Article

Investigation on the health of people living near mobile telephone relay stations: I/Incidence according to distance and sex

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

A survey study using questionnaire was conducted in 530 people (270 men, 260 women) living or not in vicinity of cellular phone base stations, on 18 Non Specific Health Symptoms. Comparisons of complaints frequencies (CHI-SQUARE test with Yates correction) in relation with distance from base station and sex, show significant (p < 0.05) increase as compared to people living > 300 m or not exposed to base station, till 300 m for tiredness, 200 m for headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, etc. 100 m for irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, etc. Women significantly more often than men (p < 0.05) complained of headache, nausea, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, depression, discomfort and visual perturbations. This first study on symptoms experienced by people living in vicinity of base stations shows that, in view of radioprotection, minimal distance of people from cellular phone base stations should not be < 300 m.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... A French study of 530 subjects and controls explored the self-reports of 18 different nonspecific health symptoms that typically describe "Microwave Sickness", also known as "Radiofrequency Syndrome". Among the symptoms explored were fatigue, irritability, headache, nausea, loss of appetite, insomnia, depression, discomfort, difficulties in concentration and memory loss, skin change, visual and auditory dysfunctions, dizziness, gait disturbance, and cardiovascular alterations (Santini et al, 2002(Santini et al, , 2003. The control (considered non-exposed) subjects were those living greater than 300 metres from a base station. ...
... The control (considered non-exposed) subjects were those living greater than 300 metres from a base station. Santini et al (2002) reported that health complaints were significantly more common among the subjects living within 300 metres of a base station compared to controls. The symptoms that were most often reported included nausea, loss of appetite, visual disturbances and gait difficulties (Santini et al, 2002). ...
... Santini et al (2002) reported that health complaints were significantly more common among the subjects living within 300 metres of a base station compared to controls. The symptoms that were most often reported included nausea, loss of appetite, visual disturbances and gait difficulties (Santini et al, 2002). In those living within 100 metres of a base station there was significantly greater prevalence of some symptoms including irritability, depression, difficulty concentrating, memory loss, vertigo and lowered libido (Santini et al, 2002). ...
... Children and young adults were excluded from the study and a separate study called Mobi-Kids is underway. According to Santini et al. (2002), comparisons of complaints in relation with distance from base station show significant increase as compared to people living greater than 300 m or not exposed to base station, till 300 m for tiredness, 200 m for headache, sleep disturbance, and discomfort, and 100 m for irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, and libido decrease. Women significantly more often than men complained of headache, nausea, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, depression, discomfort, and visual perturbations (Santini et al., 2002). ...
... According to Santini et al. (2002), comparisons of complaints in relation with distance from base station show significant increase as compared to people living greater than 300 m or not exposed to base station, till 300 m for tiredness, 200 m for headache, sleep disturbance, and discomfort, and 100 m for irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, and libido decrease. Women significantly more often than men complained of headache, nausea, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, depression, discomfort, and visual perturbations (Santini et al., 2002). According to Oberfeld et al. (2004) in Spain, a follow-up study found that the most exposed people had a higher incidence of fatigue, irritability, headaches, nausea, loss of appetite, sleeping disorders, depression, discomfort, difficulties concentrating, memory loss, visual disorders, dizziness, and cardiovascular problems. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper summarizes the effect of radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) from cell towers and wireless devices on the biosphere. Based on current available literature, it is justified to conclude that RF-EMF radiation expo- sure can change neurotransmitter functions, blood-brain barrier, morphology, electrophysiology, cellular metabolism, calcium efflux, and gene and protein expression in certain types of cells even at lower intensities. The biological consequences of such changes remain unclear. Short-term studies on the impacts of RF-EMF on frogs, honey bees, house sparrows, bats, and even humans are scarce and long-term studies are non-existent in India. Identification of the frequency, intensity, and duration of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields causing damage to the biosystem and ecosystem would evolve strategies for mitigation and would enable the proper use of wireless technologies to enjoy its immense benefits, while ensuring one’s health and that of the environment.
... Pour les antennes relais, nous avons remarqué que la diminution de la distance par rapport à ces stations de base favorise d'une manière significative (p < 0,05) l'apparition des différents symptômes rapportés par la population étudiée. Des résultats similaires ont été observés par Santini et ses collaborateurs [32]. Pour ce qui est de la position par rapport à l'antenne relais notre étude confirme certains résultats rapportés par Santini et al en 2002 [32] qui ont observé que la position en avant est la plus nocive pour la majorité des symptômes présentés par la population étudiée. ...
... Des résultats similaires ont été observés par Santini et ses collaborateurs [32]. Pour ce qui est de la position par rapport à l'antenne relais notre étude confirme certains résultats rapportés par Santini et al en 2002 [32] qui ont observé que la position en avant est la plus nocive pour la majorité des symptômes présentés par la population étudiée. Ceci peut être expliqué par le fait que les antennes émettent les ondes à un niveau plus élevé en avant des stations que dans les autres directions [33]. ...
... Similarly, behavioral deficiency has been reported in animals exposed to these microwaves including reduction in reproductive efficiency in some animals kept close to mast base stations (Laurence et al., 2000;Cranfield et al., 2001;Balmori, 2005). A similar study, using questionnaires, revealed that people living in the vicinity of base stations report various complaints mostly of the circulatory system, but also of sleep disturbances, irritability, depression, blurred vision, concentration difficulties, nausea, lack of appetite, headache and vertigo (Bortkiewicz et al., 2004;Santini et al., 2002). ...
... There are also concerns that exposures to these stations may affect the normal functioning of the central nervous system, especially in reduction in memory potential (Nwoha et al, 2009) and memory loss (Santini et al., 2002). This necessitated the need for the present study. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed the possible harmful effects of close exposure to telephone mast base stations on the behaviour of growing Wistar rats. Animals were exposed to the vicinity of base stations, closely monitored and observed. At the end of the exposure period, behavioural studies were undertaken using the Morris water maze. Results showed conspicuous hair loss and slight pigmentation on the skin of experimental animals. Behavioural studies on Morris water maze showed that control rats performed slightly better than the experimental ones. In conclusion, close exposure of growing rats to telephone mast base stations may have damaging effects.
... Liste des Abréviations (Santini et al., 2001(Santini et al., , 2002(Santini et al., , 2003. Ces effets porteraient notamment sur l'incidence potentielle de cancers (Balcer-Kubiczek et Harrison, 1985), de leucémies (Szmigielski, 1996), de perturbations endocriniennes, immunologiques (Betti et al., 2004), des atteintes de la barrière hémato encéphalique (Williams et al., 1984b;Williams et al., 1984d;Williams et al., 1984c;Williams et al., 1984a), mais aussi sur des perturbations neurologiques subjectives telles que des maux de tête, des difficultés de concentration ou des perturbations du sommeil (Santini et al., 2002). ...
... . Ces effets porteraient notamment sur l'incidence potentielle de cancers (Balcer-Kubiczek et Harrison, 1985), de leucémies (Szmigielski, 1996), de perturbations endocriniennes, immunologiques (Betti et al., 2004), des atteintes de la barrière hémato encéphalique (Williams et al., 1984b;Williams et al., 1984d;Williams et al., 1984c;Williams et al., 1984a), mais aussi sur des perturbations neurologiques subjectives telles que des maux de tête, des difficultés de concentration ou des perturbations du sommeil (Santini et al., 2002). Ces perturbations neurologiques peuvent être rattachées à d'autres travaux mettant en évidence des perturbations neurochimiques spécifiques du système cholinergique (Lai, 1992). ...
Article
Full-text available
DELETERIOUS EFFECTS ON HEALTHCARE AND PARTICULARLY DISRUPTION OF THE CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM HAVE BEEN REPORTED AFTER EXPOSURE TO RADIOFREQUENCY FIELD AT LOW POWER DENSITY. THIS WORK PRESENT A MULTIPARAMETRIC STUDY OF FREELY MOVING RAT WHERE NEUROPHYSIOLOGY WAS INVESTIGATED USING A NEUROCHEMICAL (BY MICRODIALYSIS TECHNIQUE), ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL, BEHAVIORAL (BY VIGILANCE STAGES QUANTIFICATION) AND THERMOPHYSIOLOGICAL APPROACHES. NO NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECT HAVE BEEN NOTICED AFTER ELECTROMAGNETIC EXPOSURE AT 1,8 GHZ AND 2,45 GHZ FREQUENCIES AND FOR LOW POWER (NO THERMIC LEVEL) DENSITY. SIMILARLY COMPLEMENTARY STUDIES OF METABOLIC AND LIPIDIC COMPOSITION OF BRAIN TISSUE WAS PERFORMED USING NMR SPECTROMETRY AND FAILED STUDIES BY NMR AND FAILED TO SHOW ANY SIGNIFICANT EFFECT.
... Chez les personnes reportant une EHS, la plupart des questionnaires réalisés, rapporte que les troubles du sommeil sont les symptômes les plus fréquents [Frick et al., 2002]. D'autres enquêtes montrent que les perturbations du sommeil ont une prévalence élevée chez les sujets EHS par rapport aux non EHS [Schreier et al., 2006 [Santini et al., 2002] Aucune étude n'a encore été menée sur l'analyse de la macro structure du sommeil chez EHS ou encore la quantification de la mélatonine. Aucun effet n'est retrouvé sur la macrostructure du sommeil, mais une analyse de l'enregistrement électroencéphalogramme ou EEG révèle des augmentations de puissance dans la bande de fréquence des fuseaux de sommeil. ...
Thesis
Les personnes auto-déclarant une "électrohypersensibilité" (EHS) signalent des problèmes de santé dont des maux de tête, stress, douleurs cutanées, qu'ils lient à l'exposition aux champs électromagnétiques. L'origine, ainsi que le mécanisme de développement des symptômes associés à l'EHS sont à ce jour inexpliqués. L'objectif de la thèse était d'accroître le niveau de connaissance de ce syndrome et ainsi d'identifier d'éventuels troubles biologiques. Ce travail a exploré le fonctionnement des systèmes endocrinien, nerveux autonome, immunitaire et le sommeil chez les EHS à l'aide de marqueurs physiologiques (variabilité du rythme cardiaque, activité électrodermale et rythme respiratoire) et biologiques (marqueurs salivaires et urinaires). Deux études ont été réalisées : une enquête par auto-questionnaire combinée à une étude de caractérisation sans exposition aux champs électromagnétiques et une étude de provocation avec exposition à quatre signaux électromagnétiques successifs. A l'aide du questionnaire, nous avons fourni un aperçu général sur l'EHS en France. Nos résultats sur le sommeil indiquent des perturbations chez les EHS. De plus des marqueurs (alpha amylase et nombre de réponses électrodermales) diffèrent entre les groupes EHS et non EHS. La majorité des marqueurs physiologiques et biologiques n'indiquent pas d'effet en réponse à une exposition électromagnétique chez les EHS.
... Therefore cellphone usage and the cellphone system is enhancing the cardiac illness and mortality rate in the community. Santini et al. (2002) show that living in the vicinity of cell site exposure produces elevated neurological effects, many of which are shown in a dose-response manner. Another symptom also shown is a significantly calibrated as cardiovascular problems. ...
... As a consequence there are more and more people get electromagnetic radiated, particularly from the selected BTS location. [37], [38], [39] had made reports about the health effects for the people living near the BTS antenna. Therefore this paper concerns with more than just to design a topology of network configuration of cellular system, but also to include reducing the EMR impact. ...
... Similar results have been obtained with GSM cell towers in Spain, Egypt, Poland and Austria. A second study carried out in Austria showed significant positive associations between the frequency selective measured electric field (GSM 900/1800) in the bedroom and cardiovascular symptoms (Santini et al, 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
On the 16 th of May, 2001, the first Global System for Mobile Communications: originally called Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) call was made in Nigeria, thereby opening communication among the teaming population in the country. Given the mode of operation of GSM technology, Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) are required for the provision of GSM services. Consequently, network of base stations were established in areas that enjoyed the GSM services all over Nigeria. However, studies have shown that exposure to GSM radiations are linked to health hazards such as fatigue, headache, decreased concentration, dizziness, local irritation, tumour induction, sperm motility, morphology and viability, cancer, especially brain tumour and leukaemia, viral and infectious diseases. Given these potential health impacts of BTS on humans, the National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) established guidelines for National Environmental Standards for Telecommunications and Broadcasting Facilities. The guidelines provided for the establishment of BTS within a minimum setback of ten (10) meters from the perimeter wall (fence) of residential/business premises, schools and hospitals. Similarly, where there is no perimeter wall (fence), the BTS must be at a minimum of twelve (12) meters from the wall of residential/business premises schools and hospitals. Consequently, using spatial analysis techniques, this study examined compliance of GSM service providers with the established guidelines for the mounting of BTS within three Abuja districts in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT); namely, Utako, Garki and Wuse. All the 119 BTS sampled in the study failed the 10m and 12m buffer zone tests. As a result, policy prescription was made on the way forward.
... Diese Art der Expositionserfassung stellt eine objektivere und validiertere Expositionsabschätzung im Gegensatz zu der früherer Studien dar, in denen die Exposition vornehmlich durch subjektive Expositionsabschätzung der Probanden bzw. stationären Messungen erfasst wurde[38,52]. Die Tatsache, dass sowohl die Berechnung der Exposition durch Abstandsmessungen sowie stationäre Messungen die individuelle Exposition nicht ausreichend valide abbilden, ist mittlerweile hinreichend bekannt[51,[53][54][55][56][57]. ...
... Based on the surveyed literature [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] we believe there is a health hazard associated with EMF and RF radiation. However, studies were not able to find and confirm the exact dangerous levels due to the complex nature of the problem. ...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the possible harmful effects of magnetic radiation countries have set limits on transmitted power density. Therefore, many have conducted field surveys to measure its levels, especially around mobile base stations. We present the initial results on our field survey to measure magnetic radiation between 75 MHz and 3 GHz in Kuwait. Presented results of four locations show that other sources are as high as GSM sources. However, all are below ICNIRP limits.
... Similar results have been obtained with GSM cell towers in Spain, Egypt, Poland and Austria. A second study carried out in Austria showed significant positive associations between the frequency selective measured electric field (GSM 900/1800) in the bedroom and cardiovascular symptoms (Santini et al, 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
On the 16 th of May, 2001, the first Global System for Mobile Communications: originally called Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) call was made in Nigeria, thereby opening communication among the teaming population in the country. Given the mode of operation of GSM technology, Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) are required for the provision of GSM services. Consequently, network of base stations were established in areas that enjoyed the GSM services all over Nigeria. However, studies have shown that exposure to GSM radiations are linked to health hazards such as fatigue, headache, decreased concentration, dizziness, local irritation, tumour induction, sperm motility, morphology and viability, cancer, especially brain tumour and leukaemia, viral and infectious diseases. Given these potential health impacts of BTS on humans, the National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) established guidelines for National Environmental Standards for Telecommunications and Broadcasting Facilities. The guidelines provided for the establishment of BTS within a minimum setback of ten (10) meters from the perimeter wall (fence) of residential/business premises, schools and hospitals. Similarly, where there is no perimeter wall (fence), the BTS must be at a minimum of twelve (12) meters from the wall of residential/business premises schools and hospitals. Consequently, using spatial analysis techniques, this study examined compliance of GSM service providers with the established guidelines for the mounting of BTS within three Abuja districts in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT); namely, Utako, Garki and Wuse. All the 119 BTS sampled in the study failed the 10m and 12m buffer zone tests. As a result, policy prescription was made on the way forward.
... There should be a ban on installation of mobile tower antennae on top of and within 100 meters of high density residential areas, educational institutions, hospitals, nursing homes, old people homes, and the antennae should not be directed/positioned towards these buildings. Cellular phone base stations should not be sited closer than 300 meters to populations [84]. Protective effects of antioxidants, melatonin and omega 3 should be harnessed by dietary supplementation [17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the present developed world, all of us are flooded with electromagnetic radiations (EMR) emanating from generation and transmission of electricity, domestic appliances and industrial equipments, to telecommunications and broadcasting. We have been exposed to EMR for last many decades; however their recent steady increase from artificial sources has been reported as millions of antennas and satellites irradiate the global population round the clock, year round. Needless to say, these are so integral to modern life that interaction with them on a daily basis is seemingly inevitable; hence, the EMR exposure load has increased to a point where their health effects are becoming a major concern. Delicate and sensitive electrical system of human body is affected by consistent penetration of electromagnetic frequencies causing DNA breakages and chromosomal aberrations. Technological innovations came with Pandora's Box of hazardous consequences including neurodegenerative disorders, hearing disabilities, diabetes, congenital abnormalities, infertility, cardiovascular diseases and cancer to name few, all on a sharp rise. Electromagnetic non-ionizing radiations pose considerable health threat with prolonged exposure. Mobile phones are usually held near to the brain and manifest progressive structural or functional alterations in neurons leading to neurodegenerative diseases and neuronal death. This has provoked awareness among both the general public and scientific community and international bodies acknowledge that further systematic research is needed. The aim of the present review was to have an insight in whether and how cumulative electro-magnetic field exposure is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders.
... Tatsächlich gibt es aber zahlreiche Studien, die krank machende Auswirkungen der genannten Technologie belegen (bezüglich Mobilfunk vgl. etwa: ECOLOG 2000;Santini et al. 2002;Bortkiewicz et al. 2004;Johansson 2009; Augner et al. 2010;Bortkiewicz et al. 2012;Szyjkowska et al. 2014; bezüglich der Gentechnik vgl. etwa: Saxena et al. 1999;Losey et al. 1999;Ferber 1999; Jhansi Rani und Usha 2013). ...
... However, the presence of nervousness or distress, fatigue and concentration difficulties were also mentioned by the respondents of this study as other symptoms and the proportion is in line with Röösli study. A study by Santini in France showed increasing frequency of complaints among participants in relation with [sic] distance from base station who reported that they were living within 300 meters of BTS in rural areas, or within 100 meters of BTS in urban areas [18]. The most common complaints were irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, and so forth. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Over the last few years there have been concerns regarding the health effects of electromagnetic waves (EMW) produced by mobile phone base transmitter stations (BTS). Data on possible health effects of EMW in developing countries are rare. This study was conducted to determine the awareness and self-reported health hazards of EMW from the mobile phone BTS in Dhaka city. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 220 respondents living around BTS in Dhaka city. Data was collected on sociodemographic characteristics, mobile phone use, BTS and EMW awareness, and self-reported health problems. Results. The majority of respondents (92.7%) reported to have seen a BTS but only 29.5% knows how it works and 74.5% had no knowledge about the EMW. 49% respondents experienced sleeping disturbances while recent episodes of headache or dizziness were reported by 47% and mood change or anxiety or depression by 41%. About 22% complained about other physical or mental symptoms. Conclusion. Awareness about the possible health hazards from EMW of BTS is low among the inhabitants of Dhaka city. A number of respondents mentioned recent health effects but the association with BTS could not be established.
... In two studies on base station exposure and symptoms published; one from France [Santini, et al. 2002a] and one fromSpain [Navarro, et al. 2003]. None of the studies have reported how subjects were selected for participation in the studies, and participation rates cannot be estimated. ...
Article
Full-text available
The increased use of mobile phone by the public is accompanied by a wave of contradictory reports about the possible health effects, which result from exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) by the phone’s user and neighbors of stations. Given the immense numbers of users of mobile phones, even small adverse effects on health could have major public health implications. This article reviews the present knowledge concerning the biological and medical effects of exposure to cellular phone. However, this knowledge still contains certain gaps which should be filled. Health conditions which have reported to the use of mobile phones mainly include some types of cancer, changes of brain activity and effect on hearing. The numerous epidemiological studies relative to the occurrence of cancer by exposure to electromagnetic fields are conflicting. The absence of associations reported thus far is less conclusive because the current observation period is still too short. Currently data are completely lacking on the potential carcinogenic effect of exposures in childhood and adolescence. This review summarizes the current state of evidence concerning whether the radiofrequency fields (RF) energy used for wireless communication might be hazardous. Relevant studies were identified by searching Medline.
... A French research group headed by Belpomme (207) There is increasing evidence in the scientific literature of various subjective and objective physiological alterations, e.g. heart-rate variability (HRV) as apparent in some persons with EHS claiming to suffer after exposure to certain frequencies of RF like DECT or Wi-Fi (211)(212)(213)(214)(215). Analysis of the data available on the exposure of people living near mobile phone base stations has yielded clear indications of adverse health effects like fatigue, depression, difficulty in concentrating, headaches, dizziness, etc. (216)(217)(218)(219)(220). A synopsis of 30 studies on mobile phone base stations is given in the document "Leitfaden Senderbau" (221). ...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic diseases and illnesses associated with non-specific symptoms are on the rise. In addition to chronic stress in social and work environments, physical and chemical exposures at home, at work, and during leisure activities are causal or contributing environmental stressors that deserve attention by the general practitioner as well as by all other members of the health care community. It seems necessary now to take "new exposures" like electromagnetic fields (EMF) into account. Physicians are increasingly confronted with health problems from unidentified causes. Studies, empirical observations, and patient reports clearly indicate interactions between EMF exposure and health problems. Individual susceptibility and environmental factors are frequently neglected. New wireless technologies and applications have been introduced without any certainty about their health effects, raising new challenges for medicine and society. For instance, the issue of so-called non-thermal effects and potential long-term effects of low-dose exposure were scarcely investigated prior to the introduction of these technologies. Common electromagnetic field or EMF sources: Radio-frequency radiation (RF) (3 MHz to 300 GHz) is emitted from radio and TV broadcast antennas, Wi-Fi access points, routers, and clients (e.g. smartphones, tablets), cordless and mobile phones including their base stations, and Bluetooth devices. Extremely low frequency electric (ELF EF) and magnetic fields (ELF MF) (3 Hz to 3 kHz) are emitted from electrical wiring, lamps, and appliances. Very low frequency electric (VLF EF) and magnetic fields (VLF MF) (3 kHz to 3 MHz) are emitted, due to harmonic voltage and current distortions, from electrical wiring, lamps (e.g. compact fluorescent lamps), and electronic devices. On the one hand, there is strong evidence that long-term exposure to certain EMFs is a risk factor for diseases such as certain cancers, Alzheimer's disease, and male infertility. On the other hand, the emerging electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is more and more recognized by health authorities, disability administrators and case workers, politicians, as well as courts of law. We recommend treating EHS clinically as part of the group of chronic multisystem illnesses (CMI), but still recognizing that the underlying cause remains the environment. In the beginning, EHS symptoms occur only occasionally, but over time they may increase in frequency and severity. Common EHS symptoms include headaches, concentration difficulties, sleep problems, depression, a lack of energy, fatigue, and flu-like symptoms. A comprehensive medical history, which should include all symptoms and their occurrences in spatial and temporal terms and in the context of EMF exposures, is the key to making the diagnosis. The EMF exposure is usually assessed by EMF measurements at home and at work. Certain types of EMF exposure can be assessed by asking about common EMF sources. It is very important to take the individual susceptibility into account. The primary method of treatment should mainly focus on the prevention or reduction of EMF exposure, that is, reducing or eliminating all sources of high EMF exposure at home and at the workplace. The reduction of EMF exposure should also be extended to public spaces such as schools, hospitals, public transport, and libraries to enable persons with EHS an unhindered use (accessibility measure). If a detrimental EMF exposure is reduced sufficiently, the body has a chance to recover and EHS symptoms will be reduced or even disappear. Many examples have shown that such measures can prove effective. To increase the effectiveness of the treatment, the broad range of other environmental factors that contribute to the total body burden should also be addressed. Anything that supports homeostasis will increase a person's resilience against disease and thus against the adverse effects of EMF exposure. There is increasing evidence that EMF exposure has a major impact on the oxidative and nitrosative regulation capacity in affected individuals. This concept also may explain why the level of susceptibility to EMF can change and why the range of symptoms reported in the context of EMF exposures is so large. Based on our current understanding, a treatment approach that minimizes the adverse effects of peroxynitrite - as has been increasingly used in the treatment of multisystem illnesses - works best. This EMF Guideline gives an overview of the current knowledge regarding EMF-related health risks and provides recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment and accessibility measures of EHS to improve and restore individual health outcomes as well as for the development of strategies for prevention.
... With the use of a mobile phone, some people report burning sensations on the skin and headaches (125). Several reports have indicated that these symptoms are more common among individuals living close to mobile phone towers (126)(127)(128). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The present chapter deals with that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that has lower energy and longer wavelengths than the infrared, including the extra low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields from electricity and radiofrequency (RF) fields used in communication. The energies at these frequencies are not sufficient to directly break chemical bonds, and the question to be examined is whether they have sufficient energy to cause human disease by other mechanisms, particularly at intensities that do not cause measurable heating. Present research indicates a consistent pattern of elevated risk of cancer, especially leukemia, and some neurodegenerative diseases at ELF magnetic field levels commonly found in residences and occupations. The relationship between childhood magnetic field exposure and brain cancer is also reviewed. Human studies and meta-analyses of research of mobile phone use show a consistent and elevated risk of brain cancer and acoustic neuroma upon intense and long-term use. International and national standards of human exposure to ELF and RF frequencies are presented and found to be inadequate for the protection of human health. The evidence of human harm from excessive exposure to both ELF and RF is stronger and more consistent for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases than is commonly recognized. While there is less strong reproducibility and consistency for some other proposed health outcomes, this indicates only the need for more research with better exposure assessment. Keywords: Leukemia; brain cancer; acoustic neuroma; Alzheimer's disease; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; electromagnetic fields (EMFs); mutations; radiofrequency; Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
... Mobile transmitter masts have received the most attention by researchers and the public. Therefore, many organizations, (IARC, Niehs, NRPB, ARPANSA, ICNIRP) and individual scientists ( Roosli 2004, Navarro 2003, Santini 2003, Santini 2002 have conducted studies and surveys of radiation levels and the associated health hazards. Previously (alkoot 2012) we have conducted a survey of electromagnetic radiation in outdoor areas in Kuwait due to several sources at the band of 75MHz to 3000MHz. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many are questioning the health effects of EMF radiation transmitted by mobile phone network or simply the Wi-Fi networks at public and private locations. High frequency radiation has been linked to various types of illnesses and recently has been categorised as class 2B carcinogen. The Wi-Fi source has been considered as safe due to the low emitted radiation levels compared to the standard limits. However, many are questioning the adequacy of these limits. Additionally, the technology has become very common in the majority of residences resulting in an accumulation of several networks in each house. This increases the amount of radiation and supports the possibly of increased hazard. In this study, we aim at documenting the state of radiation due to WLAN sources at 2.4GHz at various residences in Kuwait. Results indicate that apartments in building complexes suffer from higher radiation sources due to the higher population density at these buildings. Although houses suffer from a smaller number of neighbouring Access Points they also show a high radiation level. Levels at the surveyed house reach -51dBA/m, which is equivalent to 0.024 % of the ICNIRP limit.
... Various symptoms (headaches, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, skin manifestations, and tinnitus) have been reported with regard to (and then attributed to) radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure in people living close to mobile phone base stations (Santini et al., 2002) and in people suffering from electrohypersensitivity (EHS) (Johansson et al., 2010;Knave et al., 1992). EHS is a phenomenon characterized by the perception from subjects of non-specific symptoms, without biological explanations and attributed by the subjects themselves at electromagnetic fields exposure. ...
Article
Objective: Electrohypersensitive people attribute various symptoms to exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF); sleep disturbance is the most frequently cited. However, laboratory experiments have yielded conflicting results regarding sleep alterations. Our hypothesis was that exposure to RF-EMF alone would lead to slight or non-significant effects but that co-exposure to RF-EMFs and other environmental constraints (such as noise) would lead to significant effects. Methods: 3-week-old male Wistar rats (4 groups, n = 12 per group) were exposed for 5 weeks to continuous RF-EMF (900 MHz, 1.8 V/m, SAR = 30 mW/kg) in the presence or absence of high-level noise (87.5 dB, 50-20000 Hz) during the rest period. After 5 weeks of exposure, sleep (24 h recording), food and water intakes, and body weight were recorded with or without RF-EMF and/or noise. At the end of this recording period, sleep was scored during the 1 h resttime in the absence of noise and of RF-EMF exposure. Results: Exposure to RF-EMF and/or noise was associated with body weight gain, with hyperphagia in the noise-only and RF-EMF + noise groups and hypophagia in the RF-EMF-only group. Sleep parameters recording over 24 h highlighted a higher frequency of active wakefulness in the RF-EMF-only group and a lower non-rapid eye movement/rapid eye movement sleep ratio during the active period in the noise-only group. There were no differences in sleep duration in either group. During the 1-h, constraint-free sleep recording, sleep rebound was observed in the noise-only group but not in the RF-EMF-only and RF-EMF + noise groups. Conclusion: Our study showed effects of RF-EMF, regardless of whether or not the animals were also exposed to noise. However, the RF-EMF + noise group presented no exacerbation of those effects. Our results did not support the hypothesis whereby the effects of RF-EMF on physiological functions studied are only visible in animals exposed to both noise and RF-EMF.
... They found that the women complain significantly more often than men of headache, nausea loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, depression, discomfort and visual perturbations. The study appealed that the minimal distance of people from cellular phone base stations should not be < 300 m. (Santini et al., 2002), While (Wolf R et al., 2004) remind that the ratio of developing cancer cases newly was significantly higher among those patients who had lived within 400 m from the towers site of the internet for the past 10 years, compared to all patients living further apart. Also, they found the 5 years from the operation of the transmitting installation, habitat that near of the installation region, compared to the inhabitants of Naila outside the zone (Ha et al., 2007;Elliott et al., 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
The mobile phone has become one of the most important in our days. The effects of waves from mobile base station may cause health effects on human. The aim of this work was to study the effect of radiofrequency (RF) emitted from mobile base station on the hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell (PCV), white blood cells (WBC) and liver enzymes activity including glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvie transaminase (GPT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In this study the people divided into control group who living away from mobile base station and experimental group who living near to the mobile base station. The present result found there is no significant differences (P<0.05) in the Hb and PCV, but there was a significant increases (P<0.05) in the white blood cells compared to the control group. The most changes found in the biochemical parameters of liver enzymes. There were significant differences (P<0.05) between the experimental and control people. It was found the enzyme (GOT) increased to the 50.402±8.001, (GPT) increased to the 56.119±5.401, (ALP) increased to the 64.00±7.569. The mobile base station radiation has harmful effects on enzyme activity and white blood cells and the exposure to this radiation is responsible for changes in liver enzyme and can affect the health.
... They found that the women complain significantly more often than men of headache, nausea loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, depression, discomfort and visual perturbations. The study appealed that the minimal distance of people from cellular phone base stations should not be < 300 m. (Santini et al., 2002), While (Wolf R et al., 2004) remind that the ratio of developing cancer cases newly was significantly higher among those patients who had lived within 400 m from the towers site of the internet for the past 10 years, compared to all patients living further apart. Also, they found the 5 years from the operation of the transmitting installation, habitat that near of the installation region, compared to the inhabitants of Naila outside the zone (Ha et al., 2007;Elliott et al., 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
The mobile phone has become one of the most important in our days. The effects of waves from mobile base station may cause health effects on human. The aim of this work was to study the effect of radiofrequency (RF) emitted from mobile base station on the hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell (PCV), white blood cells (WBC) and liver enzymes activity including glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvie transaminase (GPT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In this study the people divided into control group who living away from mobile base station and experimental group who living near to the mobile base station. The present result found there is no significant differences (P<0.05) in the Hb and PCV, but there was a significant increases (P<0.05) in the white blood cells compared to the control group. The most changes found in the biochemical parameters of liver enzymes. There were significant differences (P<0.05) between the experimental and control people. It was found the enzyme (GOT) increased to the 50.402±8.001, (GPT) increased to the 56.119±5.401, (ALP) increased to the 64.00±7.569. The mobile base station radiation has harmful effects on enzyme activity and white blood cells and the exposure to this radiation is responsible for changes in liver enzyme and can effected on healthy.
... The unit of SAR is Watt per kilogram. It can be calculated from E using equation (1) [6]. An EMF meter detects the electric field strength E and converts it into magnetic field strength H and power density S. The meter measures E along three different axes but can also take readings of all the Es' at the same time when set to the triaxial mode of operation. ...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing concern in the world that residents close to GSM base station facilities are exposed to electromagnetic radiation which causes different health illness like cancer, leukemia, memory lost, dizziness, fatigue, etc. This study puts to rest the position on the effect of radiofrequency (RF) radiation from GSM masts on human health. In this research work, the evaluation and assessment of radio frequency radiation in five selected mobile base stations facilities in Obio/Akpor Local Government of Rivers State, Nigeria were carried out using an EMF meter for measurement of Electric field. The measurements of the radio frequency radiation with the EMF meter was conducted from 0 – 300m away from the selected base transceivers stations facilities of the selected telecommunication operators (MTN, Globacom and Airtel) in Nigeria. The data obtained from the research were analyzed using Specific Absorption Rate formula to establish whether with time exposure to RF radiation will have negative impact on human health. The normal specific absorption rate (SAR) and the Power Density for the general public whole body was assessed from the measured electric field strength and the results were compared with that of International Commission on Non Ionization Radiation Protection (ICNIRP).The results showed that the average amount of SAR for the selected five base transceiver station (BTS) facilities were within the range of 0.0037 W/kg – 0.0084 W/kg and the power density 1.5183 W/m2 – 9.5083 W/m2. These values are lower than the recommended limit by ICNIRP which is 0.08w/kg for the human body. This study has shown that there is inconsequential effect on human health because the non-ionizing electromagnetic energy has no sufficient energy to affect any part of human body for the residents living close to the selected BTS facilities of the various telecommunication providers.
... The mechanism of relationship between RF energy and the human body is heating of body tissue.So at the time person's tissue got directly exposed to microwaves some of the violent deformations may lead to microwave sickness. Number of disorders like Insomnia, night sweats, sleeplessness, headaches, dizziness, Increased heart rate, blood pressure, behavioralchanges, Swollen lymph nodes and a weakened immune system, Impaired cognitive function, finally depression, irritability, Vision and eye problems, Frequent urination and extreme thirst may be found in persons which high exposure to microwave radiations [53][54][55][56]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mobile Phone Radiations as an Alarming Tool for Human Health: A Review
... In addition to the number of experimental studies showing immunological effects, long-term epidemiological -especially residential and occupational -studies have indicated a host of symptoms and biological markers associated with long-term EMF exposures. For example, residential studies on people living in the vicinity of cellular base stations report the following symptoms: fatigue; headache; sleep disturbances; discomfort; irritability; anxiety; depression; memory loss; concentration difficulties, dizziness; vertigo; nausea; loss of appetite; decreased libido; visual perturbations; blurred vision; tremors; skin rashes; elevated blood pressure; motor, memory, and learning impairment in children; cold hands and feet; and cardiovascular symptoms [102,[265][266][267][268][269][270][271][272][273][274][275]. ...
Article
While a good number of studies have demonstrated that modern, man-made ambient electromagnetic fields can have both stimulatory and inhibitory effect on immune system function, the precise mechanisms have yet to be completely elucidated. It is hypothesized here, that depending on the parameters, one of the means by which long-term electromagnetic field exposure has the potential to eventually lead to immunosuppression is via downstream inhibition of the enzyme calcineurin — a protein phosphatase, which activates the T-cells of the immune system and can be blocked by pharmaceutical agents.
... However, it is impossible to conclude that the observed biological effects are generators of adverse health effects (ANSES, collective expert report, 2013). Most recent studies that address people's complaints about EMF in France date back to 2002 and aim to evaluate the health of people living near mobile base stations (Santini et al. 2002). One ongoing clinical research hospital program was initiated in 2012 and relates to people presenting IEI-EMF across France (Assistance Publique, Hôpitaux de Paris et al. 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Context In France, cases of people self-reporting symptoms due to electromagnetic fields (EMF) or idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) have emerged over the past 10 years. Several self-help and action groups have claimed an increasing number of members. However, little is known about this population in France. Aim Our primary objective was to describe the reported symptoms and the sources that may induce these symptoms through a questionnaire-based study. Secondly, we discussed our results alongside those obtained from the existing literature and provide an overview of this physical condition. Subjects and methods From April to November 2014, a self-questionnaire survey was conducted in France. With 52 participants, the average age of respondents was 50 ± 11 years and the majority of participants at 79% were women. Results Our study results in the French population were consistent with findings in the literature conducted in other countries and also highlighted a number of emerging EMF sources such as wireless area networks, to be perceived as possible causes of symptoms. Conclusions Despite methodological differences, we summarized facts from previous comparable investigations. We also provided an overview of people claiming EMF effects and briefly discussed possible avenues of research.
Article
Abstract Mobile phone base stations facilitate good communication, but the continuously emitting radiations from these stations have raised health concerns. Hence in this study, genetic damage using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay was assessed in peripheral blood leukocytes of individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station and comparing it to that in healthy controls. The power density in the area within 300 m from the base station exceeded the permissive limits and was significantly (p = 0.000) higher compared to the area from where control samples were collected. The study participants comprised 63 persons with residences near a mobile phone tower, and 28 healthy controls matched for gender, age, alcohol drinking and occupational sub-groups. Genetic damage parameters of DNA migration length, damage frequency (DF) and damage index were significantly (p = 0.000) elevated in the sample group compared to respective values in healthy controls. The female residents (n = 25) of the sample group had significantly (p = 0.004) elevated DF than the male residents (n = 38). The linear regression analysis further revealed daily mobile phone usage, location of residence and power density as significant predictors of genetic damage. The genetic damage evident in the participants of this study needs to be addressed against future disease-risk, which in addition to neurodegenerative disorders, may lead to cancer.
Article
Full-text available
We performed a re-analysis of the data from Navarro et al (2003) in which health symptoms related to microwave exposure from mobile phone base stations (BSs) were explored, including data obtained in a retrospective inquiry about fear of exposure from BSs. Cross-sectional study. La Ñora (Murcia), Spain. Participants with known illness in 2003 were subsequently disregarded: 88 participants instead of 101 (in 2003) were analysed. Since weather circumstances can influence exposure, we restricted data to measurements made under similar weather conditions. A statistical method indifferent to the assumption of normality was employed: namely, binary logistic regression for modelling a binary response (eg, suffering fatigue (1) or not (0)), and so exposure was introduced as a predictor variable. This analysis was carried out on a regular basis and bootstrapping (95% percentile method) was used to provide more accurate CIs. The symptoms most related to exposure were lack of appetite (OR=1.58, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.03); lack of concentration (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.89); irritability (OR=1.51, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.85); and trouble sleeping (OR=1.49, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.84). Changes in -2 log likelihood showed similar results. Concerns about the BSs were strongly related with trouble sleeping (OR =3.12, 95% CI 1.10 to 8.86). The exposure variable remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. The bootstrapped values were similar to asymptotic CIs. This study confirms our preliminary results. We observed that the incidence of most of the symptoms was related to exposure levels-independently of the demographic variables and some possible risk factors. Concerns about adverse effects from exposure, despite being strongly related with sleep disturbances, do not influence the direct association between exposure and sleep.
Article
Full-text available
Dear Editor, I read with great interest an article by Nayyeri et al “Assessment of RF radiation levels in the vicinity of 60 GSM mobile phone base stations in Iran”, published in the latest issue of Radiation Protection Dosimetry Journal (1). The authors of the article reported some interesting measurements of radiofrequency (RF) radiation levels from 60 GSM base stations. Although Nayyeri et al have not studied the health effects of exposure to different levels of RF in people living near mobile phone base stations, they vigorously reported that these radiation are not detrimental “The results were compared with the relevant guideline of International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection and that of Iran, confirming radiation exposure levels being satisfactorily below defined limits and non-detrimental”. Over the past years our laboratory has focused on studying the health effects of exposure of laboratory animals and humans to some common sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones (2-8) and their base stations (9), laptop computers (10) and MRI (11). It has been reported that human exposure to high frequency (HF) fields in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations is 2-4 order of magnitudes below the currently valid limit values. Factors such as the distance from mobile phone base stations, direction of the main beam, shielding by buildings and some of the other parameters determine the magnitude of these exposure levels (12). However, we and other investigators have previously come to this conclusion that mobile phone base stations at least should not be installed in the vicinity of the places in which high risk susceptible individuals usually stay (nurseries, kindergartens, schools and hospitals). Santini et al. in 2002 found significant health effects in individuals living within 300 meters of mobile phone base stations. They concluded that mobile phone base stations should not be installed closer than 300 meters from inhabited areas (13). On the other hand, when subjective complaints of the individuals residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations are taken into account, there are published reports that show a significant correlation between subjective symptoms and the distance between houses and mobile base stations. Recently, in Poland, Bortkiewicz et al. have reported that while headache was declared by 57% of their study participants, 36.4% lived 100-150 meters away from the base stations. Furthermore, 24.4% of the subjects, mostly living at a distance above 150 m, reported memory problems (14). In Germany also, Blettner et al. have indicated that participants living in the vicinity of a mobile base station (d<500m) as well as those who were concerned about reported slightly more health complaints than other participants (15). Austrian scientists also reported that while it was impossible to determine a threshold below which no effect occurs, mobile base station power densities must be above 0.5–1 mW/m2 to observe health effects (16). Altogether, as reported by Sorgucu and Develi, in spite of the fact that mobile base stations’ radiofrequency levels do not exceed the international limits, if people are exposed to these very low-intensity electromagnetic fields for a very long time, serious health problems can occur (17). Keywords: Adaptive Response, Dose Window, Ionizing Radiation, Non-ionizing radiation, Radiofrequency (RF) Best regards Prof. SMJ Mortazavi, Ph.D Prof. SMJ Mortazavi, Ph.D Medical Physics & Medical Engineering Department, The Head The Center for Research on Radiological Sciences, The Head Medical Physics & Medical Engineering Department School of Medicine, Zand Street Shiraz University of Medical Sciences E-mail: mmortazavi@sums.ac.ir Tel: ±98-711-2349332, Fax1: ±98-711-2349332 http://www.researcherid.com/rid/D-5830-2011 References: 1. Nayyeri, V., Hashemi, S. M., Borna, M., Jalilian, H. R. and Soleimani, M. Assessment of RF Radiation Levels in the Vicinity of 60 GSM Mobile Phone Base Stations in Iran”, published in the latest issue of Radiation Protection Dosimetry(2013). 2. Mortazavi, S. M. J., Ahmadi, J. and Shariati, M. Prevalence of subjective poor health symptoms associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields among University students. Bioelectromagnetics. 28, 326-330 (2007). 3. Mortazavi, S. M., Mahbudi, A., Atefi, M., Bagheri, S., Bahaedini, N. and Besharati, A. An old issue and a new look: electromagnetic hypersensitivity caused by radiations emitted by GSM mobile phones. Technol Health Care. 19, 435-43 (2011). 4. Mortazavi, S. M., Rouintan, M. S., Taeb, S., Dehghan, N., Ghaffarpanah, A. A., Sadeghi, Z. and Ghafouri, F. Human short-term exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones decreases computer-assisted visual reaction time. Acta Neurol Belg(2012). 5. Mortazavi, S. M. J., Mosleh-Shirazi, M. A., Tavassoli, A. R., Taheri, M., Mehdizadeh, A. R., Namazi, S. A. S., Jamali, A., Ghalandari, R., Bonyadi, S., Shafie, M. et al. Increased Radioresistance to Lethal Doses of Gamma Rays in Mice and Rats after Exposure to Microwave Radiation Emitted by a GSM Mobile Phone Simulator. Dose Response. in press(2012). 6. Mortazavi, S. M., Vazife-Doost, S., Yaghooti, M., Mehdizadeh, S. and Rajaie-Far, A. Occupational exposure of dentists to electromagnetic fields produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons alters the serum cortisol level. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 3, 60-4 (2012). 7. Mortazavi, S. M. J., Mosleh-Shirazi, M. A., Tavassoli, A. R., Taheri, M., Bagheri, Z., Ghalandari, R., Bonyadi, S., Shafie, M. and Haghani, M. A comparative study on the increased radioresistance to lethal doses of gamma rays after exposure to microwave radiation and oral intake of flaxseed oil. Iranian Journal of Radiation Research. 9, 9-14 (2011). 8. Mortazavi, S. M. J., Motamedifar, M., Namdari, G., Taheri, M. and Mortazavi, A. R. Counterbalancing immunosuppression-induced infections during long-term stay of humans in space. Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas. 7, 8–10 (2013). 9. Mortazavi, S. M. J., Rezaiean, M., Atighi, S. and Sharifi, E. Study of the frequency of subjective symptoms in people living near mobile phone base stations. (Rafsanjan: Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences) (2007). 10. Mortazavi, S. M. J., Tavassoli, A., Ranjbari, F. and Moammaiee, P. Effects of Laptop Computers' Electromagnetic Field on Sperm Quality. J Reprod Infertil. 11, 251-258 (2010). 11. Mortazavi, S. M. J., Daiee, E., Yazdi, A., Khiabani, K., Kavousi, A., Vazirinejad, R., Behnejad, B., Ghasemi, M. and Balali Mood, M. Mercury release from dental amalgam restorations after magnetic resonance imaging and following mobile phone use. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 11, 1142-1146 (2008). 12. Otto, M. and von Muhlendahl, K. E. Electromagnetic fields (EMF): do they play a role in children's environmental health (CEH)? Int J Hyg Environ Health. 210, 635-44 (2007). 13. Santini, R., Santini, P., Danze, J. M., Le Ruz, P. and Seigne, M. [Investigation on the health of people living near mobile telephone relay stations: I/Incidence according to distance and sex]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 50, 369-73 (2002). 14. Bortkiewicz, A., Gadzicka, E., Szyjkowska, A., Politanski, P., Mamrot, P., Szymczak, W. and Zmyslony, M. Subjective complaints of people living near mobile phone base stations in Poland. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 25, 31-40 (2012). 15. Blettner, M., Schlehofer, B., Breckenkamp, J., Kowall, B., Schmiedel, S., Reis, U., Potthoff, P., Schuz, J. and Berg-Beckhoff, G. Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 1 of a population-based, cross-sectional study in Germany. Occup Environ Med. 66, 118-23 (2009). 16. Kundi, M. and Hutter, H. P. Mobile phone base stations-Effects on wellbeing and health. Pathophysiology. 16, 123-35 (2009). 17. Sorgucu, U. and Develi, I. Measurement and analysis of electromagnetic pollution generated by GSM-900 mobile phone networks in Erciyes University, Turkey. Electromagn Biol Med. 31, 404-15 (2012).
Book
Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity is categorised as a multisymptomatic 'el-allergy' in the Nordic classification of 2000 (R.68.8). Its symptoms are 'certainly real' and it can be a 'disabling condition' (W.H.O., 2005). It was first recorded in the mid 20th century as an occupational illness, but it has now spread into the general population through environmental exposure from increasing levels of electromagnetic fields and radiation. This Summary covers current research on this syndrome, covering EM Sensitivity and EM Hypersensitivity. It includes tables of symptoms, EMF sources and exposure guidelines, along with references to scientific studies. This New Edition adds updates, international doctors' protocols, aspects of quantum biology, evidence for sensitivity in animals and plants, case studies, disability issues and human rights.
Chapter
Full-text available
Bislang wurde Marktkonzentration als Hemmnis für eine Nachhaltige Ökonomie noch nicht hinreichend betrachtet. Sie führt jedoch neben der Verzerrung des Wettbewerbs zu Nebenwirkungen, die eine nachhaltige Entwicklung behindern: Die Ungleichheit bei der Einkommensverteilung nimmt zu, es werden unnötige und umweltbelastende Handelsströme generiert und die Macht von Monopolisten/Oligopolisten hemmt die Umsetzung einer nachhaltigen Wirtschaftspolitik. Daraus folgt, dass eine effektive Wettbewerbspolitik Teil einer nachhaltigen Wirtschaftspolitik sein muss. Der Artikel möchte anregen, dieses Thema im Rahmen der Nachhaltigkeitsdebatte zu vertiefen. http://www.metropolis-verlag.de/Jahrbuch-Nachhaltige-Oekonomie-20162017/1232/book.do;jsessionid=7169A876ADA8A9A9EA9136C4A221E718
Article
Currently, technology is being developed that makes use of the millimeter wave (MMW) range (30-300 GHz) of the radio frequency region of the electromagnetic spectrum. As more and more systems come on line and are used in everyday applications, the possibility of inadvertent exposure of personnel to MMWs increases. To date, there has been no published discussion regarding the health effects of MMWs; this review attempts to fill that void. Because of the shallow depth of penetration, the energy and, therefore, heat associated with MMWs will be deposited within the first 1-2 mm of human skin. MMWs have been used in states of the former Soviet Union to provide therapeutic benefit in a number of diverse disease states, including skin disorders, gastric ulcers, heart disease and cancer. Conversely, the possibility exists that hazards might be associated with accidental overexposure to MMWs. This review attempts to critically analyze the likelihood of such acute effects as burn and eye damage, as well as potential long-term effects, including cancer. (C)2000Health Physics Society
Article
p>Mobile phone became almost essential part of daily life for all generation of people. It functions with the help of transmission of electromagnetic waves from towers to the cell phones in the micro wave frequency region. The energy carried by the waves is not only useful for mobile communication but also produce adverse affects on the users' health as well as to all living beings which are in the radiation area. The paper aims to discuss some of the possible dark side of health concern by the usage of cell phone and radiation from the towers. It also aims to suggest the possible remedies to minimize the health problems. The Himalayan Physics Vol. 4, No. 4, 2013 Page: 51-59 Uploaded date: 12/23/2013 </p
Conference Paper
This study aimed at developing simple methods for quantification of the data in studies on the health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields of mobile base stations to prevent different interpretations of the findings. We have previously conducted a cross-sectional study on people living in 10 different districts of Shiraz city. Based on how frequent the symptoms were (always/usually/occasionally/never), a score was determined for each self-reported symptom and the total score for each individual was calculated. In the next stage, instead of reporting the effect of RF-EMF exposure on the occurrence of each symptom, the impact of exposures on the human health were assessed by evaluation of the total scores. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) was used for assessing the factors with greatest correlation. We found that exposure to RF-EMF emitted by mobile base stations significantly affected the residents’ health. Furthermore, the distance between the mobile phone base stations and the homes had a significant effect on the residents’ health. The frequency of self-reported symptoms of myalgia, palpitation, early fatigue, nervousness and low back pain decreased with increasing the distance from mobile phone base stations.
Article
OBJECTIVE: To review and evaluate the recent literature on the health effects of exposure to mobile phone base station (MPBS) radiation. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of randomized human trials conducted in laboratory settings and of epidemiological studies that investigated the health effects of MPBS radiation in the everyday environment. FINDINGS: We included in the analysis 17 articles that met our basic quality criteria: 5 randomized human laboratory trials and 12 epidemiological studies. The majority of the papers (14) examined self-reported non-specific symptoms of ill-health. Most of the randomized trials did not detect any association between MPBS radiation and the development of acute symptoms during or shortly after exposure. The sporadically observed associations did not show a consistent pattern with regard to symptoms or types of exposure. We also found that the more sophisticated the exposure assessment, the less likely it was that an effect would be reported. Studies on health effects other than non-specific symptoms and studies on MPBS exposure in children were scarce. CONCLUSION: The evidence for a missing relationship between MPBS exposure up to 10 volts per metre and acute symptom development can be considered strong because it is based on randomized, blinded human laboratory trials. At present, there is insufficient data to draw firm conclusions about health effects from long-term low-level exposure typically occurring in the everyday environment.
Article
Full-text available
Chronic diseases and illnesses associated with unspecific symptoms are on the rise. In addition to chronic stress in social and work environments, physical and chemical exposures at home, at work, and during leisure activities are causal or contributing environmental stressors that deserve attention by the general practitioner as well as by all other members of the health care community. It seems certainly necessary now to take "new exposures" like electromagnetic field (EMF) into account. Physicians are increasingly confronted with health problems from unidentified causes. Studies, empirical observations, and patient reports clearly indicate interactions between EMF exposure and health problems. Individual susceptibility and environmental factors are frequently neglected. New wireless technologies and applications have been introduced without any certainty about their health effects, raising new challenges for medicine and society. For instance, the issue of so-called non-thermal effects and potential long-term effects of low-dose exposure were scarcely investigated prior to the introduction of these technologies. Common EMF sources include Wi-Fi access points, routers and clients, cordless and mobile phones including their base stations, Bluetooth devices, ELF magnetic fields from net currents, ELF electric fields from electric lamps and wiring close to the bed and office desk. On the one hand, there is strong evidence that long-term-exposure to certain EMF exposures is a risk factor for diseases such as certain cancers, Alzheimer's disease and male infertility. On the other hand, the emerging electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is more and more recognized by health authorities, disability administrators and case workers, politicians, as well as courts of law. We recommend treating EHS clinically as part of the group of chronic multisystem illnesses (CMI) leading to a functional impairment (EHS), but still recognizing that the underlying cause remains the environment. In the beginning, EHS symptoms often occur only occasionally, but over time they may increase in frequency and severity. Common EHS symptoms include headaches, concentration difficulties, sleeping problems, depression, lack of energy, fatigue and flu-like symptoms. A comprehensive medical history, which should include all symptoms and their occurrences in spatial and temporal terms and in the context of EMF exposures, is the key to the diagnosis. The EMF exposure can be assessed by asking for typical sources like Wi-Fi access points, routers and clients, cordless and mobile phones and measurements at home and at work. It is very important to take the individual susceptibility into account. The primary method of treatment should mainly focus on the prevention or reduction of EMF exposure, that is, reducing or eliminating all sources of EMF at home and in the workplace. The reduction of EMF exposure should also be extended to public spaces such as schools, hospitals, public transport, and libraries to enable persons with EHS an unhindered use (accessibility measure). If a detrimental EMF exposure is reduced sufficiently, the body has a chance to recover and EHS symptoms will be reduced or even disappear. Many examples have shown that such measures can prove effective. Also the survival rate of children with leukemia depends on ELF magnetic field exposure at home. To increase the effectiveness of the treatment, the broad range of other environmental factors that contribute to the total body burden should also be addressed. Anything that supports a balanced homeostasis will increase a person's resilience against disease and thus against the adverse effects of EMF exposure. There is increasing evidence that EMF exposure has a major impact on the oxidative and nitrosative regulation capacity in affected individuals. This concept also may explain why the level of susceptibility to EMF can change and why the number of symptoms reported in the context of EMF exposures is so large. Based on our current understanding, a treatment approach that minimizes the adverse effects of peroxynitrite - as has been increasingly used in the treatment of multisystem disorders - works best. This EMF Guideline gives an overview of the current knowledge regarding EMF-related health risks and provides concepts for the diagnosis and treatment and accessibility measures of EHS to improve and restore individual health outcomes as well as for the development of strategies for prevention.
Chapter
Electrosensitivity exists as a very real problem. There is ample biological evidence to enable an understanding of this widespread phenomenon. Recent studies suggest possible genetic links, confirm positive subjective evidence, and confirm that voltage-gated calcium channels are an established mechanism for EM effects at nonthermal levels. Problems stemming from the conceptual context explain why even well-intentioned investigators may be tempted to deny, defer, obscure, or otherwise divert truth. It is also noted that there are vested interests at stake. As a result a great deal of EM and RF technology has been developed on the mistaken “presumption of no harm.” Unfortunately, ES not only exists but affects many, many people, the great majority of them undiagnosed (because of lack of medical knowledge) and either expensively investigated or mistreated, or worse still ignored, dismissed or ridiculed. Three case studies are noted, including one of the authors, which may of course incur criticism of bias, but perhaps may achieve an acknowledgement of the use of the human as an instrument of experimentation as well as an honest scientifically trained witness to symptoms. The Austrian Medical Association Guidelines provide a useful tool for the Practitioner.
Chapter
As the other chapters in this volume make clear, wireless communications is a highly developed and rapidly growing technology. The hundreds of millions of users of mobile telephones around the world are clear proof of the usefulness of the technology.
Article
Full-text available
Electric field intensity emitted by electromagnetic field sources of the base stations in the campus of Inonu University and other very high frequency electromagnetic field sources' spread which are effect above at campus field were done and the frequency-based electromagnetic intensity maps of the campus were prepared. According to achieved measurement conclusions, the results were evalauted by comparing the periodical changes. The field intensity values of the electromagnetic waves which have different frequencies were measured by making a spectrum analysis over 450 points in the range of 27MHz-3GHz frequency in 2011. Also, in 2013, electric field intensity values were measured with instant measurements over 6700 points in the range of 100kHz-8GHz frequency. The electromagnetic pollution maps were drawn with obtained electric field values and the results were evaluated. One of study aims, it was determined changing electric field intensity along two-year period in campus of university. Another one purpose is provided homogeneous distribution of electric field source at this area with electromagnetic pollution maps which are drawn by obtained datas from results of measurements, and determined possible risk areas.
Article
Full-text available
Conclusion: This study was conducted to identify the damage caused by the mobile phone networks and its towers and electromagnetic fields to those towers in order to protect human, animal and plant and other elements of the environment of the biological effects of non-ionizing radiation. Today spread on the roofs of buildings the city mobile phone towers amid a cause damaging to human beings without any censorship or legal liability. This study was conducted on the random sample of the sons of the province of Babylon / city of Hila, and who live in varying distances from mobile phone towers, was the total number of samples (640) The number of males (330) male and female number (310) Female from various segments of society and for the time period 2/1/2014-04/03/2015 using the questionnaire included a lot of information concerning the nature of the study sample was divided into three age groups as follows : • The first age group included 315 people (165 male ,150 female) age (15-35 years). • The second age group included 275 people (130 male ,145 female) age (36-56 years). • The third age group included 50 people (165 male ,150 female) age (57-80 years(.
Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the mechanism of cardiovascular impairments in workers exposed to UHF-VHF radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF). Materials and methods: Heart rate variability (HRV) was analysed using 512 normal heart beats registered at rest. The analysis concerned time-domain (STD R-R) and frequency-domain (VLF, LF, HF) parameters of HRV. Fifty nine workers (group I) with low-level and 12 workers (group II) with high-level exposure were examined. The mean age of the subjects was 47 ± 9 years and 41 ± 14 years, and mean exposure duration 19.1 ± 8.8 years and 13 ± 4 years, in groups I and II, respectively. The groups were divided according to: E(max), E(dose), E(mean) for frequencies UHF, VHF and UHF+VHF: The control group consisted of 42 non-exposed subjects, aged 49 ± 8 years. Statistical analysis comprised one-way analysis of variance, covariance analysis and logistic regression models. Results: In the exposed groups, the heart rate was higher than in the control one. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (STD R-R) was found to be significantly (p = 0.0285) lower in group I (42.5 ± 24.7 ms) compared to the control group (62.9 ± 53.5 ms). The risk of lowered STD R-R was significantly increased (OR = 2.37, p = 0.023) in group II. Both exposed groups presented significantly higher VLF and LF values than the control group (p = 0.005 and p = 0.0025, respectively). The EMF-exposed groups were characterised by the dominance of the sympathetic system (LF/HF 1.3 ± 0.35). Conclusions: The results indicate that exposure to radiofrequency EMF may affect the neurovegetative regulation.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.