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On the basic concepts and contents of ecological security

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Abstract

Security is the inverse function of risk, generally regarded as safeguard degree expectation state of assessment object or reliability of prevent imperfect and uncertainty event to happen. Ecological security can defined as mankind's ensure degree un-effected by ecological destroy and environmental pollution in yield, living and health, including basic element of water and food security, air quality and green environment. The mostly content of ecological security consists of ecological health diagnosis, regional ecological risk analysis, landscape security pattern, ecological security monitoring and prediction, and ecological security management and guarantee etc. Study on regional ecological security has characteristics of macro-scope and pertinence, assessment criterion of relativity and expansibility. Ecological security prediction and design should embody the capability of human activity. At last, authors discuss the measures of the ecological security ensure of inland watershed and ecological security analysis of oasis landscape.

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... Definitions Xiao et al. (2002) Ecological security, including the natural, economic and social security, means the well protection of basic livelihood, the health of human life, and the ability of acclimatizing to the environment are free from threat (International Institute for Application System Analysis, 1989). Ezeonu and Ezeonu (2000) Ecological security refers to the states that the health and integrity of the Earth's ecosystem are well conserved, protected and restored (United States Government, 1990). ...
... Guo (2001) Ecological security can be regarded as the status that the structure of the landscape is integrated and the function is stable to provide enough eco-services to support the development of the socio-economic system and further to maintain the human sustainable development. Xiao et al. (2002) Ecological security refers to the security of nature and semi-nature ecosystem, that is, the reflection of the ecosystem integrity and health, including ecological system and environment security Chen (2002) Ecological security means that the regional, national and global ecologies and environments of human habitats are free from stressing, damaging and even destroying. It is a state that ecosystem is healthy for sustainable development. ...
... ecosystem (Su et al., 2013;Berkes and Folke, 1998;Haeuber and Ringold, 1998;Devuyst et al., 2001;Ehrlich, 2002;Tzoulas et al., 2007). Several studies investigated the ESP and give similar definitions (Table 2) (Costanza, 1997;Schaeffer et al., 1998;Xiao et al., 2002;Yang and Lu, 2002). It is widely defined as the spatial pattern comprising the vital ecological components, patches and corridors of the ecosystem with critical significance in controlling the basic ecological processes (such as species migration, disaster diffusion, urban expansion etc.), protecting the structures and functions of ecosystem, and controlling the regional ecological and environmental problems (Yu, 1996;Ma et al., 2004). ...
Article
Rapid urbanization has induced numerous ecological and environmental issues seriously threatening the ecological security. The ecological security pattern (ESP), an effective way for protecting the ecological security, is becoming increasingly important in reconciling the rapid urbanization and ecology protection in urban planning practices. Based on the cost-distance analysis method, we constructed a three-rank (basic, moderate and strict-rank) composite ESP of Gaoming (Guangdong, China) aiming at protecting the survivals and habitat securities of rare vegetations, wild animals and human beings. The proposed composite ESP is established on five equal-weighted individual ESPs (namely Geology-ESP, Hydrology-ESP, Atmosphere-ESP, Biodiversity-ESP and Farmland-ESP) for geologic disasters prevention, flood prevention and drinking water protection, air pollution prevention, biodiversity conservation and farmland protection, respectively. Our results show that under the basic, moderate, and strict- rank ESPs, the integration and connectivity of the ecological components are constantly improved, but the connectivity between neighboring urban patches decline gradually. The moderate-rank ESP proves to be the optimal spatial pattern for balancing the conflicts between urban development and ecological protection. Notably, the ESP that considers the security of atmosphere and farmland securities, which protects the regional farmlands better and well balance the expansions of industrial and residual lands, proves to be much more reasonable.
... The concept of eco-security was first introduced by the Insurance Accounting and Systems Association (IASA) in the global eco-security monitoring system of 1989 (Ezeonu and Ezeonu 2000;Xiao and Chen 2002). Eco-security is defined as ecologically sustainable development that meets the environmental and ecological needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own environmental and ecological needs (Khramtsov 2006). ...
... Of the many case studies addressing China's challenges in managing and maintaining eco-security under rapid economic development and social transformation, the vast majority have used the pressure-state-response (PSR) indicator framework (Xiao and Chen 2002;Zuo et al. 2002;Pei et al. 2010). The PSR framework was initially proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to structure its work on environmental policies and reporting (OECD 1994). ...
... The PSR framework usually requires tens to hundreds of factors to assess regional eco-security status. These factors are commonly defined and quantified using data from field surveying, statistical yearbooks, environment state bulletins, national economic and social development statistics, remotely sensed imagery and GIS-based spatial information (Xiao and Chen 2002;Zuo et al. 2002;Du et al. 2013;Yu et al. 2014;Xie et al. 2015). Most of these data are available for urban or regional spatial scales but they are rarely available at a local scale. ...
Article
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Ecological security is a fundamental component of regional security that has drawn increased attention worldwide over the past two decades. This paper presents a novel approach to assess the status of land ecological security (LES) in Shanghai, China from 1992 to 2011 using spatial variables and a logistic regression model. The LES status of 1745 points within the study area in 1992, 2001 and 2011 was sampled systematically using a 2 × 2 km grid sample frame and evaluated based on an expert method with ten experts from five fields. A five-point Likert scale was used to score the LES status as very insecure, insecure, neutral, secure or very secure. We identified several explanatory factors to the LES status, including distance-based variables describing the proximities to urban center, developed areas and sources of pollution, as well as variables regarding the density of built-up areas and the mean value of normalized difference vegetation index. A logistic regression model was used to quantify the relationship between LES scores and the spatial variables at each of the three time points, resulting in a series of maps illustrating the LES patterns of Shanghai in 1992, 2001 and 2011. The results show that LES is either very insecure or insecure at the center of Shanghai and at its district centers, and the LES of the entire Shanghai municipality has deteriorated significantly from 1992 to 2011. This research contributes to an enhanced understanding of LES changes resulting from rapid urbanization and industrialization of the Shanghai municipality and provides a methodological framework to study LES elsewhere.
... Ecological security is a comprehensive reflection of the health and integrity of an ecosystems [14][15][16] . A definition of the concept was first proposed by the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis [17] . ...
... A definition of the concept was first proposed by the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis [17] . Discussion over this definition has been ongoing, although the generally accepted definition of ecological security includes two levels: a broad sense and a narrow sense [14,15,18] . Broadly, a high level of ecological security denotes a region that is not threatened in terms of human life, health, basic rights, sources of life, necessary resources, social order, and the human ability to adapt to environmental changes [17] . ...
... Broadly, a high level of ecological security denotes a region that is not threatened in terms of human life, health, basic rights, sources of life, necessary resources, social order, and the human ability to adapt to environmental changes [17] . In other words, it is defined as the security state of a complex artificial ecosystem composed of natural, economic, and social factors [15,19,20] . Corresponding to this, ecological security in the narrow sense refers to the security state of simple ecosystems consisting of natural and semi-natural ecosystems [14,15] . ...
... Scholars both abroad and at home have different interpretations to ecological security, for it is a new concept [2][3][4].The concept of ecological security contains two parts, the broader sense and the narrower sense. In a broader sense, ecological security means human life, essential right, life safeguard origin and others place in to be free from threat, including natural, economic, social ecological security, presented by International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis(IIASA) in 1989, while in a narrower sense, it refers to the security of natural and half natural ecological system, including ecological system and environment security [5]. ...
... Research scales on ecological security range from individual to system in natural ecology, from person to state in human ecology [5]. Currently, attention has been paid to scientific research in meso-scale and large-scale, such as landscape scale, basin scale, regional scale [11][12][13][14]. ...
... Currently, attention has been paid to scientific research in meso-scale and large-scale, such as landscape scale, basin scale, regional scale [11][12][13][14]. Ecological security emphasized pattern and progress security in meso-large scale [5]. However, the current studies are limited to landscape pattern or process security, there are few studies focused on ecological security based on pattern and process [12,15] The paper analyzed the ecological security characteristic using GIS and RS method, based on landscape pattern index, constructed by fragmentation, isolation and dominance indexes, and soil erosion index, taking a case study of Yuan River watershed. ...
Article
Ecological security is an important part of regional security and society stability, which is also becoming a hot issue at present. Based on landscape pattern index, constructed by fragmentation, isolation and dominance indexes, and soil erosion index, the ecological security characteristic in Yuan River watershed was analyzed using GIS and RS method. The landscape of Yuan River watershed were divided into six types, arable land, woodland, meadow, water, land for construction, and unused land. Results showed that land for construction, unused land and waters had higher integrated landscape pattern index that suggested the three had lower ecological security in pattern changes compared to the other three. However, the soil erosion levels of woodland, arable land and meadow were relatively higher which implied these three land types were liable to losing soil. The soil erosion index of the upper reaches of Yuan River was 5.05 times more than that of the low reaches, while the integrated landscape pattern index had not considerable variation. Landscape ecological security index based pattern and soil erosion could more comprehensive reflect the real ecological security situation. Land for construction, unused land and water had higher ecological security index compared to the other three. We should pay attention to woodland and arable land in the large proportion of total area in local environmental protection in the future.
... Such systems produce the largest and continuously increasing amount of HANPP across all ecosystem types (Haberl et al., 2007;Krausmann et al., 2013). Thus, the HANPP of agroecosystems is critical to food-ecological security, sustainable cropland use (Xiao and Chen, 2002;Haberl et al., 2004a;Song and Liu, 2017;Wang et al., 2018), and the 2nd (zero hunger) and 12th (ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns) of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (Sachs, 2012). However, over the past 50 years, global biomass consumption has grown twice as fast as biomass production, and future population and economic growth will further surge the biomass demand from agroecosystems (Erb et al., 2009b). ...
... The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is an important grain production base located in the arid and semi-arid areas of Northwest China , characterized by frequent water shortages and fragile ecosystems (Cheng et al., 2014). Generally, the agroecosystem is essential to regional socio-economic development and food-ecological security (Cheng et al., 2014;Liu et al., 2017a;Xiao and Chen, 2002), and in this area, agroecosystem expansion and planting structural changes (Song and Zhang, 2015;Liu et al., 2017b) have driven the increase in NPP (Xiao et al., 2019;Liu and Song, 2020). However, most of the NPP was appropriated by humans, and the continued increase in agroecosystem NPP has consumed enormous water resources, seriously threatening the basin's ecological security and sustainable development (Liu et al., 2017a;Liu and Song, 2020). ...
Article
The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production (HANPP) of agroecosystems is critical to food security, sustainable cropland use, and key biogeochemical processes such as carbon cycling and energy flow. However, current agroecosystem management lacks the support of high-resolution crop-type-specific HANPP information. To this end, this study integrated multi-source data of crop type, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time-series, irrigation and climate, and multiple methods of the Miami model, the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model, and process parameters to map the 30-m resolution spatial distribution of agro-ecosystem HANPP in the Heihe River Basin (HRB) in 2007 and 2012. We then analyzed the influences of climate condition, irrigation, and crop type on the HANPP. The average HANPP in the HRB decreased from 762.4 to 712.1 g C/m 2 from 2007 to 2012, with a decrease by 6.6%. The HANPP values of wheat, barley, and oilseed rape decreased by more than 10.0%, whereas that of corn only decreased by 3.1%. The ratio of HANPP to potential NPP (NPP pot) dropped from 82.7% to 81.4% and that of land-use-induced HANPP (HANPP LUC) to HANPP from 61.9% to 58.5%, whereas that of crop-harvest-induced HANPP (HANPP harv) to HANPP increased from 38.1% to 41.5%. These changes indicated that crop productivity increased whereas NPP loss decreased. Crop type conversion accounted for 84.7% of the HANPP changes in HRB, with a value of − 93.6 × 10 9 g C. Due to irrigation supplementation, the HANPP in high-temperature areas was higher than that in low-temperature areas with high precipitation. However, irrigation above 1000 mm no longer promoted HANPP, indicating that the irrigation efficiency in the HRB is low. Reducing HANPP LUC and carbon-water inputs while increasing HANPP harv is the key approach to obtain food security and sustainable agroecosystem development. Effective irrigation strategies and scientific crop planting adjustment should take into account their spatially heterogeneous and crop-specific impacts on the HANPP to help achieve these goals.
... Serious ecological problems around the world have threatened the sustainability of social-economic-natural ecosystems, calling for urgent needs and actions to ensure ecological security [1]. Ecological security is defined by two factors: one is whether the ecosystem itself is intact, that is, whether its own structure is damaged, and whether its function is sound; second is whether the ecosystem is safe for humans, that is, whether the ecosystem services provided meet the needs of human survival and development [2]. ...
... Ecological security is defined by two factors: one is whether the ecosystem itself is intact, that is, whether its own structure is damaged, and whether its function is sound; second is whether the ecosystem is safe for humans, that is, whether the ecosystem services provided meet the needs of human survival and development [2]. The definition indicates that ecological security is the overall reflection of ecosystem integrity and health [1]. Based on Karr et al. [3], species distribution and abundances of river ecosystems are affected by alterations in the principal drivers (i.e., energy source, physical habitat, flow regime, water quality, and biotic interactions), which might be used as substitutes to evaluate the ecosystem integrity [4]. ...
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Human disturbances impact river basins by reducing the quality of, and services provided by, aquatic ecosystems. Conducting quantitative assessments of ecological security at the watershed scale is important for enhancing the water quality of river basins and promoting environmental management. In this study, China’s Songhua River Basin was divided into 204 assessment units by combining watershed and administrative boundaries. Ten human threat factors were identified based on their significant influence on the river ecosystem. A modified ecological threat index was used to synthetically evaluate the ecological security, where frequency was weighted by flow length from the grids to the main rivers, while severity was weighted by the potential hazard of the factors on variables of river ecosystem integrity. The results showed that individual factors related to urbanization, agricultural development and facility construction presented different spatial distribution characteristics. At the center of the plain area, the provincial capital cities posed the highest level of threat, as did the municipal districts of prefecture-level cities. The spatial relationships between hot spot locations of the ecological threat index and water quality, as well as the distribution areas of critically endangered species, were analyzed. The sensitivity analysis illustrated that alteration of agricultural development largely changed the ecological security level of the basin. By offering a reference for assessing ecological security, this study can enhance water environmental planning and management.
... Global positioning system (GPS) refers to the technology determining the specific geographical location of regional unit in large scale. It usually integrates Three-S technology to dynamically monitor the relationship, ecological risk assessment, and management between the ecology and human activities (Geoffery et al. 2006;Xiao and Chen 2002;Wackenagel and William 1996). ...
... Urban ecosystem is a complex artificial ecological system composed by three subsystem of natural, social, and economic, that is to say, the urban system is a complex giant system, and therefore it exists the basic characteristics of brittleness. Natural subsystem X, social subsystem Y, and economic subsystem Z, constitute a complicated system with brittle relationship existing among three subsystems; each kind of association is a brittle primitive of urban ecosystem (Xiao and Chen 2002) . Figure 3 presents a complete brittle primitive link; it means that any subsystem collapses in these three subsystems, it will directly affect the other two subsystems. ...
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Urban ecosystem has become a critical part of ecological security and draws much attention worldwide. It is both a result of natural ecological system development, and also an inevitable outcome of human ecological system development within a certain stage, with the objective of identifying the possible improvement space for unban ecological security evaluation from complex system perspective. Based on the brittle structure model and set pair theory, this paper firstly explored the main research methods of urban ecological security theory and its characteristics, then conducted a theory of complex system brittleness to analyze the urban ecological security brittle factors, brittle primitives, and brittle structure. Furthermore, it conducted a model of urban ecological system brittleness correlation entropy together with a set pair analysis method to discuss its brittleness. And finally, an ecological safety evaluation has been presented based on the empirical case in Chengdu City of China. The theoretical and empirical analysis shows that the brittle correlation entropy of natural subsystem in urban ecological security is the biggest one. The risks from natural subsystem collapse can easily trigger the brittleness of the entire urban system. The corresponding maximum brittle fluctuation entropy is from economic subsystem; it has a largest impact on the entropy change of urban ecosystem. The way of reducing the uncertainty of urban ecological risks is to lower difference degree coefficient in the system. Relevant decision makers should consider to reduce the increasing degree of entropy and eliminate the fluctuation of the brittle factors. Thus, the threats or risks of urban ecological system can be within the acceptable range and under control. An integrated system management combing with brittleness characters of natural, economics, and social subsystem is necessary. It is helpful for the ecological security construction.
... The ecological functional resistance is described by different ecological processes, as well as the relationship between human demands and the natural ecosystem [69]. The ecological functional resistance for construction and development that was assessed through ecological importance included (1) biodiversity protection, (2) water retention, and (3) soil conservation. ...
... In the case of vegetation type, it is used as a major input to assess ecological importance including biodiversity protection, water retention, and soil conservation under ecological functional resistance, which characterize the relationship between human demands and natural ecosystem [69]. In addition, the vegetation type is applied to assess vegetation stability and ecological sensitivity of ecological dynamics resistance, which represents the temporal dynamic characteristics of the natural ecosystem [14]. ...
Article
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Ecological suitability assessment is an effective approach to identify and locate the most suitable territories for future development in order to reduce the negative impacts of human activities on the ecosystem for ensuring sustainable development. The study aimed to propose a future direction for sustainable use of natural resources at the district level in Bac Kan province based on the ecological suitability evaluation approach and the trade-off technique. This study firstly applied the Delphi method to identify significant ecological resistance indicators for assessing ecological elements, importance, and resilience, which characterize the resistance of ecological structures, ecological functions, and ecological dynamics to construction and development, respectively. Then, an integrated ecological resistance model was applied to classify ecological suitability for construction and development. Moreover, spatial analysis and trade-off technique were applied to assign a development zone and propose future directions at provincial and district levels in Bac Kan province. The results revealed that the most dominant ecological suitability class for construction and development is the moderately suitable class, and it accounts for about 1948 km2 or 40.30% of the total area. In addition, five development zones were assigned at the provincial level, whereas three future directions for sustainable use of natural resources were proposed at the district level. In a nutshell, the research methodology framework in this study can be used as a guideline to land managers and planners for ecological suitability assessment in Vietnam.
... The ecological security of any country is an important cornerstone of its national security system [1,2]. Ecological security refers to the degree to which human beings are protected from ecological damage and environmental pollution in terms of production, life, and health, which includes basic elements such as drinking water and food safety, air quality, and healthy ecosystems [3]. Currently, traditional security concepts in modern states are being challenged by security in large administrative regions [36][37][38][39]. ...
Article
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Healthy ecosystems are the basis of social and economic development. It is of great significance to conduct ecological security assessments in rapidly urbanization areas. Based on the driving forces, pressure, state, impact, and response (DPSIR) model, five years (1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015) of remote sensing images, social and economic statistics, and field survey data were used to establish an ecological security assessment index system. The ecological security assessment of central Yunnan Province (CYP) urban agglomeration was conducted at the 1 km × 1 km pixel scale and at the county scale based on the multilevel weighted comprehensive index method. The results showed that: (1) With 2005 as the turning point, the ecological security situation in CYP first decreased and then increased. (2) The ecological security at the county scale was mainly categorized as unsafe. At the pixel scale, ecologically unsafe and relatively unsafe areas were mainly distributed in central, northern, and western CYP. (3) The ecological security deterioration and strengthened spatial distribution differences were caused by habitat fragmentation, different physical geographical conditions, and population agglomeration. These results can provide a basis for the coordination and sustainability of economic development and environmental protection in urban agglomerations with rapid urbanization.
... Many rural areas pursue economic interests unilaterally, without overall planning and research, blocking the contact with nature. So that the local natural resources are damaged, the rural water is polluted, the phenomenon of vegetation destruction is serious, and the ecological security is seriously threatened, which hinders the process of the construction of new-type urbanization to a great extent [1] [2]. ...
... Therefore, the concept of ecological security has attracted wide attention worldwide, and ecological security assessment has become a research hotspot in environmental science (Solovjova 1999;Kullenberg 2002;Eckersley 2005). Since the concept of land health was proposed in 1941, ecological security assessments have evolved from assessments of toxic substance risk (Costanza et al. 1992;Xiao and Chen 2002) and national security issues (Christensen et al. 1996;Che and Zhou 2005) to comprehensive risk Communicated by Philippe Garrigues. ...
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The alpine regions of Tibet are biogeographically unique and highly biodiverse. As the political, economic, and cultural center of Tibet, the city of Lhasa’s population growth and economic development have further weakened the region’s already fragile ecological environment. Coordinating relationships between stable economic development, sustained population growth, rational resource use, and environmental protection has become an urgent issue. This paper establishes an ecological resistance surface based on the ecological resistance factor index to evaluate Lhasa’s ecological security level. The obtained results show that the city’s ecological security level is good, with high security level in the north, northwest, and northeast, and low-level in the south and the middle of city. High-level ecological security areas accounted for 34.5% of the city’s total area, and low-level areas accounted for 9.0%. The overall Moran’s I index of the city’s ecological security was 0.518. According to a LISA clustering chart, Lhasa’s ecological security grades are mainly high-high (HH) and low-low (LL). These two grades showed an apparent flaky spatial clustering in the city. We elected eight large-scale nature reserves in the city as ecological sources, constructed a resistance surface of the ecological accumulation of ecological sources, used the MCR (minimum cumulative resistance) model and gravity model to extract potential ecological corridors, and finally identified potentially important ecological corridors. A total of 51 ecological nodes and 80 potential ecological corridors were extracted, with a total length of about 3449.7 km. The length of the primary and secondary corridors accounted for 32.32% of the total length. Combining the development of Lhasa’s ecological economy with tourism and cultural industry planning, a layout of ecological network model with one ring and three belts is proposed. An ecological space development strategy of agglomeration within the ring and axial drive should be implemented. This study provides a decision-making reference for the spatial layout of the ecological industry in Lhasa.
... Ecological security is a complex system involving natural, economic and social factors (Xiao et al., 2002), and ecological security is complex and dynamic. The gray system is advantageous for working on uncertain systems with small samples and poor information (Liu and Deng, 2000). ...
Article
Ecological security assessment and early-warning research on urban agglomerations is an important way to achieve the sustainable social, economic and natural development of urban agglomerations. In this study, the ecological security evaluation index system in central Yunnan Province (CYP) urban agglomerations was constructed based on the Driving Forces, Pressure, State, Impact and Response (DPSIR) framework, and the gray early-warning model was applied on the 1 km × 1 km pixel and county levels to realize early-warning of ecological security in the CYP in 2020, 2025, 2030, and 2035. The early-warning results show that (1) the ecological security situation of the CYP will gradually improve. By 2035, the proportion of no warning (grade I) at the pixel level increased by 10.76%, and the number of non-warning districts and counties at the county level increased by 14. (2) In the future, the ecological security situation will remain serious. The lowest value of the ecological security early-warning index (ESEI) shows a downward trend (from 0.436 in 2020 to 0.404 in 2035), which indicates that the ecological environment is deteriorating continuously in some areas. (3) Eco-security warnings will be mainly located in the north, west and some central areas of the CYP, and these sites are where ecological security management and regulation should be strengthened in the future. The results can provide a reference for ecological protection and economic development decisions in the CYP.
... Ecosystem services depend on the integrity and stability of the ecosystem (Xiao et al.,2002). Regional ecological stress assessment can judge whether the structure and function of ecosystems are damaged (Tian and Gang, 2012), and whether the dynamics of regional landscape patterns are affected (Wu et al.,2016). ...
Article
Urban agglomeration (the spread of cities into large agglomerations) has become the main form of urbanization in China, and natural ecosystems surrounding the urban areas are becoming degraded and fragmented as a result. Although ecological indicators have been widely used to assess the regional ecological stress resulting from urbanization, few of them consider spatial adjacency relationships between urban and natural landscapes. From this perspective a novel ecological indicator, the Eco-Erosion Index (EEI), was developed and applied to assess the regional ecological stress caused by urban agglomeration development across 26 cities in the Yangtze River Delta, China (YRD). We analyzed: i) temporal change in land use and land cover (LULC) and ecosystem services value (ESV) in YRD from 1990 to 2010, ii) spatiotemporal dynamics of EEI of YRD at different scales: provincial, municipal, and 5 km-grid, iii) inter-relationships between EEI and LULC and ESV to explore its effectiveness as an indicator. The results showed that urban agglomeration in YRD has led to increasing regional ecological stress from 1990 to 2010. EEI values increased from 0.197 in 1990 to 0.321 in 2010. The closer to Shanghai City, the greater the EEI values of the cities become. EEI is highly related with LULC and ESV but integrates these two variables as it represents both the spatial occupation and landscape adjacency effects. The EEI values demonstrate some scale effects, and EEI at fine scale provides useful information to guide sustainable urban landscape management.
... Ecological security studies have different scales and levels. Xiao Duning believed that the ecological safety research scale can vary from natural individuals to individuals and populations to the entire ecosystem, while the human ecology includes individuals, communities, localities, and countries [4] . Yu Mouchang pointed out that the research on ecological security has hierarchical features and forms a "globalcontinental, ocean-regional" multi-level ecological security system [5] . ...
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In the light of the characteristics of urban construction activities guided by planning index, this paper puts forward a research method of ecological security which is suitable for the assessment of urban new area planning, and builds the index system of the ecological security assessment of urban new area with the "Driving force - Pressure - State - Response" model. Taking the Qinhan new town in Xixian new area as an example, this method is adopted and the planning plot control indicators are used as the main data source. Ecological security assessments are conducted on 318 planning plots in the new town, and the evolutionary trend of ecological safety after the implementation of the new town planning is assessed. From the perspective of ecological security, it puts forward control opinions for the planning of the new town and provides scientific basis for the decision-making of the planning and management departments of the new town.
... Phone +86 10 8805586 security (Farmer, 2005;Ghinea et al., 2017;Huang et al., 2007;Soffer, 2000), that also concentrate the focus of research by many national and international programs (Shi et al., 2006). Ecological security refers to the goal of stakeholders to create a condition where the physical surroundings of a community provide for the needs of its inhabitants without diminishing its natural stock (Chen, 2002;Fortuna et al., 2012;Li and Ren, 2002;Li et al., 2006a, b;Wachernagel et al., 1999;Xiao et al., 2002). It suggests that the state of the ecology does not threaten conditions for human existence and the environment for regional development (Brauch, 2007;Li, 2001;Wackernagel, 2002). ...
Article
Over the last few decades intensive human activities and climate changing have stressed ecological systems impeding sustainable development of the social economy in many regions in China. The importance of ecological security has gained greater prominence. Sustaining or restoring natural functions of water ecosystems is also crucial for human welfare. To assess water related ecological security (WES), this paper constructed a framework based on the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model with indicators in terms of society, economy, water resources, water environment and ecology. The Entropy Method was used to determine the weighting of each indicator. Spatial distribution and temporal trend of WES was then analyzed in China. With weighting analyses, dominant factors threatening eco-security were identified. Results show that the basin of Inland Rivers in the Northwest (IRNW) and the basin of Rivers in the Southwest (RSW) are the most ecologically threatened regions in China. In the IRNW basin, the WES is mostly affected by the factors of water consumption ratio and soil erosion area ratio, while in the RSW basin it was influenced by the natural population increase ratio and the investment percent of GDP in environmental pollution treatment. Most WES indexes (WESIs) in the ten basins show an increasing trend, except for that in the basin of Rivers in Southeast (RSE) which has a decreasing trend due to the reduced investment ratio of environmental pollution treatment. These results will provide valuable information to water resources management. © 2018, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania. All rights reserved.
... Based on our current comprehension of the specific ecological functions and processes necessary for landscape pattern maintenance [13][14][15][16], and the interactions between ecosystem processes and structures, we built a "structure-quality-process" framework to explore the ecological security pattern (ESP) in LRB ( Figure 2). Ecological structure refers to the type, number, spatial distribution, and configuration of an ecosystem or landscape patch at the macro-scale. ...
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Ecological security assessment aims at identifying an ecosystem’s stability, recognizing the ability to maintain ecological health under various scenarios of ecological risks. In this study, we focus on the ecological security of Liao River Basin not only in terms of directly considering the sustainable development of the basin itself but also in terms of its importance as part of an ecological macro-control for northeast China. We built a “structure-quality-process” analytical framework to assess the ecological security of Liao River Basin. Our results showed that (i) land conversion from cultivated to artificial surfaces represented a dramatic change occurring in the region; (ii) the requirements of regional sustainable development would not likely be satisfied in regard to the given ecosystem services provided by the basin due to poor spatial coordination capability; and (iii) the priority areas for optimizing the ecological security patterns of the basin include the upstream and the downstream regions. The “structure-quality-process” assessment framework provides a dynamic perspective of ecological security and also considers the relationships and functions of the internal structures and processes of the ecosystem. The optimization of ecosystem structures and processes is essential and forms the basic measures and key content of macro-control for well-structured ecological security patterns.
... Although researchers have some different understandings of conceptual expressions, there are many points of consensus on their connotations . Based on the existing viewpoints, ecological security mainly includes two aspects: 1) Under the influence of external factors, natural ecosystems can maintain structural integrity and functional health; 2) It can provide a stable ecological supply for human survival and development, and allow the achievement of sustainable development of human society (Dobson et al., 1997;Xiao et al., 2002). Ecological security assessment is currently a frontier and hot research area of ecology, environmental science, sociology and other related disciplines. ...
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Global climate changes have led to ocean acidification, ice and snow melting, a continuous rise in temperature, and an increasing frequency of extreme weather events, with profound impacts on the social economic system. With the aggravation from climate changes, even the industrial fields with a relatively strong resistance to climatic changes have also suffered serious losses. At present, the vulnerability of the industrial field is growing, and the absolute economic losses are increasing. The quantitative evaluation of these industrial economic losses is therefore an important basis for formulating policies to tackle global climate change, and analyzing the current research progress can provide ideas and methods for the effective evaluation of the industrial economy. Therefore, in this paper, we summarized both the positive and negative effects of climate changes on the industrial fields and found that the influences of climatic changes on different industrial sectors are slightly variable. For example , while the mining industry, so far, has positively responded to the changing climate, severe weather events such as storms, drought, and rain could severely impede the normal production and business operation activities of the mining industry in the future. The manufacturing industry mostly involves indoor jobs, which are relatively resistant to extreme weather events, and some industries have complex response mechanisms. In terms of the construction industry, its losses are mainly indirect through increased electricity costs. The production and supply industries for electricity, heat, and water would suffer transmission supply losses in extreme weather events; and as the largest carbon emission industries, the costs of emission reduction would affect the economic growth of this sector in the short term. Overall, the industrial sectors pay relatively high costs for climate change mitigation and adaptation, and therefore, the quantitative evaluation of industrial economic losses through models is crucial for both the development of reasonable policies and ensuring a smooth and consistent growth of the industrial economy.
... The second part of the method is determining ecological functional resistance from the ecological importance assessment. Ecological function is the integrated characterization of a variety of ecological processes, as well as the external manifestation of the close relationship between natural ecosystems and human demands (Xiao and Chen, 2002). Human activities interfere with normal natural ecological processes and ecosystem services by changing ecological patterns, especially land use or land management patterns (Cotter et al., 2014;van Oudenhoven et al., 2012). ...
... In this case, the ecological security of oases has been a research focus in recent years [4][5]. Ecological security refers to a state where there is no threat to people's daily life, health, safety, basic rights, living security sources, necessary resources, social order, ability to adapt to environmental changes, etc [6]. In recent years, from the landscape ecology perspective, the ecological security assessment system built based on the landscape index and the statistical data in general. ...
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Oases in arid areas are environmentally and economically vulnerable regions. Study on ecological security of oases in arid areas is of great significance to the stability and the economic development of oases. Based on Land Use/Land Cover data in 1965, 1980, 1995, 2005 and 2015, the study analyze the temporal and spatial changes in human disturbance and ecological security of oases in the Northern Tianshan Mountain Slope Economic Zone (NTMSEZ) in recent 50 years by establishing the ecological security index (ESI) through human disturbance index and landscape vulnerability index. The results showed that: in recent 50 years, the human disturbance of the NTMSEZ has been increased to current moderate human impacts. Urban construction, oasis expansion and farmland reclamation are the main factors of the increment. The human disturbance in Urumchi, Shihezi, Kuitun, Miquan and Changji is higher than that in other oases and that in core areas of oasis is higher than other areas. The ESI of the NTMSEZ increases firstly and then decreases. In most areas, the ESI is "relatively unsafe" and "critical". However, there are increasingly more vulnerable areas, moving northwestwards and expanding southwards. The ESI gradually presents a "NW-SE" trend of zonal distribution pattern.
... Land eco-security is a new concept (Xiao et al. 2002) which refers to the state that land resource element is an integrated and functional system, and it can provide a permanently effective resource for human beings. This can maintain the original land eco-system structure and prevent the degradation of their functions and reduction of a dynamic balance of land element. ...
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The Shule River Basin is an ecologically fragile area in arid zone. To understand the land eco-security state, Environment-Economic-Society (EES) model was applied to build land eco-security evaluation index system in the Shule River Basin. Entropy-weighted and Matter-Element Model was built for the eco-security evaluation from 2005 to 2014. The Principal Component Analysis Method was used to quantitatively study the limiting factors of land ecological security. The result showed: the direction of development of land eco-security state in the Shule River Basin from 2005 to 2014 was characterized by “unsafe (No4) →safe (No1)”, and presented a stepped upward trend. The land eco-security state during 2005–2007 was “Unsafe” and the state converted to “Critical Safe” in 2008–2009, “Safer” in 2010–2011, but “Safe” in 2012–2014. The key factors that affected land eco-security in the Shule River Basin were Per Capita Arable Land, Forest Cover Rate, Per Capita Water Resources, Water Production Modulus, the Tertiary Industry Output Value and GDP Ratio and Water Consumption. Among them, Forest Cover Rate and Water Production Modulus had the greatest impact, their principal component loads were up to 0.973 and 0.968, respectively. The result of this study is expected to serve as reference and support for the conservation and management of Shule River Basin to ensure sustainable development.
... Ecological security refers to a non-threatened state [1][2][3], which may include the state of human life, health, well-being, basic rights, livelihood resources, necessary resources, social order, and human ability to adapt to environmental changes. Ecological security reflects the degree of ecosystem integrity and health [1], and it may provide guarantee for sustainability of an eco-economic system [4]. ...
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Ecological security is an important research topic, especially urban ecological security. As highly populated eco-systems, cities always have more fragile ecological environments. However, most of the research on urban ecological security in literature has focused on evaluating current or past status of the ecological environment. Very little literature has carried out simulation or prediction of future ecological security. In addition, there is even less literature exploring the urban ecological environment at a fine scale. To fill-in the literature gap, in this study we simulated and predicted urban ecological security at a fine scale (district level) using an improved Cellular Automata (CA) approach. First we used the pressure-state-response (PSR) method based on grid-scale data to evaluate urban ecological security. Then, based on the evaluation results, we imported the geographically weighted regression (GWR) concept into the CA model to simulate and predict urban ecological security. We applied the improved CA approach in a case study—simulating and predicting urban ecological security for the city of Wuhan in Central China. By comparing the simulated ecological security values from 2010 using the improved CA model to the actual ecological security values of 2010, we got a relatively high value of the kappa coefficient, which indicates that this CA model can simulate or predict well future development of ecological security in Wuhan. Based on the prediction results for 2020, we made some policy recommendations for each district in Wuhan.
... For ecological landscape planning, suburban identification can offer decision support for ecological security assessments and ecosystem service function assessments. Ecological security is defined as "mankind's degree of assurance unaffected by ecological destruction and environmental pollution in yield, living, and health" [60]. An ecological security assessment can be used to evaluate ecological carrying capacity, urban development potential, and regional development sustainability, and it is an important factor of ecological protection. ...
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As the transitional area between urban and rural areas, land-use change in suburbs is drastic, which generates negative effects on the ecological environment. However, the identification of the suburbs remains controversial. Usually, the density of the population and residential land is referenced, and the close spatial interactions between urban areas and suburbs are generally neglected. To fill this research gap, this study adopts a case study method to map the suburbs of Jiangsu based on estimating the spatial interactions. First, a regression model is built to estimate the population distribution. Second, a radiation model is utilized to evaluate the spatial interaction at a grid level. After the main urban area is identified based on the high density of the population and construction land, the interaction strength between the main urban grid and other grid areas is calculated, and the grids that share high values of interaction strength with urban grids are identified as suburban areas. Finally, the suburbs of Jiangsu in 1998 and 2018 are mapped, and the ecological landscape pattern metrics are used to verify the effects of suburban expansion. As a result, the suburban expansion of Jiangsu over the 20 years was significant, and the effects of suburban expansion on ecological land fragmentation were evident. On the basis of the results, the enlightenment of mapping suburbs on ecological landscape planning is discussed.
... As shown in Table 2, ecological keywords mainly include "ecological footprint," "ecological environment," "ecological civilization," "ecological security," "ecological deficit," "ecological protection," "ecological compensation," "ecological construction," and "ecological efficiency." Scholars conduct comprehensive analyses of China's ecological environment, discuss ecological space theory, establish the ecological service and natural capital assessment systems, explain the service functions of the ecological system and its subsystems, and divide China into different ecological regions Wang, 1999a, 1999b;Xu et al., 2000bXu et al., , 2003bFu et al., 2001;Ma et al., 2001;Xie et al., 2001aXie et al., , 2001bXiao et al., 2002;Zhao et al., 2016). ...
Article
Sustainable development has always been a hotspot in Chinese geographical research. Herein, we conduct a systematic statistical analysis of the contribution of Chinese geographers to sustainable development research using bibliometric methods. Based on the review of a vast amount of literature, we identify the main research teams, research funding sources, journals, and key research fields. The findings are as follows: (1) the resources and environmental institutes of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have a significant influence on sustainable development research; (2) China’s central government foundations (the National Natural Science Foundation of China and National Social Sciences Fund) are the main research funding sources; (3) most of the highly cited articles are published in journals sponsored by the Geographical Society of China; and (4) sustainable development theory and its research areas are being constantly enriched and perfected. Based on the statistics of keywords, the theory, research methods, research regional scales, and key research areas are summarized and expounded.
... Landscape refers to the mixture or repetition of regional ecosystem or land use type in a certain area of land 22 . From the perspective of Geography, it can be seen as geocomplex and land can be used as the landscape types in a sense, landscape-scale was considered as the suitable level to study the environmental impacts from human activities 23 . Landscape pattern refers to the spatial structure characteristics of the landscape such as spatial distribution, structure, and configuration of spatial components with a variety of sizes, shapes, and attributes 24 . ...
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Analyses of landscape change patterns that are based on elevation and slope can not only provide reasonable interpretations of landscape patterns but can also help to reveal evolutionary laws. However, landscape change patterns and their model in different landforms of the typical watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) has not been quantified and assessed effectively. As a complex geographical unit, the ecological environment in the middle reach of the Yangtze River has experienced great changes due to the construction of the Three Gorges Project (TGP) and its associated human activities. Here, based mainly on a digital elevation model (DEM) and remotely sensed images from 1986, 2000, 2010, and 2017 and by using GIS technology, speeds/ trends of landscape change, the index of landscape type change intensity, landscape pattern indices, and landscape ecological security index, the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of different elevations, slopes, and buffer landscape types were analyzed in typical watersheds, as well as an evolutionary model of the landscape pattern. The results indicated that (1) the landscape types along with the land classification and buffer zone that were influenced by the TGR construction have undergone a phased change, with the period 2000–2010 being the most dramatic period of landscape evolution during the impoundment period; (2) landscape type shifts from human-dominated farmland to nature-driven forestland and shrub-land as elevations, slopes and buffer distances increased. The landscape has shifted from diversity to relative homogeneity; (3) land types and buffer zones played essential roles in the landscape pattern index, which is reflected in the differences in landscape type indices for spatial extension and temporal characteristics. The results of this paper illustrate the spatial–temporal characteristics of various landscape types at three distinct stages in the construction of the TGR. These findings indicate that the landscape ecological security of the watershed is improving year by year. The follow-up development of the TGRA needs to consider the landscape change patterns of different landforms.
... Ecological security generally refers to the state of the environment and ecosystem in a region. Specifically, it reflects several aspects of ecosystem integrity and ecological health, including aesthetic value, habitat protection and the ability to address environmental changes [11,12]. It can be extended to a composite artificial ecological security system and its associated cultural and social meanings [13]. ...
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Rapid urbanization in China has increased the demand of land resources for urban areas and caused a series of environmental problems. Ecological security under the pressure of urban sprawl has become one typical indicator for illustrating regional environmental conditions and thus inform urban development. As an important farming area and one of the core economic development regions in northeast China, Changchun City is now confronted with severe contradictions between economic growth, habitat conservation and food security. Therefore, with the aim of developing an approach to optimize a regional ecological security pattern and land use structure, this study built a comprehensive ecological security pattern taking into account regional ecological processes including water regulation, soil and water conservation, species protection and recreation. Three patterns of ecological security were identified responding to different levels of ecological conservation: the basic security pattern, the buffer security pattern and the optimal security pattern. Based on the constraint of the ecological security pattern, the preservation area of prime farmland was added to an urban expansion suitability pattern as an additional constraint to simulate scenarios of urban expansion. The results indicate that the basic security pattern covers an area of 374.23 km2, accounting for 19.27% of the total area of Changchun City. This pattern is considered as the ecological baseline that maintains the basic ecological functions, and it is the area where ecological land cannot be occupied for construction purposes. Furthermore, co-constrained by the preservation area of prime farmland, the ecological conservation area, the ecological restriction area and the suitable development area are 190.34 km2, 384.75 km2 and 152.83 km2, respectively, accounting for 9.80%, 19.80% and 7.87% of the total area. It can be concluded that the suitable expansion area for the city is relatively limited when the conservation of farmland and regional ecological environment is considered. Therefore, positive actions such as industrial structure transformation and land use efficiency improvements should be perceived as a preferable pathway for urban development to balance economic growth, and regional ecological and food security.
... Ecological security, which is a concept first proposed by the government of the USA in 1990, refers to the health and integrity of the earth's ecosystem and its effective Responsible Editor: Philippe Garrigues * Beicheng Xia xiabch@mail.sysu.edu.cn 1 conservation, protection, and restoration (Ezeonu and Ezeonu 2000). Many researchers have offered new definitions (Lu et al. 2018;Rogers 1997;Xiao et al. 2002), but they all emphasize the importance of maintaining the functions and processes of ecosystems. Yu (1995) proposed the concept of security patterns (SPs), which were subsequently referred to as ecological security patterns (ESPs). ...
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The ecological security pattern (ESP) focuses on key ecological elements in ecosystems by identifying, combining, and evaluating these elements. This study attempts to identify the ESP of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and provide suggestions for optimization. Ecosystem services were calculated and applied to construct the ecological resistance surface; morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA) and landscape connectivity analysis were used to identify ecological sources; and minimum cumulative resistance (MCR) model was applied to extract ecological corridors and ecological nodes. The results show that during 1995 to 2015, the main landscape transformation occurred between forest, cropland, and urban land, and the location of the transformation was mainly in the central part of the study area. Regarding the ESP, the average resistance value increased from 0.30 to 0.33; the area of ecological sources decreased by 5.12%; the ratio of total cumulative resistance to the length of the corridors increased by 14.82%; and the number of ecological nodes increased from 71 to 99. For the ESP optimization, based on the correction of the resistance surface, 1348 km blue corridors and 61 blue nodes were extracted. Based on hot spot analysis, nine stepping stones were identified. This optimization compensates for the lack of ecological elements in the center of the study area, enhances weaker corridors, and improves the connectivity of the ESP, thus making the ESP more stable and complete. The ESP constructed and optimized in this paper holds great significance and serves as a valuable reference for ecological protection and environmental management.
... Ecological safety in general refers to the state of the environment and the ecosystem of a given region. In particular, it reflects aspects of the integrity of the ecosystem and its health, including aesthetics and its value, protection of habitats of species occurring in it and its ability to respond to environmental changes (Xiao and Chen 2002). Ecological security can be understood as enrichment by a given country or region of its ecological resources that could constantly strengthen and condition social progress and economic development, as well as reduce environmental restrictions (Pang and Wang 2014). ...
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Earth is a dynamically changing planet, permanently shaped by the interactions between human activity and the natural environment. The phenomena occurring in nature overlap with human activities, which leads to the emergence of threats to both humanity and the natural environment itself. The result of these overlapping processes are disasters. The current coronavirus pandemic can be described as a catastrophe, the measure of which is the increasing number of people dying of this disease and the complications that occur as a result of it. However, this situation has albeit unintentionally, exerted an influence on the state of the natural environment and the level of ecological safety. The cognitive goal of this article is to try to determine these influences, particularly the positive ones. Its practical goal is to propose actions and ideas to sustain positive changes related to ecological safety after the coronavirus pandemic. The above article was based on so-called desk research. The sources of information used to create it were materials, reports and analyses available on the Internet and in the press. Research carried out in this way is of a qualitative nature and has determined the potential impacts of the coronavirus pandemic on ecological safety. The weakness of the conducted research is the limited time associated with obtaining the materials and information used, as well as the limited predictability regarding the situation related to the occurrence of Covid-19 in Europe and in the world. The considerations presented in the text refer, to a large extent, to European countries. They are illustrated with short case studies. An important part of this article are the solutions it offers that are useful in practice for national governments, including those who are members of the European Union, to maintain positive effects on ecological safety resulting from the coronavirus pandemic.
... In the general background of rapid population growth and economic growth, land use patterns are changing, thus threatening the stability of ecosystems, which may compromise regional ecological security and threaten the sustainable development of human society and the construction of national security in the context of globalization (Yu, 1996;Xiao et al., 2002;Peng et al., 2017;Fu et al., 2020). The establishment Abstract The six northwestern provinces are much of the Chinese section of the "Silk Road Economic Belt", and the ecological environment is relatively fragile, with serious soil erosion, which, together with rapid economic and social development, may lead to changes in land use patterns and inadequate supply of ecosystem services, impacting China's regional ecological protection as well as the "Carbon Peak and Carbon Neutral" goals. ...
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The six northwestern provinces are much of the Chinese section of the “Silk Road Economic Belt”, and the ecological environment is relatively fragile, with serious soil erosion, which, together with rapid economic and social development, may lead to changes in land use patterns and inadequate supply of ecosystem services, impacting China's regional ecological protection as well as the “Carbon Peak and Carbon Neutral” goals. This paper is designed to address the issue of land use change and inadequate supply of ecosystem services in six provinces in Northwest China. To this end, this paper has constructed three different levels of ecological security patterns in the study area based on the spatial–temporal pattern changes of land use and cold hotspot changes of ecological service value (ESV) in six provinces and regions in Northwest China. The results show that from 2000 to 2018, there is a significant increase around urban and rural construction land (66.06%) and a small decrease around grassland and water bodies (−1.72% and −13.53%) in the study area, with a large-scale interconversion of all categories. The ecological service value cold hotspot distribution is relatively stable in space and has little change in time. The ecological source areas of low, medium, and high ecological safety patterns are 9,889,930, 13,444,520 and 40,067,460 hm², respectively, and the number of ecological corridors is 987, 1051 and 1063, with lengths of 5295.57 km, 5729.49 km, and 6566.69 km, respectively. The construction of ecological security pattern based on ecological service value can provide a reference for regional ecological protection and security.
... Ecological security is an interdisciplinary field that crosses the boundaries of natural sciences and social sciences. It involves interactions between multiple factors, and is characterized by diversity and complexity (Xiao et al., 2002). Therefore, future studies on ecological security could focus on the following aspects. ...
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With the worsening of global and local environmental problems, ecological security has a vital role to play in sustainable development, and has become a worldwide topic of concern in the 21st century. This study used bibliometric analysis to comprehensively review the progress of global research in ecological security from 2000 to 2020 to provide an overview for future directions. We analyzed 761 publications related to ecological security from this period, covering 34 countries, 370 journals, 631 institutions, 585 funding agencies, and 2680 authors. The results showed that the majority of publications (71.75%) appeared from 2014 to 2020, with research conducted mostly in China, followed by the USA and Russia. The top 10 active institutions were all Chinese; the Chinese Academy of Sciences was the most productive institution, and also had the highest number of citations. China was at the center of the international cooperation network, with the highest collaboration with the USA, Australia, and Canada. Funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) has supported the highest number of publications. The top two productive journals in this area were Sustainability and Ecological Indicators. Keyword co-occurrence and frequency analysis showed that “ecological security patterns,” “ecosystem services,” “ecological security assessment,” “sustainable development,” and “land use change” were the main topics, whereas “GIS,” “PSR model,” “ecological footprint,” “remote sensing,” “MCR model,” and “DPSIR model” were the most commonly used research technologies and models. Our findings showed that the focal topics have switched from ecological security assessment to ecological security patterns. We believe that these results would contribute to practitioners’ and researchers’ better understanding of worldwide ecological security research and facilitate future investigations.
... Ecological security is defined as "mankind's degree of assurance unaffected by ecological destruction and environmental pollution in yield, living, and health" (Xiao & Chen, 2002). An ecological security assessment can be used to evaluate ecological carrying capacity, urban development potential, and regional development sustainability, and it is an important factor of ecological protection. ...
... 12showed that the pressure values of nine provinces, including Shanghai, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Henan, were higher than 0.4 in most years. These provinces had a high level of economic development and large populations, so the production and living of human beings had a significant impact on the forest ecosystem. ...
Article
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Forest ecological security is an important component of ecological security and national security, and it is a requirement for the sustainable development of the forestry economy. In this study, based on the pressure–state–response (PSR) model, an evaluation index system of forest ecological security was constructed regarding three aspects: the pressure on the forest ecosystem caused by human activities, the state of the forest ecosystem, and the response measures taken by humans to protect the forest ecosystem. The forest ecological security and its pressure, state, and response in 31 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) in China from 2004 to 2018 were evaluated. Furthermore, with the help of a mediating effect model, the Moran index, and a spatial econometric model, the interaction relationship, spatial correlation effect, and spatial spillover effect of the pressure–state–response of forest ecological security were analyzed. The results showed the following: First, during the study period, the forest ecological security of most provinces was at sensitive and critical safety levels, and the forest ecological security level in Northeast and Southwest China was generally higher than that in Northwest and East China. Second, regarding the pressure, state, and response of forest ecological security, the pressure was generally low but with an increasing trend, the state was relatively good with continuous improvement, and the response was clearly insufficient and showed a fluctuating downward trend. Third, there were six different transmission mechanisms between pressure, state, and response of forest ecological security, among which there were significant transmission barriers between pressure and response. Given these findings, we propose suggestions to promote the improvement of forest ecological security in China.
... Definition of "ecological security" and the role of cultivated land in coordinating ecological security. Ecological security means the overall level of the integrity and health of an ecological system, especially a state that the ecological system has the lowest risks for survival and development and is not being threatened [81]. Cultivated land ecological security means that the cultivated land ecological system is in a state of maintaining its normal functional structure and meeting the demand of social and economic sustainable development within a certain spatial and temporal dimension. ...
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Environmental constraints are not only important aspects that affect the cultivated land quality but also necessary factors that shall be considered when evaluating the cultivated land quality scientifically. Moreover, identifying the quality condition of cultivated land accurately is the premise for guaranteeing food security. Based on the case study of diluvial fan terrain in Jimsar County, Xinjiang in the arid region of Northwest China, this study utilizes a geographic information system spatial analysis and a multifactor comprehensive evaluation method and constructs a comprehensive evaluation index system for cultivated land quality on account of three dimensions, namely soil properties, farming conditions, and natural environmental conditions. To reduce the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP) effect and improve the accuracy of the quality evaluation results of cultivated land, this study compares the spatial interpolation methods of Inverse Distance Weighted Matrix (IDW), Ordinary Kriging (OK), and Spline Functions (Spline) based on different cultivated land evaluation units. Through the assessment on the comparison results, we finally adopted large-scale cultivated land as the quality evaluation unit of cultivated land and Ordinary Kriging (OK) as the spatial interpolation method. The results indicated that the average grade of the quality index of cultivated land in the diluvial fan terrain of Jimsar County is 6.66 at the middle or lower level; the quality of cultivated land and natural environment conditions reduce with the rise of elevation of the diluvial fan terrain, indicating a vertical zonality differentiation rule; the farming conditions keep sliding from the middle part of diluvial fan terrain to the edge of the diluvial fan terrain and the piedmont slope. The major factors affecting the quality of the cultivated land include the soil capacity, soil pH, soil organic matter, the quantity of straw returning to the field, source of irrigation water, water delivery method, part of the diluvial fan, groundwater level depth, and geomorphic type. Therefore, the measures to improve the quality of the cultivated land are put forward, mainly including improving the soil, carrying out land consolidation projects, and developing highly efficient water-saving irrigation agriculture. This study provides favorable references and directions for the sustainable utilization and quality improvement of cultivated land resources in arid regions.
... According to Article 3 of this agreement, " The Party-owner of the water facility of interstate use is entitled to receive compensation from the Party-user of the facility for the costs needed to provide safe and reliable operation. " [16] Regional economic cooperation can create significant benefits for the economies of the countries concerned. Such cooperation accompanied and guided by a number of changes in economic relations, the emergence of new economic opportunities and growth in economic efficiency (for example, creating conditions for economies of scale or enabling countries to specialize in those economic activities where they are very productive). ...
Article
Ecological security assessments are used to reflect the regional ecological security situation because they can provide a basis for the construction of regional ecological security patterns (ESPs). Using the land use/land cover (LULC) data, the ecological security status of the Hexi Region was analyzed. On this basis, the ecological source was extracted, the ecological resistance surface was established, and the ecological corridor and node were identified, and constructed the ESP of the Hexi Region. The results show that: 1) During 2000–2015, approximately 70% of the study area’s ecological security index values were <0.1. The ecosystem security levels were higher in the southeast and lower in the northwest. 2) The total area of ecological sources was 6828.75 km², and it is less distributed in the west; the interconnection degree among the sources was low; and patch fragmentation was obvious. 3) A total of 134 ecological corridors were extracted, with a total length of 15572.8 km², and 44 ecological nodes were identified. The distributions of the ecological corridors and nodes had spatial consistency and were mainly concentrated in the central and southern parts of the Qilian Mountains. The method of ecological security assessment based on LULC data can be popularized and applied to the evaluation of the ecological security in regions having a lack of research data or difficulty in obtaining data. This study can provide guiding significance for the optimization of ecosystem elements and the improvement of regional ESPs in the study area or other arid areas.
Chapter
It is important to carry out planning evaluation and regulation of ecological security (PERES) after implementing urban planning, which is the most urgent demand in China’s national-level urban planning according to China’s national strategic target for intensive urbanization. In this chapter, the importance of research on PERES is discussed after related literature review, and a method for PERES is designed in order to integrate ecological planning and sustainability into urban planning process in China. The suggested PERES system should include (1) determining the key bottlenecks in the implementation of urban planning, (2) identifying the basic elements of the evaluation and regulation of urban ecological security, (3) developing criteria to evaluate ecological security, (4) ecological safety monitoring, and (5) building regulations and a system of spatial regulations.
Conference Paper
The Green Technology Innovation (GTI) is an effective way to deal with the problems of ecological environment. Taking the New Energy Vehicle (NEV) technology as an example, it has been explored that the roles of the government, enterprises, the public, universities and research institutions in the green technology innovation by use of big data. The results have shown that enterprise innovation capacity was improved increasingly due to large market green demand and more scientific research institutions participated in the green technology innovation research field because the policy support was enlarged constantly in recent years. However, there still are some problems and weaknesses to overcome. In order to protect ecological environment, it's important to optimize supporting policies and innovative modes of enterprises. Encouraging the whole society to take part in the green technology innovation and forming green consumption consciousness are needed.
Chapter
Elaborating increasing penchant for smart cities, this chapter takes into account linkages between urbanization and sustainable development to evaluate the concept of sustainable urban development along with brief appraisal of prevalent notions of cities like livable cities, eco-cities and their related components that make city life worth living. Thereafter, the study proceeds to examine prospects of sustainable smart cities, with specific focus on its constituents like smart mobility, smart economy, smart living, smart people, smart governance and smart environment. While assessing options available for cities to tackle the vagaries of climate change, the chapter seeks to present a case for ecosystem-based adaptation as a cost-effective, viable and durable option to deal with adverse impacts of climate change. Lastly, it suggests the implementation of New Urban Agenda of the UN-Habitat in tandem with sustainable development goal-11 as a way out.
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Due to rapid socioeconomic development in recent years, the influence of human activities on the urban ecosystem and environment is becoming more pronounced, causing increases in accumulated pollutants, resource consumption, and built-up land area. At this time, cities are facing complex ecological threats. We designed a platform to classify and assess the various types of ecological risks that cities and urban agglomerations may encounter. We used PHP to develop a web-based application, with nginx as the platform server, and MySQL to manage the background database. The platform provides users with a clearly structured, visual platform to manage ecological risk. By using this platform, users can quickly identify regional risk sources, find and describe risk factors, and predict possible consequences caused by these risks based on simulation modeling. The forecasting model and database can be synchronously updated and adjusted according to the actual situation. The visual web management platform and user security login system employ the MD5 encryption algorithm. The platform is designed to provide convenient, accurate, and scientific decision-making services for urban planning, construction, environmental protection, and other related areas.
Article
China has experienced rapid urbanization for over 40 years, posing a significant challenge to the ecological environment and urban sustainability, which is especially critical in cities in Western China. To critically measure the impact of ecological security on urban sustainability, we developed a quantitative approach to obtain evaluation results for decision-making. Taking Xi’an, one of the central cities in Western China, as an example, we used the methodology to conduct a quantitative analysis of the impact of regional ecological security on urban sustainability. The driving force–pressure–state–response framework has been used to construct a comprehensive assessment system and the distribution of ecological security index was analyzed using Geographic Information System (GIS) software. To understand the level of urban ecological security, the natural breaks classification method was adopted to divide the results into five categories: highly safe, satisfactorily safe, safe, low value safe, unsafe. The results have shown that the ecological security in Xi’an is basically stable, and the overall status is close to the safe status, but there is a significant difference within the research area. According to the assessment results, the impact of ecological security on sustainability of Xi’an is mainly concerning high-density population, high-density water consumption, high per capita energy consumption, low vegetation coverage, and low-density river corridors. In addition, through the quantitative analysis of the relationship between ecological security and terrain, it is observed that the ecological security level distribution of Xi’an decreases from mountains to tablelands to hills and plains. The paper shows that the comprehensive assessment system of urban ecological security established here is effective to identify natural and artificial ecological security factors that threaten urban sustainability.
Article
Qinghai province, an important part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau located in the western part of China, occupies a considerable status in terms of ecological security of China due to its special geographic position, fragile ecological environment, and rich natural resources that can provide freshwater, foods, woods, and other ecosystem services. Our study applied the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model composed of 24 indicators to survey the ecological security status in Qinghai during 2000–2017. Additionally, the obstacle degree model (ODM) was used to examine the obstacle factors affecting the improvement of ecological security. Results show that Qinghai’s ecological security made a large improvement overall, and specifically it experienced three phases: a declining phase (2000–2005), a fast-rising phase (2006–2013), and a slow-rising phase (2014–2017). The ecological security level rose from “unsafe” to “safe” (0.2167 to 0.7540) between 2005 and 2017. The pressure layer contributed the largest share to ecological security from 2000 to 2008, and the response layer determined the trend of ecological security since 2009. The main obstacle factors were concentrated at first in the response layer, and transferred to the pressure layer finally. In addition, implications were discussed to promote the ecological security improvement in Qinghai, including industrial adjustment and land use optimization, etc. This study depicts a whole picture for Qinghai’s ecological security, and provides theoretical basis for sustainable development of Qinghai province and even the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.
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As a rising global superpower, China is facing grave challenges for economic and social prosperity because of diminishing natural resources and deteriorating environmental health. There has been an urgent need to conduct extensive research on sustainability that can help implement the eco-environmental protection and battle against pollution plans drafted by China’s central government. Within this context, a book on some major ecological sustainability issues in China is timely. This chapter discusses the motivation behind this book project, provides an overview on the historical development of sustainability and the nature of sustainability science, introduces some major methods appropriate for ecological sustainability research, and previews the book structure. It concludes by highlighting several areas deserving further research.
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As a popular topic, eco-security has recently received much attention in China. However, some unexpected outcomes related to eco-security often happened in China since few people understand its real meaning and little practices were implemented. In fact, the issues associated with eco-security involve all aspects of human societies. The nature of eco-security is to balance the relationship between nature and human and between ecosystem restoration and environmental background. Eco-security is an ambitious target on socio-economic development and human surviving in the long term. In this chapter, we discuss the objectives, principles, and frameworks in regional eco-security pattern design. Contrary to the conceptual eco-security, regional eco-security pattern design emphasizes the practice on ecosystem restoration and landscape optimization. It is required to set specific objectives in a foreseeable period and to make every effort in resolving key issues faced by humans. In regional eco-security pattern design, biodiversity should be properly maintained or restored, the integrity of ecosystem and ecological processes needs to be kept, the local environmental issues have to be resolved, and the human needs on daily life, production and recreation in a foreseeable period have to be achieved. Finally, we analyze some practical cases on regional eco-security pattern design.
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Landscape pattern evolution leads to changes of landscape spatial structure, which are intuitively reflected in the changes of ecosystem structure and composition and finally affect ecological security. In this paper, we assessed the spatiotemporal variation of the ecological security and landscape pattern of the middle and lower reaches of Shule River Basin in 1987–2015. Further, we analyzed the correlation between the ecological security and landscape pattern of the study region and correlation coefficients were calculated. On this basis, the key landscape pattern indices influencing the ecological security of the study region were identified. This may provide useful information for ecological regulation and design. The results show that: (1) From 1987 to 2015, the ecological security in the middle and lower reaches of the Shule River Basin was of medium or low level, showing periodic “U” shaped fluctuations, and the fluctuation period was gradually shortened. In addition, there was an overall spatial pattern of “high ecological security in the west, middle and south and low ecological security in the east”. (2) The landscape pattern showed clear stage characteristics. The complexity of landscape pattern increased from 1987 to 1996 and decreased after 1996. (3) Landscape size, shape, quantity, type and spatial configuration had important impacts on ecological security and showed significant temporal variation. In a period when the influence of human activities was weak, ecological security was mainly related to landscape area indices. With increase in human activities, landscape shape, fragmentation and connectivity changed greatly, which led to changes in the structure and composition of ecosystem, thus finally affecting ecological security.
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The ecological security (ES) pattern in China is gaining considerable attention worldwide due to intensifying urban development and human activities that threaten ecosystem structures and ecological processes. The Pearl River Delta (PRD) has experienced intense economic development for nearly 40 years; however, the ES pattern in the PRD is poorly understood. In this paper, we used a multisource data approach to assess ES, performed downscaling to a 1 × 1 km² grid size, and applied spatial statistics to analyze the ES pattern in the PRD. We found three natural “ecological buffers,” namely, nature reserves and forest patches covering several municipalities in the delta, thus guaranteeing the socio-economic development of this highly urbanized area. The spatial autocorrelation results indicated that the ES pattern is significantly spatially correlative (p = 0.001), with a Moran’s I of 0.7766. We identified several hot and cold spots for the ES spatial distribution that occupied 58.49% of the PRD’s total area. Moreover, a semivariance analysis showed that structural factors are dominant in the ES spatial distribution. Based on the ES area proportions, the 9 municipalities of the PRD can be grouped into three categories: optimized development zones, comprehensive development zones, and ecological conservation development areas. Zhaoqing, Huizhou and Jiangmen are key areas for improving ES conservation in the PRD. In this study, we explore an ES assessment model coupled with a spatial heterogeneity analysis to provide insights into ecological conservation efforts in urban agglomerations.
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Due to rapid urbanization, Indian cities have faced serious environmental problems, including pollution, loss of urban green space, increasing heat island phenomena, and destruction of the urban ecosystem, over the past few decades. Urban ecological security (UES) measures the degree of urbanization pressure and level of ecological sensitivity. Currently, urban ecological security assessment (UESA) is an important aspect of sustainable urban development. Accurate assessment of ecological security status has become a real problem because of differential evaluation methods produced variable results. The present study aims to address these shortcomings using integrated DEMATEL-ANP model to select the influencing factors and assess ecological security of Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA). Moreover, a combined cellular automata and Markov chain model was applied to simulate land-use/land-cover change and predict the future state of UES in KMA. The result shows that land use land cover change rate, built-up density, green area change intensity index and landscape connectivity index are the most influencing factors in UES. The present study can enrich the methods in the field of UESA and the findings of this study can provide valuable and scientific guidance to optimize land-use planning and potentially improving the ecological security of an urban area.
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In the past four decades, China has achieved tremendous economic success, but it has also faced serious ecological security (ES) problems. The land use/cover change (LUCC) plays a decisive role in the issue of ES. LUCC and ES evaluation were combined by predicting the change in land use and simulating ES pattern. Taking the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration (PRD) as the study area, the temporal changes of land use were predicted by the CA-Markov model, and the land use pattern in three different scenarios in 2025 was simulated. Based on the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model, the ES evaluation of the PRD in 2005, 2010 and 2015 was carried out, and the safety level dropped from 75.39% to 66.67% in this period. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was performed by the GeoDA to reflect the dynamic of ES pattern of the PRD, which suggested that there is greater heterogeneity within the PRD, and the homogenous sub-region continues to increase. Through change the transition probability among different land use types, three scenarios were set: Inertial development, Over expansion, and Ecological protection scenario, which showed that the expansion of construction land (accounting for 18.58%, 20.12% and 17.93% respectively) must occupy agricultural and forest lands and lead to decrease on ES level, the safety level are accounting for 79.07%, 78.30% and 79.95% in the three scenarios respectively. The ES pattern of the PRD was described, the central sub-region of the PRD with high urbanization have relative low ES, and the periphery sub-regions with good ecological order have high ES level, there are more than 63.59% and less than 4.06% of unsafety level of Dongguan and Zhaoqing respectively, which are both the representative city of these two sub-regions. Based on the spatial-temporal dynamic of urban ES, the optimized ES pattern of the PRD was proposed, three eco-functional zones were determined: ecological conservation zone, living environment guarantee zone and ecological restoration zone. The eco-functional zones have defined the leading ecological functions of each sub-region and could gradually improve the integrity and connectivity of the entire ecosystem of the PRD, which provides valuable knowledge for understanding and planning regional city management.
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Changes in land cover and ecological stressors are known to reflect the influences of human activities on regional environments and are also indicators of sustainable development. In this research, Borneo was selected as the study area. The data were sourced from Landsat TM image data obtained in 1990, 2000 and 2010, SRTM DEM data, and DMSP/OLS night-time satellite data, along with socioeconomic information, including regional population, biological resource consumption and energy consumption data. The vegetation brightness index (VBI) and the filtered normalized difference built-up index (FNDBI) are proposed, and the overall classification accuracy reached 87% when combined with decision tree classification and visual interpretation methods. Based on the traditional ecological footprint method, a dynamic calculation method for the production factor is proposed. The ecological footprint, ecological carrying capacity, and ecological deficit/surplus of Borneo in 1990, 2000, and 2010 were then calculated, and a method for creating the corresponding grid-based spatial distribution map was proposed. The effects of human activities on land cover and ecological stress in Borneo from 1990 to 2010 were analyzed in this study. The results showed that the tropical rainforests of Borneo decreased by 13% over two decades and dramatically changed to shrublands, plantations, and arable land areas. The ecological pressure increased from the central mountains to the coastal plains, and ecological deficits appeared in the coastal zones with altitudes less than 150 m in the West Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, and Sabah regions, which indicated a trend of gradual expansion. Urban construction, plantations, logging, mining, forest fires, and other human activities have interfered with natural systems, and this has led to major pressures being placed on regional sustainable development and ecological security, as well as influencing the ecological stability of other global regions.
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The ecological footprint (EF) is an important tool for regional ecological security assessments. Based on the renewable EF components that meet the basic biomass needs of mankind, we evaluated the ecological security status of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (Great Bay Area) in 2000 and 2015 from two aspects: ecological health and ecological risk. The results were as follows. (1) The renewable biocapacity and the renewable EF have increased. The difference in the renewable EF structure between the urban and rural areas has nearly disappeared. Ecological consumption was concentrated in cities with a high flow of people, materials, and tourism. (2) The renewable biocapacity per hectare was high and increasing. The effective carrying rate varied greatly from city to city and was generally declining. The level of health in the Greater Bay Area has changed from healthy to unhealthy. (3) The renewable ecological deficit and the renewable ecological pressure have increased, and the ecological risks are further expanding. The increase in the number of cities above the high-risk level means more hotspot targets for ecological risk management. (4) The ecological security status of the Greater Bay Area has changed from relatively unsafe and weakly unsustainable to unsafe and strongly unsustainable. There is a need to protect natural assets, reduce ecological consumption, and improve the ecological security and sustainability of the study area.
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For the computation of extreme event statistics with respect to pollutant loads and environmental effects, the uncertainty in model parameters of deterministic models and the inherent stochastic variability in input variables have to be taken into account. Two stochastic reliability methods—combinations of the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) with Directional Simulation with Importance Sampling (FORM/DIS) or with Latin Hypercube Sampling (FORM/LHS)—were used for risk analysis related to acute environmental effects. The range of probabilities of exceedence at which these combined methods are more efficient than crude Monte Carlo simulation (CMC) or Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) only, was investigated. Their efficiency in relation to the required number of model simulations to accurately estimate the small exceedence probabilities of extremes compared to that of Monte Carlo simulation was demonstrated with two case studies: (1) to estimate exceedence probabilities of limit pollutant concentrations in a lake after a loading event using a simple numerical model. At exceedence probabilities smaller than 0.1 both FORM/DIS and FORM/LHS gave more accurate results than crude Monte Carlo simulation, and this improvement increased rapidly with decreasing probabilities. (2) to estimate the frequencies of occurrence of extremely low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in a stream receiving multiple COD loads from combined sewer overflows and storm water outlets using a Dissolved Oxygen Stream MOdel (DOSMO). In this example the relationships between stochastic parameters and the model output are strongly non-linear and the number of loading events that determine the in-stream DO concentration is variable. Here, FORM/LHS was more efficient than than FORM/DIS in estimating very small probabilities. A general limit value for the probability of exceedence below which FORM/LHS or FORM/DIS were more efficient than Crude Monte Carlo simulation and Latin Hypercube Sampling could not be given, but they were lower for the complex stream DO model than for the simple lake model. Based on these very different case studies it is concluded that the methods can generally be applied to a large variety of numerical models within the field of environmental engineering.
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Chemical registrations under FIFRA (Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act) and TSCA (Toxic Substance Control Act) in the United States, and equivalent regulations in Canada and Europe, are driven extensively by risk assessments. Chemicals intended for use as pesticides are evaluated by considering fate and transport, toxicity, and assumed exposure scenarios. For nonpesticide chemicals, very limited testing information is generated to support the risk management decisions. Despite the restricted quantity of information, risk-based predictions are intended to provide analyses that are adequate to evaluate ecological safety margins. Persistent questions regarding adequacy of protection have dogged risk assessors, regulators, and registrants. From a scientific perspective, risk assessments are essentially complex hypotheses, not conclusive or factual statements. Given the great reliance on extrapolations from individual-based toxicity (and generally poor exposure characterizations) to statements of community, ecosystem, landscape, regional, and even global levels of organization, it is perhaps remarkable that the system has worked at all. But do we really know if the system works? If we wish to retain a scientific basis in registration, follow-up work that tests the risk-prediction hypotheses needs to be done. Properly structured around testable parameters, focused monitoring programs could reduce much of the mystery embodied in current practice. Greater reliance on monitoring data to test risk predictions could reduce the tendency to concatenate uncertainty factors that unnecessarily expand Type II errors. We propose changes in the registration process to address these concerns.