Shamim EA, Rider LG, Pandey JP, O’Hanlon TP, Jara LJ, Samayoa EA, Burgos-Vargas R, Vazquez-Mellado J, Alcocer-Varela J, Salazar-Paramo M, Kutzbach AG, Malley JD, Targoff IN, Garcia-De la Torre I, Miller FW. Differences in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy phenotypes and genotypes between Mesoamerican Mestizos and North American Caucasians: ethnogeographic influences in the genetics and clinical expression of myositis. Arthritis Rheum. 46: 1885-1893

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Arthritis & Rheumatology (Impact Factor: 7.76). 07/2002; 46(7):1885-93. DOI: 10.1002/art.10358
Source: PubMed


As part of a larger, worldwide study of the ethnogeography of myositis, we evaluated the clinical, serologic, and immunogenetic features of Mestizo (Mexican and Guatemalan) and North American Caucasian patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM).
Clinical manifestations, autoantibodies, HLA-DRB1 and DQA1 alleles, and immunoglobulin Gm/Km allotypes were compared between 138 Mestizos with IIM and 287 Caucasians with IIM, using the same classification criteria and standardized questionnaires.
IIM in Mestizo patients was characterized by a higher proportion of dermatomyositis (69% of adult Mestizos versus 35% of adult Caucasians; P < 0.001) and anti-Mi-2 autoantibodies (30% versus 7% of adults, respectively, and 32% versus 4% of children, respectively; P < 0.01). Genetic risk factors also differed in these populations. Whereas Mestizos had no HLA risk factors for IIM, HLA-DRB1*0301, the linked allele DQA1*0501, and DRB1 alleles sharing the first hypervariable region motif 9EYSTS13 were major risk factors in Caucasian patients with IIM. Furthermore, different HLA-DRB1 and DQA1 alleles were associated with anti-Mi-2 autoantibodies (DRB1*04 and DQA1*03 in Mestizos and DRB1*07 and DQA1*02 in Caucasians). Immunoglobulin γ-chain allotypes Gm(1), Gm(17) (odds ratio for both 11.3, P = 0.008), and Gm(21) (odds ratio 7.3, P = 0.005) and κ-chain allotype Km(3) (odds ratio 7.3, P = 0.005) were risk factors for IIM in Mestizos; however, no Gm or Km allotypes were risk or protective factors in Caucasians. In addition, Gm and Km phenotypes were unique risk factors (Gm 1,3,17 5,13,21 and Gm 1,17 23 21 and Km 3,3) or protective factors (Km 1,1) for the development of myositis and anti-Mi-2 autoantibodies (Gm 1,2,3,17 23 5,13,21) in adult Mestizos.
IIM in Mesoamerican Mestizos differs from IIM in North American Caucasians in the frequency of phenotypic features and in the immune-response genes predisposing to and protecting from myositis and anti-Mi-2 autoantibodies at 4 chromosomal loci. These and other data suggest the likelihood that the expression of IIM is modulated by different genes and environmental exposures around the world.

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Available from: James D. Malley, Sep 11, 2014
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    • "There are differences in the clinical features of DM and PM between our cohort of Han Chinese patients and Western patients [1,18]. There are more DM cases in our cohort and among Mesoamerican patients, whereas PM is the major subtype among Caucasian patients [19]. Compared to Caucasian patients, our cohort had a higher prevalence of the lung complication [20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) are idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Genetic variability in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PM and DM. However, few studies on the subject in Chinese populations have been reported thus far. Methods We studied the influence of HLA polymorphisms on DM and PM susceptibility by analyzing HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQA1, and HLA-DQB1 alleles in 71 adult DM patients, 20 adult PM patients, and 113 controls in a Han Chinese population. Results A positive association was found between HLA-DQA1*0104 and DM (p = 0.01; corrected p (pcorr) NS; odds ratio (OR) = 2.58; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18–5.64), while an inverse correlation was noted between HLA-DQB1*0303 and myositis patients with interstitial lung inflammation (p = 0.01; pcorr NS; OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.07–0.73). A positive relationship was also observed between HLA-DRB1*07 and DM (p = 0.01; pcorr NS; OR = 2.26; 95% CI: 1.12–4.59), while HLA-DRB1*03 seems to be protective against DM (p = 0.01; pcorr NS; OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.06–0.81). The lung complication was closely associated with HLA-DRB1*04 (p = 0.01; pcorr NS; OR = 2.82; 95% CI: 1.15–6.76) and HLA-DRB1*12 (p = 0.02; pcorr NS; OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.02–6.07). The frequency of HLA-DRB1*07 was significantly higher among myositis patients with dysphagia than among controls (p = 0.01; pcorr NS; OR = 4.78; 95% CI: 1.03–24.42). The putative haplotype DRB1*07-DQA1*01-DQB1*02 was positively correlated with DM (p = 0.03; pcorr NS; OR = 2.90; 95% CI: 1.02–8.93) and the lung complication (p = 0.02; pcorr NS; OR = 3.45; 95% CI: 1.04–11.58). Conclusions Our results demonstrate that HLA alleles may be involved in susceptibility to adult DM and PM in the Han Chinese population.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BMC Dermatology
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    • "Nevertheless, based on available information, the prevalence of MSAs appears to be quite different in different countries [4-8] or even within the same country [9-11], suggesting an interesting interaction of genetic and environmental factors in the production of MSAs. In particular, a few previous studies [5,6] reported an increased percentage of DM and prevalence of anti-Mi-2 antibodies in PM/DM patients in Central America and suggested a role of UV radiation in the development of DM and anti-Mi-2 antibodies. We aimed at determining the prevalence and clinical association of MSAs in two Mexican cohorts with PM/DM, focusing on anti-Mi-2 autoantibodies. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Autoantibodies and clinical manifestations in polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) are affected by both genetic and environmental factors. The high prevalence of DM and anti-Mi-2 in Central America is thought to be associated with the high UV index of the area. The prevalences of autoantibodies and the clinical manifestations of PM/DM were evaluated comparing two cohorts in Mexico. Methods Ninety-five Mexican patients with PM/DM (66 DM, 29 PM; 67 Mexico City, 28 Guadalajara) were studied. Autoantibodies were characterized by immunoprecipitation using 35S-methionine labeled K562 cell extract. Clinical information was obtained from medical records. Results DM represented 69% of PM/DM and anti-Mi-2 was the most common autoantibody (35%), followed by anti-p155/140 (11%); however, anti-Jo-1 was only 4%. The autoantibody profile in adult-onset DM in Mexico City versus Guadalajara showed striking differences: anti-Mi-2 was 59% versus 12% (P = 0.0012) whereas anti-p155/140 was 9% versus 35% (P = 0.02), respectively. A strong association of anti-Mi-2 with DM was confirmed and when clinical features of anti-Mi-2 (+) DM (n = 30) versus anti-Mi-2 (-) DM (n = 36) were compared, the shawl sign (86% versus 64%, P < 0.05) was more common in the anti-Mi-2 (+) group (P = 0.0001). Levels of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) were higher in those who were anti-Mi-2 (+) but they responded well to therapy. Conclusions Anti-Mi-2 has a high prevalence in Mexican DM and is associated with the shawl sign and high CPK. The prevalence of anti-Mi-2 and anti-p155/140 was significantly different in Mexico City versus Guadalajara, which have a similar UV index. This suggests roles of factors other than UV in anti-Mi-2 antibody production.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Arthritis research & therapy
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    • "Immunoglobulin gene polymorphisms encoding constant regions of immunoglobulin gamma heavy (GM, 14q32.33) and kappa light (KM, 2p12) chains have been examined in a series of US Caucasian and African-American IIM cohorts [10,26,46]. A number of studies have examined individuals with allelic variants of specific GM/KM genes, in which raised titres of specific IgG antibody subclasses were present, against various antigenic epitopes of infectious disease agents or self-proteins [46]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This review summarizes the previous and current literature on the immunogenetics of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) and updates the research progress that has been made over the past decade. A substantial part of the genetic risk for developing adult- and juvenile-onset IIM lies within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and a tight relationship exists between individual human leukocyte antigen alleles and specific serological subtypes, which in turn dictate clinical disease phenotypes. Multiple genetic regions outside of the MHC are increasingly being identified in conferring IIM disease susceptibility. We are still challenged with the task of studying a serologically and clinically heterogeneous disorder that is rarer by orders of magnitude than the likes of rheumatoid arthritis. An ongoing and internationally coordinated IIM genome-wide association study may provide further insights into IIM immunogenetics.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Arthritis research & therapy
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