Lifestyle and other risk factors for thyroid cancer in Los Angeles County females

University of Southern California, Department of Preventive Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA.
Annals of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 2). 08/2002; 12(6):395-401. DOI: 10.1016/S1047-2797(01)00281-2
Source: PubMed


We conducted a population-based case-control study of thyroid cancer. Cases were 292 women, aged 15-54 when diagnosed between the years 1980 and 1983 (145 diagnosed in 1980-81 and 147 diagnosed in 1982-83). Female neighborhood controls (n = 292) were matched to each case on birth-year and race.
Among women < 35 years, thyroid disease in first-degree relatives increased thyroid cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-3.7]. Risk was not associated with fish consumption, although high childhood consumption of shellfish decreased thyroid cancer risk (OR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.05-0.7 for consumption at least a few times weekly). Among papillary thyroid cancers (82% of cases), frequent adult consumption of saltwater fish decreased risk. Cancer risk was reduced with consumption of certain vegetables, wine, and tea. Other dietary variables, including milk, beer and hard liquor, and coffee were not related to thyroid cancer risk. Among the papillary sample, risk increased with longer use of multivitamins (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.2-7.4 for > 10 years of use). Smoking and body mass were not associated with thyroid cancer risk.
These results suggest a role of family history of thyroid disease and certain dietary variables in the etiology of thyroid cancer in adult females.

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Available from: Wendy Mack, Feb 24, 2014
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    • "A study from Kuwait showed a decreased risk associated with the high intake of freshwater fish, but consumption of processed fish products showed a positive association with development of thyroid cancer [13]. The studies (e.g., 1 cohort and 2 case-controls) from the U.S. found no significant association with fish consumption [11,14,15]. However, a positive association was found with the high intake of fish sauce as well as dried or salted fish in Asian females living in the San Francisco Bay Area [11], whereas frequent intake of saltwater fish decreased papillary thyroid cancer risk in adult females [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the past few decades, the incidence of thyroid cancer has rapidly increased worldwide. Thyroid cancer incidence is relatively high in regions where the population's daily iodine intake is insufficient. While low dietary iodine has been considered as a risk factor for thyroid cancer development, previous studies found controversial results across different food types. Among different ethnic groups, dietary factors are influenced by various dietary patterns, eating habits, life-styles, nutrition, and other environmental factors. This review reports the association between dietary factors and thyroid cancer risk among ethnic groups living in different geologic regions. Iodine-rich food such as fish and shellfish may provide a protective role in populations with insufficient daily iodine intake. The consumption of goitrogenic food, such as cruciferous vegetables, showed a positive association with risk. While considered to be a risk factor for other cancers, alcohol intake showed a protective role against thyroid cancer. High consumption of meat such as chicken, pork, and poultry showed a positive association with the risk, but dairy products showed no significant association. Regular use of multivitamins and dietary nitrate and nitrite also showed a positive association with thyroid cancer risk. However, the study results are inconsistent and investigations into the mechanism for how dietary factors change thyroid hormone levels and influence thyroid function are required.
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    • "Conversely, no association of tobacco smoking with thyroid cancer was found in two prospective cohort studies of men and women in the San Francisco Bay area,[45] and of Canadian women,[46] but the results were based on relatively small numbers of thyroid cancer patients. Negative associations between alcohol drinking and thyroid cancer have also been reported in some studies,[4748] but the results have been inconsistent.[49] "
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    • "No association with thyroid cancer was found with total fish consumption or shellfish consumption. A third study of women in Los Angeles County found no association between any amount of fish consumption (shellfish, saltwater fish and freshwater fish) consumption and thyroid cancer risk [36]. "
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