) 34 14
306 Wheat, type NS (India) 90 129 Type 2, 20 Glucose, 2 h 68 50 (dry) 38 34
307 Wheat, precooked kernels
Durum wheat, precooked, cooked 20 min 52 ± 4 74 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
50 (dry) 37 19
(Ebly, Chateaudun, France)
Durum wheat, precooked, cooked 10 min 50 ± 5 71 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
50 (dry) 33 17
(Ebly, France)
Durum wheat, precooked in pouch, 40 ± 5 57 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
125 39 16
reheated in microwave (Ebly Express;
Ebly, France)
Quick cooking (White Wings, Sydney, 54 ± 11 77 Healthy, 8 Glucose, 2 h 39 150 47 25
Australia)
308 Semolina
Semolina, roasted at 105°C then 55 ± 9 79 Type 2, 6 Glucose, 2 h 69
gelatinized with water (India)
Semolina, steamed and gelatinized 54 ± 13 77 Type 2, 6 Glucose, 2 h 69
(India)
Mean of 2 studies 55 ± 178± 1 150 11 6
309 Cracked wheat (bulgur or bourghul)
Bulgur, boiled (Canada) 46 66 ± 4 Type 2, 6 Bread, 3 h 10
Bulgur, boiled in 800 mL water 20 min 46 65 ± 4 Type 1, 5; Bread, 3 h 21
(Canada) type 2, 12
Bulgur, boiled 20 min (Canada) 46 65 ± 5 Type 2, 12 Bread, 3 h 22
Bulgur, boiled 20 min (Canada) 53 75 ± 13 Type 1, 6 Bread, 3 h 22
Mean of 4 studies 48 ± 268± 3 150 26 12
(Continued)
INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD 25
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
COOKIES
Arrowroot
310 Arrowroot (McCormicks’s, Interbare 63 90 ± 4 Type 1 and 2, 13 Bread, 3 h 1 25 20 13
Foods, Toronto, Canada)
311 Arrowroot plus (McCormicks’s, Canada) 62 88 ± 7 Type 1 and 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 1 25 18 11
312 Milk Arrowroot (Arnotts, Sydney, 69 ± 7 99 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 2 25 18 12
Australia)
Mean of 3 studies 65 ± 292± 3 25 19 12
313 Barquette Abricot (LU, Ris, Orangis, 71 ± 6 101 Healthy, 11 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
40 32 23
France)
314 Bebe Dobre Rano Chocolate (Opavia/LU, 57 ± 9 81 Healthy, 11 Glucose, 2 h UO
7,19
50 33 19
Czech Republic)
315 Bebe Dobre Rano Honey and Hazelnuts 51 ± 9 73 Healthy, 11 Glucose, 2 h UO
7,19
50 34 17
(Opavia/LU, Czech Republic)
316 Bebe Jemne Susenky (Opavia/LU, Czech 67 ± 11 96 Healthy, 11 Glucose, 2 h UO
7,19
25 20 14
Republic)
317 Digestives
Digestives (Canada) 55 79 ± 9 Type 2, 6 Bread, 3 h 30
Digestives (Canada) 59 ± 7 84 Healthy, 6 Glucose, 2 h 3
Digestives, Peak Freans (Nabisco Ltd, 62 88 ± 7 Type 1 and 2, 13 Bread, 3 h 1
Toronto, Canada)
Mean of 3 studies 59 ± 284± 2 25 16 10
318 Digestives, gluten-free (maize starch) 58 83 ± 14 Type 2, 11 Bread, 3 h 18 25 17 10
(Nutricia Dietary Care Ltd, Redish,
Stockport, UK)
319 Evergreen met Krenten (LU, Netherlands) 66 ± 12 94 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
38 21 14
320 Golden Fruit (Griffin’s Foods Ltd, 77 ± 25 110 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h 25 25 17 13
Auckland, New Zealand)
321 Graham Wafers (Christie Brown and Co, 74 106 ± 9 Type 1 and 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 1 25 18 14
Toronto, Canada)
322 Gran’Dia Banana, Oats and Honey (LU, 28 ± 5 40 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
30 23 6
Brazil)
323 Grany en-cas Abricot (LU, France) 55 ± 6 79 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
30 16 9
324 Grany en-cas Fruits des bois (LU, France) 50 ± 5 71 Healthy, 14 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
30 14 7
325 Grany Rush Apricot (LU, Netherlands) 62 ± 3 89 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h UO
20
30 20 12
326 Highland Oatmeal (Westons biscuits, 55 ± 8 79 Healthy, 7 Bread, 2 h 2 25 18 10
Sydney, Australia)
327 Highland Oatcakes (Walker’s Shortbread 57 81 ± 6 Type 1 and 2, 12 Bread, 3 h 1 25 15 8
Ltd, Aberlour-on-Spey, Scotland)
328 LU P’tit Déjeuner Chocolat (LU, France) 42 ± 5 60 Healthy, 13 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
50 34 14
329 LU P’tit Déjeuner Miel et Pépites 45 ± 5 64 Healthy, 14 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
50 35 16
Chocolat (LU, France)
LU P’tit Déjeuner Miel et Pépites Chocolat 52 ± 3 74 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h UO
20
50 35 18
(LU, France)
LU P’tit Déjeuner Miel et Pépites 49 ± 8 70 Healthy, 11 Glucose, 2 h UO
7,19
50 35 18
Chocolat (LU, France)
Mean of 3 studies 49 ± 269± 3 50 35 17
330 Maltmeal wafer (Griffin’s Foods Ltd, 50 ± 10 71 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h 25 25 17 9
New Zealand)
331 Morning Coffee (Arnotts, Australia) 79 ± 6 113 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 2 25 19 15
332 Nutrigrain Fruits des bois (Kellogg’s, 57 ± 4 81 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h UO
20
35 23 13
France)
333 Oatmeal (Canada) 54 ± 4 77 Healthy, 6 Glucose, 2 h 3 25 17 9
334 Oro (Saiwa, Italy)
Oro (Saiwa, Italy) 61 ± 9 87 Healthy, 11 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
40 32 20
Oro (Saiwa, Italy) 67 ± 17 96 Healthy, 13 Glucose, 2 h UO
21
40 32 21
Mean of 2 studies 64 ± 392± 5 40 32 20
335 Petit LU Normand (LU, France) 51 ± 3 73 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h UO
20
25 19 10
(Continued)
26 FOSTER-POWELL ET AL
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
336 Petit LU Roussillon (LU, France) 48 ± 4 69 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h UO
20
25 18 9
337 Prince Energie+ (LU, France) 73 ± 5 104 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h UO
20
25 17 13
338 Prince fourré chocolat (LU, France)
Prince fourré chocolat (LU, France) 53 ± 5 76 Healthy, 13 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
——
Prince fourré chocolat (LU, France) 50 ± 5 71 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
——
Mean of 2 studies 52 ± 2 74 45 30 16
339 Prince Meganana Chocolate (LU, Spain) 49 ± 12 70 Healthy, 11 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
50 36 18
340 Prince Petit Déjeuner Vanille (LU, France 45 ± 6 64 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
50 36 16
and Spain)
341 Rich Tea (Canada) 55 ± 4 79 Healthy, 6 Glucose, 2 h 3 25 19 10
342 Sablé des Flandres (LU, France) 57 ± 10 81 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
20 15 8
343 Shortbread (Arnotts, Australia) 64 ± 8 91 Healthy, 8 Glucose, 2 h 39 25 16 10
344 Shredded Wheatmeal (Arnotts, Australia) 62 ± 4 89 Healthy, 7 Bread, 2 h 2 25 18 11
345 Snack Right Fruit Slice (97% fat-free) 45 ± 3 64 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
25 19 9
(Arnott’s, Australia)
346 Thé (LU, France) 41 ± 7 57 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
20 16 6
347 Vanilla Wafers (Christie Brown and Co, 77 110 ± 4 Type 1 and 2, 8 Bread, 3 h 1 25 18 14
Canada)
348 Véritable Petit Beurre (LU, France) 51 ± 8 73 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
25 18 9
CRACKERS
349 Breton wheat crackers (Dare Foods Ltd, 67 96 ± 4 Type 1 and 2, 10 Bread, 3 h 1 25 14 10
Kitchener, Canada)
350 Corn Thins, puffed corn cakes, 87 ± 10 124 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
25 20 18
gluten-free (Real Foods, St Peters,
Australia)
351 Cream Cracker (LU Triumfo, Brazil) 65 ± 11 93 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
25 17 11
352 High-calcium cracker (Danone, Malaysia) 52 ± 8 74 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h UO
7
25 17 9
353 Jatz, plain salted craker biscuits (Arnotts, 55 ± 5 79 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 2 25 17 10
Australia)
354 Puffed Crispbread (Westons, Australia) 81 ± 9 116 Healthy, 8 Glucose, 2 h 39 25 19 15
355 Puffed rice cakes
Puffed rice cakes, white (Rice Growers 82 ± 11 117 Healthy, 6 Bread, 2 h 48 25 21 17
Co-op, Australia)
Rice cakes, Calrose rice (low-amylose) 91 ± 7 128 Healthy, 9 Bread, 2 h 63 25 21 19
(Rice Growers Co-op, Australia)
Rice cakes, Doongara rice (high-amylose) 61 ± 5 85 Healthy, 9 Bread, 2 h 63 25 21 13
(Rice Growers Co-op, Australia)
Mean of 3 studies 78 ± 9 110 ± 13 25 21 17
356 Rye crispbread
Rye crispbread (Canada) 63 90 Type 2, number NS Glucose, time NS 23 25 16 10
Ryvita (Canada) 69 ± 10 99 Healthy, 7 Glucose, 2 h 3 25 16 11
High-fiber rye crispbread (Ryvita Company 59 84 ± 7 Type 1 and 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 1 25 15 9
Ltd, Poole, Dorset, UK)
Rye crispbread (Ryvita Company Ltd, UK) 63 90 ± 4 Type 1 and 2, 12 Bread, 3 h 1 25 18 11
Mean of 4 studies 64 ± 291± 3251611
357 Kavli Norwegian Crispbread (Players 71 ± 7 101 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 13 25 16 12
Biscuits, Sydney, Australia)
358 Sao, plain square crackers (Arnotts, 70 ± 9 100 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 2 25 17 12
Australia)
359 Stoned Wheat Thins (Christie Brown and 67 96 ± 4 Type 1 and 2, 11 Bread, 3 h 1 25 17 12
Co, Canada)
360 Water cracker
Water cracker (Canada) 63 ± 9 90 Healthy, 6 Glucose, 2 h 3 25 18 11
Water cracker (Arnotts, Australia) 78 ± 11 111 Healthy, 8 Glucose, 2 h 39 25 18 14
Mean of 2 studies 71 ± 8 101 ± 11 25 18 13
361 Premium Soda Crackers (Christie Brown 74 106 ± 5 Type 1 and 2, 10 Bread, 3 h 1 25 17 12
and Co, Canada)
362 Vita-wheat, original, crispbread (Arnott’s 55 ± 4 79 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
25 19 10
Australia)
(Continued)
INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD 27
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
DAIRY PRODUCTS AND ALTERNATIVES
Custard
363 No Bake Egg Custard, prepared from 35 ± 250± 3 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
100 17 6
powder with whole milk (Nestlé, Australia)
364 Custard, home made from milk, wheat 43 ± 10 61 Healthy, 8 Glucose, 2 h 39 100 17 7
starch, and sugar (Australia)
365 TRIM, reduced-fat custard (Pauls Ltd, 37 ± 452± 6 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
100 15 6
South Brisbane, Australia)
Mean of 3 studies 38 ± 254± 3 100 16 6
366 Ice cream, regular, NS
Ice cream, NS (Canada) 36 ± 8 51 Healthy, 5 Glucose, 2 h 3
Ice cream (half vanilla, half chocolate) 57 82 ± 40 Healthy, 7 Bread, 2 h 70
(Italy)
Ice cream, NS (USA) 62 89 Type 2, 7 Glucose, 5 h
22
6—
Ice cream, chocolate flavored (USA) 68 ± 15 97 Type 2, 12 Glucose, 3 h 71
Ice cream (half vanilla, half chocolate) 80 114 ± 31 Type 2, 14 Bread, 2 h 70
(Italy)
Mean of 5 studies 61 ± 787± 10 50 13 8
367 Ice cream, reduced- or low-fat
Ice cream, low-fat, vanilla (Light; Peter’s, 50 ± 8 71 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 2 50 6 3
Sydney, Australia)
Ice-cream, low-fat (1.2% fat) (Prestige
Light rich vanilla; Norco, Lismore, 47 ± 5 67 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
50 10 5
Australia)
6
Ice-cream, low-fat (1.4% fat) (Prestige
Light traditional toffee; Norco, Australia)
6
37 ± 4 53 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
50 14 5
Ice-cream, reduced-fat (7.1% fat)
(Prestige golden macadamia; Norco, 39 ± 3 55 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
50 12 5
Australia)
6
368 Ice cream, premium (high-fat)
Ice cream, premium, ultra chocolate, 37 ± 3 53 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
50 9 4
15% fat (Sara Lee, Gosford, Australia)
Ice cream, premium, French vanilla, 38 ± 3 54 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
50 9 3
16% fat (Sara Lee, Australia)
369 Milk, full-fat
Full-fat (Italy) 11 15 ± 8 Healthy, 7 Bread, 2 h 70
Full-fat (3% fat; Skånemejerier, Malmö, 21 30 ± 4 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h 72
Sweden)
6
Full-fat (Italy) 24 34 ± 9 Type 2, 14 Bread, 2 h 70
Full-fat cow milk, fresh (Dairy Farmers, 31 ± 244± 2 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
——
Australia)
Full-fat (Canada) 34 ± 6 49 Healthy, 6 Glucose, 2 h 3
Full-fat (USA) 40 57 Type 2, 7 Glucose, 5 h
23
6—
Mean of 5 studies 27 ± 438± 6 250 12 3
370 Fermented cow milk (ropy milk, långfil, 11 15 ± 3 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h 72
3% fat) (Arla, Gävle, Sweden)
6
371 Fermented cow milk (filmjölk, 3% fat) 11 15 ± 3 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h 72
(Skånemejerier, Malmö, Sweden)
6
Mean of 2 foods 11 15
372 Milk, full-fat, plus bran
Full-fat + 20 g wheat bran (Italy) 25 35 ± 11 Type 2, 14 Bread, 2 h 70
Full-fat + 20 g wheat bran (Italy) 28 40 ± 27 Healthy, 7 Bread, 2 h 70
Mean of 2 studies 27 ± 238± 3 250 12 3
373 Milk, skim (Canada) 32 ± 5 46 Healthy, 6 Glucose, 2 h 3 250 13 4
374 Milk, condensed, sweetened (Nestlé, 61 ± 687± 9 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h 73 250 136 83
Australia)
375 Milk, low-fat, chocolate, with aspartame 24 ± 6 34 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 2 250 15 3
(Lite White; Dairy Farmers, Australia)
376 Milk, low-fat, chocolate, with sugar 34 ± 4 49 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 2 250 26 9
(Lite White; Dairy Farmers, Australia)
(Continued)
28 FOSTER-POWELL ET AL
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
377 Mousse, reduced-fat, prepared from
commerical mousse mix with water
Butterscotch, 1.9% fat (Nestlé, Australia) 36 ± 4 51 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
50 10 4
Chocolate, 2% fat (Nestlé, Australia) 31 ± 444± 6 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
50 11 3
Hazelnut, 2.4% fat (Nestlé, Australia) 36 ± 4 51 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
50 10 4
Mango, 1.8% fat (Nestlé, Australia) 33 ± 5 47 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
50 11 4
Mixed berry, 2.2% fat (Nestlé, Australia) 36 ± 5 51 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
50 10 4
Strawberry, 2.3% fat (Nestlé, Australia) 32 ± 3 46 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
50 10 3
Mean of 6 foods 34 ± 148± 1 50 10 4
378 Pudding
Instant, chocolate, made from powder 47 ± 4 67 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
100 16 7
and whole milk (White Wings, Australia)
Instant, vanilla, made from powder and 40 ± 4 57 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
100 16 6
whole milk (White Wings, Australia)
Mean of 2 foods 44 ± 462± 5 100 16 7
379 Yogurt
Yogurt, NS (Canada) 36 ± 4 51 Healthy, 5 Glucose, 2 h 3 200 9 3
380 Low-fat yogurt
Low-fat, fruit, aspartame (Ski; Dairy 14 ± 4 20 Healthy, 7 Bread, 2 h 2 200 13 2
Farmers, Australia)
Low-fat, fruit, sugar (Ski; Dairy Farmers, 33 ± 7 47 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 2 200 31 10
Australia)
Low-fat (0.9%), fruit, wild strawberry 31 ± 14 44 Healthy, 9 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
200 30 9
(Ski d’lite; Dairy Farmers, Australia)
381 Nonfat yogurt, sweetened with
acesulfame K and Splenda
Diet Vaalia, exotic fruits (Pauls Ltd, 23 ± 2 33 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
200 16 4
Australia)
6
Diet Vaalia, mango (Pauls Ltd, Australia)
6
23 ± 2 33 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
200 14 3
Diet Vaalia, mixed berry (Pauls Ltd, 25 ± 3 36 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
200 13 3
Australia)
6
Diet Vaalia, strawberry (Pauls Ltd, 23 ± 2 33 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
200 13 3
Australia)
6
Diet Vaalia, vanilla (Pauls Ltd, Australia)
6
23 ± 2 33 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
200 13 3
Mean of 5 foods 24 ± 134± 1 200 14 3
382 Reduced-fat yogurt
Reduced-fat, Vaalia, apricot and mango 26 ± 438± 6 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
200 30 8
(Pauls Ltd, Australia)
6
Reduced-fat, Vaalia, french vanilla (Pauls 26 ± 438± 5 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
200 10 3
Ltd, Australia)
6
Reduced-fat, strawberry (Extra-Lite; 28 ± 440± 6 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
200 33 9
Pauls Ltd, Australia)
6
Mean of 3 foods 27 ± 139± 1 200 24 7
383 Yogurt drink, reduced-fat, Vaalia, tropical 38 ± 454± 6 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
200 29 11
passion fruit (Pauls Ltd, Australia)
6
Soy-based dairy product alternatives
384 Soy milks (containing maltodextrin)
Soy milk, full-fat (3%), 0 mg Cal, Original 44 ± 5 63 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 17 8
(So Natural Foods, Australia)
6
Soy milk, full-fat (3%), 120 mg Cal, 36 ± 4 51 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 18 6
Calciforte (So Natural Foods, Australia)
6
Soy milk, reduced-fat (1.5%), 120 mg Cal, 44 ± 3 63 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 17 8
Light (So Natural Foods, Australia)
6
385 Soy milk drinks
Soy smoothie drink, banana, 1% fat 30 ± 3 43 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 22 7
(So Natural Foods, Australia)
6
Soy smoothie drink, chocolate hazelnut, 34 ± 3 49 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 25 8
1% fat (So Natural Foods, Australia)
6
Mean of 2 drinks 32 ± 246± 3 250 23 7
(Continued)
INTERNATIONAL TABLE OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND LOAD 29
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
Up and Go, cocoa malt flavor (soy milk, 43 ± 5 61 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 26 11
rice cereal liquid breakfast) (Sanitarium,
Australia)
6
Up and Go, original malt flavor (soy milk, 46 ± 5 66 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 24 11
rice cereal liquid breakfast) (Sanitarium,
Australia)
6
Mean of 2 drinks 45 ± 264± 3 250 25 11
Xpress, chocolate (soy bean, cereal and 39 ± 2 56 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 34 13
legume extract drink with fructose)
(So Natural Foods, Australia)
6
386 Soy yogurt
Soy yogurt, peach and mango, 2% fat, 50 ± 3 71 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
200 26 13
sugar (So Natural Foods, Australia)
6
387 Tofu-based frozen dessert, chocolate 115 ± 14 164 Type 2, 12 Glucose, 3 h 71 50 9 10
with high fructose (24%) corn syrup (USA)
FRUIT AND FRUIT PRODUCTS
388 Apples, raw
Apple, NS (Denmark) 28 40 ± 11 Type 2, 8 Bread, 3 h 74 120 13 4
Apple, braeburn (New Zealand)
6
32 ± 4 46 Type 2, IGT, 15
10
Glucose, 3 h 75 120 13 4
Apple, NS (Canada) 34 48 Type 2, number NS Glucose, time NS 23 120 16 5
Apple, golden delicious (Canada) 39 ± 3 56 Healthy, 6 Glucose, 2 h 3 120 16 6
Apple, NS (USA) 40 57 Type 2, 7 Glucose, 5 h
23
6 120 16 6
Apple, NS (Italy) 44 63 ± 3 Type 2, 7 Bread, 3 h 76 120 13 6
Mean of 6 studies 38 ± 252± 3 120 15 6
389 Apple juice
Apple juice, unsweetened, reconstituted 39 ± 555± 7 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 25 10
(Berrivale Orchards Ltd, Berri, Australia)
Apple juice, unsweetened (USA) 40 57 Type 2, 7 Glucose, 5 h
23
6 250 mL 29 12
Apple juice, unsweetened (Allens, Toronto, 41 59 ± 8 Type 2, 6 Bread, 3 h 7 250 mL 30 12
Canada)
Mean of 3 studies 40 ± 157± 2 250 mL 28 11
390 Apple, dried (Australia) 29 ± 541± 7 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
60 34 10
Apricots
391 Apricots, raw, NS (Italy) 57 82 ± 3 Type 2, 7 Bread, 3 h 75 120 9 5
392 Apricots, canned in light syrup (Riviera, 64 91 ± 6 Type 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 7 120 19 12
Aliments Caneast Foods, Montreal, Canada)
393 Apricots, dried
Apricots, dried (Australia) 30 ± 7 43 Healthy, 8 Bread, 2 h 2 60 27 8
Apricots, dried (Wasco foods, Montreal, 32 46 ± 7 Type 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 7 60 30 10
Canada)
Mean of 2 studies 31 ± 144± 2 60 28 9
394 Apricot fruit bar, puréed dried apricot 50 ± 8 71 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h 25 50 34 17
filling in whole-meal pastry (Mother
Earth, Auckland, New Zealand)
395 Apricot fruit spread, reduced sugar 55 ± 778± 10 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
30 13 7
(Glen Ewin Jams, Para Hills, Australia)
396 Apricot Fruity Bitz, vitamin and mineral 42 ± 3 61 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
15 12 5
enriched dried fruit snack (Blackmores
Ltd, Balgowlah, Australia)
397 Banana, raw
Banana (Canada) 46 66 Diabetic, number NS Glucose, time NS 20 120 25 12
Banana (Italy) 58 83 ± 3 Type 2, 8 Bread, 3 h 76 120 23 13
Banana (Canada) 58 83 ± 7 Type 2, 6 Bread, 3 h 30 120 25 15
Banana (Canada) 62 ± 9 89 Healthy, 6 Glucose, 2 h 3 120 25 16
Banana (South Africa) 70 ± 5 100 Healthy, 8 Glucose, 2 h 29 120 23 16
Banana, ripe, all yellow (USA) 51 73 Type 2, 7 Glucose, 5 h
24
77 120 25 13
Banana, underripe (Denmark) 30 43 ± 10 Type 2, 10 Bread, 4 h 78 120 21 6
Banana, slightly underripe, yellow with 42 60 Type 2, 7 Glucose, 5 h
24
77 120 25 11
green sections (USA)
(Continued)
30 FOSTER-POWELL ET AL
TABLE 1 (Continued)
GI
2
GI
2
Available GL
3
(Glucose (Bread Subjects Reference food and Refer- Serving carbo- (per
Food number and item = 100) = 100) (Type and number) time period ence size hydrate serving)
g g/serving
Banana, overripe, yellow flecked with 48 69 Type 2, 7 Glucose, 5 h
24
77 120 25 12
brown (USA)
Banana, overripe (Denmark) 52 74 ± 9 Type 2, 10 Bread, 4 h 78 120 20 11
Mean of 10 studies 52 ± 474± 5 120 24 12
398 Banana, processed fruit fingers, Heinz 61 ± 11 87 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
30 20 12
Kidz (H J Heinz, Malvern, Australia)
399 Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), raw 68 97 Healthy, 7 Potato, 3 h
25
79 120 27 18
(Australia)
6
400 Cherries, raw, NS (Canada) 22 32 Type 2, number NS Glucose, time NS 23 120 12 3
401 Chico (Zapota zapotilla coville), raw 40 57 Type 2, 10 Bread, 3 h 80 120 29 12
(Philippines)
6
402 Cranberry juice
Cranberry juice cocktail (Ocean Spray, 52 ± 3 74 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 31 16
Australia)
Cranberry juice cocktail (Ocean Spray 68 ± 3 97 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 35 24
Inc, USA)
Cranberry juice drink (Ocean Spray; 56 ± 4 80 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
250 mL 29 16
Gerber Ltd, Bridgewater, Somerset, UK)
403 Custard apple, raw, flesh only (Australia) 54 ± 277± 3 Healthy, 12 Glucose, 2 h 73 120 19 10
404 Dates, dried (Australia) 103 ± 21 147 ± 30 Healthy, 10 Bread, 2 h UO
4
60 40 42
405 Figs, dried, tenderized, Dessert Maid 61 ± 6 87 Healthy, 10 Glucose, 2 h UO
4
60 26 16
brand (Ernest Hall and Sons, Sydney,
Australia)
406 Fruit Cocktail, canned (Delmonte 55 79 ± 5 Type 2, 8 Bread, 3 h 7 120 16 9
Canadian Canners Ltd, Hamilton, Canada)
407 Grapefruit, raw (Canada) 25 36 Type 2, number NS Glucose, time NS 23 120 11 3
408 Grapefruit juice, unsweetened (Sunpac, 48 69 ± 5 Type 2, 13 Bread, 3 h 7 250 mL 20 9
Toronto, Canada)
409 Grapes, raw
Grapes, NS (Canada) 43 62 Type 2, number NS Glucose, time NS 23 120 17 7
Grapes, NS (Italy) 49 70 ± 3 Type 2, 9 Bread, 3 h 76 120 19 9
Mean of 2 studies 46 ± 366± 4 120 18 8
Grapes, black, Waltham Cross (Australia) 59 84 Healthy, 11 Bread, 2 h UO
4
120 18 11
410 Kiwi fruit, raw
Kiwi fruit, Hayward (New Zealand)
6
47 ± 4 68 Type 2 and IGT, 15
10
Glucose, 3 h 75 120 12 5
Kiwi fruit (Australia)
6
58 ± 7 83 Healthy, 7 Bread, 2 h 2 120 12 7
Mean of 2 studies