Prevalence of narcolepsy symptomatology and diagnosis in the European general population. Neurology 58, 1826-33

Universität Regensburg, Ratisbon, Bavaria, Germany
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.29). 07/2002; 58(12):1826-33. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.58.12.1826
Source: PubMed


To determine the prevalence of narcolepsy in the general population of five European countries (target population 205,890,882 inhabitants).
Overall, 18,980 randomly selected subjects were interviewed (participation rate 80.4%). These subjects were representative of the general population of the UK, Germany, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. They were interviewed by telephone using the Sleep-EVAL expert system, which provided narcolepsy diagnosis according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD).
Excessive daytime sleepiness was reported by 15% of the sample, with a higher prevalence in the UK and Germany. Napping two times or more in the same day was reported by 1.6% of the sample, with a significantly higher rate in Germany. Cataplexy (episodes of loss of muscle function related to a strong emotion), a cardinal symptom of narcolepsy, was found in 1.6% of the sample. An ICSD narcolepsy diagnosis was found in 0.047% of the sample: The narcolepsy was severe for 0.026% of the sample and moderate in 0.021%.
This is the first epidemiologic study that estimates the prevalence of narcolepsy in the general population of these five European countries. The disorder affects 47 individuals/100,000 inhabitants.

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    • "In the current study, we did not rule out that SP occurred as a symptom of narcolepsy, and shall thus use the term SP rather than ISP (see also, Jalal and Hinton, 2013; Jalal et al., 2014a, b; Jalal et al., in press). We should note however that since narcolepsy is rare occurring in less than one percent of the general population, the vast majority of SP cases reported in this study are bound to represent ISP (Ohayon et al., 2002).] "
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    ABSTRACT: Among Egyptian college students in Cairo (n = 100), this study examined the relationship between sleep paralysis (SP) and anxiety symptoms, viz., posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), trait anxiety, and pathological worry. SP rates were high; 43% of participants reported at least one lifetime episode of SP, and 24% of those who reported at least one lifetime episode had experienced four or more episodes during the previous year. Fourteen percent of men had experienced SP as compared to 86% of women. As hypothesized, relative to non-SP experiencers, participants who had SP reported higher symptoms of PTSD, trait anxiety, and pathological worry. Also, as hypothesized, the experiencing of hypnogogic/hypnopompic hallucinations during SP, even after controlling for negative affect, was highly correlated with symptoms of PTSD and trait anxiety. The study also investigated possible mechanisms by examining the relationship of hallucinations to anxiety variables.
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    • "Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) is a chronic neurological disease with a prevalence of approximately 0.045% in North America and Europe (Ohayon et al. 2002). The manifestations of NC are excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, and roughly half of patients experience hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis. "
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    ABSTRACT: We present the case of an 86 year old female, in whom narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) manifested at 52 years of age. She was treated by an amphetamine-like drug phenmetrazine and tricyclic antidepressants for more than 10 years. Hypokinetic-rigid syndrome manifested at 83 years of age and Parkinson´s disease (PD) was diagnosed. Detailed examination at the age of 86 confirmed the previous diagnosis of NC and the diagnosis of PD. Severe periodic limb movements in sleep, severe sleep apnea, REM sleep behavior disorder and restless legs syndrome, which are frequently comorbid in NC and PD, were revealed. The patient's somnolence worsened, apparently accentuated by pramipexole treatment, as changing therapy to levodopa led to a reduction of sleepiness.
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    • "Son incidence suit une courbe d'incidence bimodale avec un pic à 15 ans et un second vers 35 ans [5]. Sa prévalence est estimée environ à 0,025 % [6]. Les mécanismes étiopathogéniques de la NSC et de l'HI restent mal connus, contrairement à ceux de la NC. "
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    ABSTRACT: Les symptômes du trouble déficit d’attention avec ou sans hyperactivité (TDA/H) sont fréquemment observés chez les sujets souffrant d’hypersomnie centrale. Les hypothèses physiopathologiques concernant cette association sont discutées : s’agit-il de conséquences de la somnolence diurne excessive ou le reflet d’une vulnérabilité commune entre les hypersomnies et le TDA/H ? Notre travail a pour objectif, d’une part, d’étudier la fréquence du TDA/H chez des sujets souffrant de narcolepsie-cataplexie, narcolepsie sans cataplexie et hypersomnie idiopathique et, d’autre part, d’étudier les déterminants cliniques, biologiques et polysomnographiques de cette association. Ce travail pourrait améliorer nos connaissances sur la physiopathologie de ces troubles.
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