Digestion, Milk Production, Milk Composition, and Blood Composition of Dairy Cows Fed Whole Flaxseed

ArticleinJournal of Dairy Science 85(6):1482-90 · July 2002with26 Reads
DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74217-3 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
A total of 90 lactating Holstein cows averaging 628 kg (SE = 8) of body weight (BW) were allotted at calving to 30 groups of three cows blocked for similar calving dates to determine the effects of feeding whole untreated flaxseed on milk production and composition, fatty acid composition of blood and milk, and digestibility, and to determine whether flaxseed could substitute for other sources of fat such as Megalac and micronized soybeans. Cows were fed a total mixed diet based on grass and corn silage and fat supplements for ad libitum intake. The experiment was carried out from calving up to wk 16 of lactation. Cows within each block were assigned to one of the three isonitrogenous, isoenergetic, and isolipidic supplements based on either whole flaxseed (FLA), Megalac (MEG), or micronized soybeans (SOY). Intake of dry matter and change in BW were similar among diets. Cows fed FLA had greater milk yield than those fed MEG (35.7 vs. 33.5 kg/d) and there was no difference between cows fed FLA and those fed SOY (34.4 kg/d). Fat percentage was higher in the milk of cows fed MEG (4.14%) than in the milk of those fed FLA (3.81%) or SOY (3.70%), but milk protein percentage was higher for cows fed FLA (2.98%) than for those fed MEG (2.86%) and SOY (2.87%). Digestibilities of acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and ether extract were lower for cows fed FLA than for those fed SOY and MEG. Retention of N was similar among diets. Feeding FLA resulted in the lowest omega-6-to-omega-3-fatty-acids ratio, which would improve the nutritive value of milk from a human health point of view. The data suggest that micronized soybeans and Megalac can be completely substituted by whole untreated flaxseed as the fat source in the diet of early lactating cows without any adverse effect on production and that flaxseed increased milk protein percentage and its omega-6-to-omega-3-fatty-acids ratio.
    • "Reports in the literature about the effects of linseed supplementation on the concentration of milk protein are inconsistent. Some studies have reported an increase in protein concentration (Petit, 2002; Fuentes et al., 2008), no effect (Petit and Benchaar, 2007), or a decrease (Ward et al., 2002). Schingoethe (1996) reviewed the effect of diet on protein concentration in the milk of dairy cows and concluded that it is easier to increase protein yield than concentration. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was done to investigate the effect of feeding linseed on blood metabolites, incidence of cystic follicles, resumption of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, pregnancy rate, milk production, and composition in fresh Holstein dairy cows. A total of 399 dairy cows were assigned randomly to 2 diets. Diets contained either protected palm oil (CON) or extruded linseed (LIN) and were fed from calving to d 40 postpartum. Ovaries of each cow were examined on d 10, 20, 30, and 40 after parturition (parturition = d 0) by transrectal ultrasonography to determine follicular development, ovarian disorders, and cyclicity. Blood samples were collected at 14-d intervals for 6 wk starting on the day of parturition to determine plasma concentrations of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and blood urea N (BUN). Results showed plasma glucose concentration was affected by the diets and was greater in the LIN treatment, but BHBA, NEFA, and BUN concentrations were similar among treatments. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on milk production and composition except milk fat percentage that significantly decreased in cows fed LIN (3.55%) compared with those fed with CON (4.17%). Plasma progesterone concentrations were greater in LIN treatment than CON treatment (1.31 ± 0.09 vs. 0.87 ± 0.09) at early postpartum. The resumption of cyclicity and onset of estrus were influenced by treatments and reduced by 7 d in LIN treatment compared with CON treatment. Cows fed diets enriched in LIN fatty acids had a lesser incidence of cystic follicles. Treatments did not differ significantly in terms of the number of days open, number of services per pregnancy, and pregnancy rate. In conclusion, feeding linseed immediately after parturition decreased milk fat and incidence of cystic follicles, increased progesterone concentrations early postpartum, and caused earlier resumption of cyclicity but did not affect pregnancy rate.
    Article · Mar 2015
    • "Reports in the literature about the effects of linseed supplementation on the concentration of milk protein are inconsistent. Some studies have reported an increase in protein concentration (Petit, 2002; Fuentes et al., 2008), no effect (Petit and Benchaar, 2007), or a decrease (Ward et al., 2002). Schingoethe (1996) reviewed the effect of diet on protein concentration in the milk of dairy cows and concluded that it is easier to increase protein yield than concentration. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was done to investigate the effect of feeding linseed on blood metabolites, incidence of cystic follicles, resumption of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, pregnancy rate, milk production, and composition in fresh Holstein dairy cows. A total of 399 dairy cows were assigned randomly to 2 diets. Diets contained either protected palm oil (CON) or extruded linseed (LIN) and were fed from calving to d 40 postpartum. Ovaries of each cow were examined on d 10, 20, 30, and 40 after parturition (parturition = d 0) by transrectal ultrasonography to determine follicular development, ovarian disorders, and cyclicity. Blood samples were collected at 14-d intervals for 6 wk starting on the day of parturition to determine plasma concentrations of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and blood urea N (BUN). Results showed plasma glucose concentration was affected by the diets and was greater in the LIN treatment, but BHBA, NEFA, and BUN concentrations were similar among treatments. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on milk production and composition except milk fat percentage that significantly decreased in cows fed LIN (3.55%) compared with those fed with CON (4.17%). Plasma progesterone concentrations were greater in LIN treatment than CON treatment (1.31 ± 0.09 vs. 0.87 ± 0.09) at early postpartum. The resumption of cyclicity and onset of estrus were influenced by treatments and reduced by 7 d in LIN treatment compared with CON treatment. Cows fed diets enriched in LIN fatty acids had a lesser incidence of cystic follicles. Treatments did not differ significantly in terms of the number of days open, number of services per pregnancy, and pregnancy rate. In conclusion, feeding linseed immediately after parturition decreased milk fat and incidence of cystic follicles, increased progesterone concentrations early postpartum, and caused earlier resumption of cyclicity but did not affect pregnancy rate.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
    • "For example, Petit and Côrtes (2010) reported higher lactose concentration in milk from cows supplemented with whole or ground flax seed at 72 g/kg DM compared to those fed no flax seed. Another study showed that milk lactose concentration was increased when cows were fed 104–108 g/kg DM whole flax seed compared to those fed 38-40 g/kg DM calcium salts of palm oil (Petit, 2002). Linolenic acid (cis9,cis12,cis15-18:3), which represents 447 g/kg of total FA in flax seed, could have increased gluconeogenesis and thus provided the mammary gland with more glucose for lactose synthesis. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rumen bypass of flax oil (FO), which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids (FA), contributes to increase polyunsaturated FA proportion in milk fat. Flax meal (FM) is a source of antioxidants, which may reduce oxidative damage in cows given omega-3 FA. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary FM supplement on performance and antioxidant status in dairy cows infused with FO in the abomasum. Eight rumen fistulated lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a double 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) control diet with no FM (CO); 2) diet containing 124 g/kg FM in the dry matter (DM); 3) CO and 250 g FO/d infused in the abomasum; 4) FM and 250 g FO/d infused in the abomasum. Intake of DM and total DM input (including abomasally infused oil) were increased for cows fed FM and reduced for cows infused with FO. Milk production and milk composition did not differ among treatments except for lactose concentration that was increased with FO infusion. Milk fat from cows fed FM had lower omega-6 FA proportions. Abomasal infusion of FO increased proportions of polyunsaturated, omega-6 and omega-3 FA in milk fat. Cows fed CO with no FO infusion showed higher omega-6/omega-3 FA ratio in milk fat compared with the other treatments, whereas no difference was observed between CO and FM when FO was infused in the abomasum. Feeding FM did not change plasma and milk thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentrations, whereas FO increased them. Infusion of FO in the abomasum increased the peroxidizability index, the maximal conjugated diene (CD) production and rate of CD production, whereas lag time and time to reach maximum amount of CD were reduced. Plasma antioxidant capacity before feeding was increased when cows received dietary FM or FO abomasal infusion, whereas no differences were observed 3 h postfeeding. Results suggest that FM supplementation to dairy cows receiving a source of polyunsaturated FA that bypasses the rumen does not provide any benefits for protecting cows and milk against lipoperoxidation.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
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