Bond strength of fibrin glue between layers of porcine small intestine submucosa (SIS)

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This study investigated the strength of the bond between layers of small intestine submucosa (SIS, Cook Biotech, Inc., West Lafayette, IN) glued with commercially available fibrin glue (Haemacure Corporation). To determine the conditions leading to the highest bond strength, three parameters were varied: the concentration of the fibrin component, the concentration of the thrombin component, and the type of applicator used to apply the two components. Five glue concentrations and two applicator types, a Paasch Airbrush and one provided with the Haemacure glue kit, were studied. To make the test specimens, two pieces of SIS were each sprayed separately with 1 mL of one of the glue components. The two pieces were then adhered and allowed to cure for two minutes. After the panels were glued, frozen, and lyophilized, they were cut to size according to ASTM Standard D 1876: Peel Resistance of Adhesives (T-Peel Test). The panels were then rehydrated, and tests were performed in an MTS tensile testing machine set to pull at a constant rate of 1 mm/sec over a 100 mm span. The mean force over the duration of the test was computed as specified in the ASTM standard. The airbrush was found to produce a stronger bond than the applicator supplied by Haemacure. Judged qualitatively, the airbrush also produced a much more uniform spray and consistent flow rate than the glue manufacturer's applicator. The data suggest that a decrease in concentration of both glue components yields increased bond strength, although variability in the results also increased with decreased glue component concentration.

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... This would correlate with the reduced stability identified in this study. Even though fibrin glue is able to withstand unidirectional forces applied on visceral organs such as bowel 39 and liver 40 up to 120 N 41 , it may be inadequate to use in chondral repair, especially in the hip joint where multidirectional forces are transmitted from the femoral cartilage to the acetabular cartilage in the range 1000e2000 N 29,30 . Orthopaedic research with cyanoacrylates is limited to skin closure, tendon and meniscal repair 42e44 . ...
The objective of this study was to assess the biomechanical stability of three types of chondral flap repair techniques as well as a hydrogel scaffold implantation on the acetabular articular surface using a physiological human cadaveric model. Chondral flaps were created in the antero-superior zone of the acetabulum in a series of human cadaveric hip joints. The chondral flap was repaired by fibrin-glue, cyanoacrylate, suture technique and an agarose hydrogel scaffold sealed with fibrin glue using 6 hips in each case. After each repair, the specimens were mounted in a validated jig and tested for 1500 gait cycles. In order to determine the stability of the repair, specimens were evaluated arthroscopically at specific intervals. The fibrin glue and cyanoacrylate techniques were technically the easiest to perform arthroscopically, all flaps repaired with fibrin were detached at 50 cycles while those repaired with cyanoacrylate lasted for an average of 635 cycles. On the other hand, both the suture repair and scaffold implantation techniques were more technically challenging but were both stable till the endpoint of 1500 cycles. Fibrin glue on its own does not provide sufficient fixation to repair chondral flaps on the acetabular surface. Cyanoacrylate repairs universally failed midway through the testing protocol employed here, raising doubts as to the effectiveness of that technique. The suture and hydrogel scaffold technique were the most reliable for chondral repair at any given cycle. The results of this biomechanical study demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chondral repair and fixation techniques. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
We recently reported the generation of a highly elastic, crosslinked protein biomaterial via a rapid photochemical process using visible light illumination. In light of these findings, we predicted that other unmodified, tyrosine-rich, self-associating proteins might also be susceptible to this covalent crosslinking method. Here we show that unmodified native fibrinogen can also be photochemically crosslinked into an elastic hydrogel biomaterial through the rapid formation of intermolecular dityrosine. Photochemically crosslinked fibrinogen forms tissue sealant bonds at least 5-fold stronger than commercial fibrin glue and is capable of producing maximum bond strength within 20s. In vitro studies showed that components of the photochemical crosslinking reaction are non-toxic to cells. This material will find useful application in various surgical procedures where rapid curing for high strength tissue sealing is required.
Fibrin glue is a biologic two component hemostatic adhesive. Fibrin glue acts as an effective vascular plus after arterial injury without suture at pressures twice systolic. It is also effective on vein at physiologic pressures, however, venous distensibility precludes its efficacy beyond these limits. Recent studies have documented its utility as a preclot material on vascular grafts and as a seal for sutured vascular anastomoses. This study was designed to characterize the glue's sealant ability when applied to open arterial and venous injuries, and to compare its efficacy with currently available hemostatic agents. Segments of canine peripheral artery and vein were isolated and perforated with a 16-gauge needle. This injury was treated by random application of either fibrin sealant (FS), oxidized cellulose (OC), microcrystalline collagen (MC), or MC plus thrombin (MCT). Five minutes after patch application, intralumenal pressure was increased progressively with saline infusion to ascertain bursting threshold. The arterial bursting threshold was significantly higher for FA (250 +/- 59.7 mm Hg) than for OC (12.5 +/- 6.1 mm Hg), MC (17.2 +/- 21.9 mm Hg) or MCT (10.8 +/- 13.8 mm Hg) (P less than 10(6)). The bursting threshold of FS applied to vein (17.5 +/- 11.7) was not significantly different from other agents (P less than 0.05).