Fat Liquefaction: Effect of Low-Level Laser Energy on Adipose Tissue

ArticleinPlastic & Reconstructive Surgery 110(3):912-22; discussion 923-5 · October 2002with 697 Reads
Cite this publication
Abstract
Low-level laser energy has been increasingly used in the treatment of a broad range of conditions and has improved wound healing, reduced edema, and relieved pain of various etiologies. This study examined whether 635-nm low-level lasers had an effect on adipose tissue in vivo and the procedural implementation of lipoplasty/liposuction techniques. The experiment investigated the effect of 635-nm, 10-mW diode laser radiation with exclusive energy dispersing optics. Total energy values of 1.2 J/cm(2), 2.4 J/cm(2), and 3.6 J/cm(2) were applied on human adipose tissue taken from lipectomy samples of 12 healthy women. The tissue samples were irradiated for 0, 2, 4, and 6 minutes with and without tumescent solution and were studied using the protocols of transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Nonirradiated tissue samples were taken for reference. More than 180 images were recorded and professionally evaluated. All microscopic results showed that without laser exposure the normal adipose tissue appeared as a grape-shaped node. After 4 minutes of laser exposure, 80 percent of the fat was released from the adipose cells; at 6 minutes of laser exposure, 99 percent of the fat was released from the adipocyte. The released fat was collected in the interstitial space. Transmission electron microscopic images of the adipose tissue taken at x60,000 showed a transitory pore and complete deflation of the adipocytes. The low-level laser energy affected the adipose cell by causing a transitory pore in the cell membrane to open, which permitted the fat content to go from inside to outside the cell. The cells in the interstitial space and the capillaries remained intact. Low-level laser-assisted lipoplasty has a significant impact on the procedural implementation of lipoplasty techniques.

Do you want to read the rest of this article?

Request full-text
Request Full-text Paper PDF
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been applied recently to body contouring. However the mechanism of LLLT-induced reduction of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness has not been elucidated and proposed hypotheses are highly controversial. Non-obese volunteers were subject to 650nm LLLT therapy. Each patient received 6 treatments 2-3 days apart to one side of the abdomen. The contralateral side was left untreated and served as control. Subjects' abdominal adipose tissue thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging at baseline and 2 weeks post-treatment. Our study is to the best of our knowledge, the largest split-abdomen study employing subcutaneous abdominal fat imaging. We could not show a statistically significant reduction of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue by LLLT therapy. Paradoxically when the measurements of the loss of fat thickness on treated side was corrected for change in thickness on non treated side, we have observed that in 8 out of 17 patients LLLT increased adipose tissue thickness. In two patients severe side effect occurred as a result of treatment: one patient developed ulceration within appendectomy scar, the other over the posterior superior iliac spine. The paradoxical net increase in subcutaneous fat thickness observed in some of our patients is a rationale against liquefactive and transitory pore models of LLLT-induced adipose tissue reduction. LLLT devices with laser diode panels applied directly on the skin are not as safe as devices with treatment panels separated from the patient's skin.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    It is human nature to strive for and look for the best method to obtain an ideal and a human's well-being. In this anxious seeking to find answers to many questions for what is the best for our patients, the author, in collaboration with a multidisciplinary group, has attempted to gain knowledge and research the equipment to elucidate the interaction between low-level laser energy and adipose tissue. All the answers have not been resolved but in the near future and with the collaboration of others, liposuction techniques will be developed that have less risk to the patient.
  • Article
    Lipid droplet accumulation has been related to salivary gland hypofunction in diabetes. In this study, the effect of laser irradiation on the parotid salivary glands (PG) of diabetic rats was analyzed with regard to its effect on lipid droplet accumulation, intracellular calcium concentration and calmodulin expression. The animals were distributed into 6 groups: D0, D5, D20 and C0, C5, C20, for diabetic (D) and control animals (C), respectively. Twenty-nine days following diabetes induction, PG of groups D5 and C5; D20 and C20 were irradiated with 5 and 20 J/cm² of a red diode laser at 100 mW, respectively. After 24h, PG were removed for histological, biochemical, and western blotting analysis. The diabetic animals showed lipid droplet accumulation, which was decreased after irradiation. Ultrastructurally, the droplets were non-membrane-bound and appeared irregularly located in the cytoplasm. Moreover, diabetic animals showed an increased intracellular calcium concentration. In contrast, after laser irradiation a progressive decrease in the concentration of this ion was observed, which would be in agreement with the results found in the increased expression of calmodulin in D20. These data are promising for using laser to decrease lipid droplet accumulation in PG, however, more studies are necessary to better understand its mechanisms.
  • Article
    F Adipose tissue is the main energy storage tissue in the body. Its catabolic and anabolic responses depend on several factors, such as nutritional status, metabolic profile and hormonal signaling. There are few studies addressing the effects of Laser photobiomodulation (PBM) on adipose tissue and results are controversial. Our purpose was to investigate the metabolic effects of PBM on adipose tissue from wistar rats supplemented or not with caffeine. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (CTL), Laser-treated (CTL (L)), caffeine (CAF), Caffeine + PBM (CAF (L)). Blood was extracted for quantification of triglyceride and cholesterol levels and white adipose tissues was collected for analysis. We evaluated gene expression in the adipose tissue for the leptin receptor, lipase sensitive hormone, Tumor necrosis factor alpha and beta adrenergic receptor. We demonstrated that the low level laser irradiation was able to increase the feed intake of the animals and the relative mass of the adipose tissue in the CTL(L) group compared to CTL. Laser treatment also increases serum triglycerides (CTL = 46.99 + 5.87; CTL (L) = 57.46 + 14.38; CAF = 43.98 + 5.17; CAF (L) = 56.9 + 6.12. p = 0.007) and total cholesterol (CTL = 70.62 + 6.80.CTL (L) = 79.41 + 13.07 .CAF = 71.01 + 5.52. CAF (L) = 79.23 + 6.881. p = 0.003 ). Laser PBM decreased gene expression of the studied genes in the adipose tissue, indicating that PBM is able to block the catabolic responses of this tissue. Interestingly, the CAF(L) and CAF animals presented the same CLT(L) phenotype, however, without increasing the feed intake and the relative weight of the adipose tissue. The description of these phenomena opens a new perspective for the study of the action of low level laser in adipose tissue.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    AIM: To evaluate body composition changes after use of three different types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with healthy diet; aiming at achieving stable weight loss among obese Egyptian females. METHODS: A randomized longitudinal prospective study included 76 obese adult females; aged 26 up to 55 years. Anthropometric, body composition, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done. RESULTS: The three types of obesity management protocols showed significant improvement in body composition (decrease in fat% and increases in FFM and TBW) and visceral fat by US. However, nutritional intervention showed highly significant improvement in the skin fold thickness at triceps and biceps sites and peripheral adiposity index. Acupuncture intervention showed highly significant improvement in fasting blood glucose (decreased) and lipid profile (decreased triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and increased HDL). Laser intervention showed highly significant improvement in all the skin fold thickness and some parameters of lipid profile (decreased total cholesterol and LDL). CONCLUSIONS: The three obesity management protocols have significant effect on body composition, but acupuncture has the best effect in improving the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. In addition, Laser intervention was recommended to improve skin fold thickness and subcutaneous fat.
  • Article
    Introduction: Low level laser therapy has been considered a non-invasive treatment alternative to body remodeling and fat tissue reduction. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of low level laser therapy in reducing body circumference measures and subcutaneous adipose tissue of the abdomen and hips areas. Methods: An open, prospective, monocentric study was performed including 25 women with localized fat on the hips and abdomen. Nine sessions of low level laser therapy were performed over 3 weeks. The participants were assessed at baseline and at 1, 4 and 12 weeks after treatment. Assessment of weight and body circumferences, lipid profile tests and MRI were performed. Results: The abdominal circumference measurements showed a significant reduction up to 12 weeks after the treatment. Participants showed a more marked reduction in the hips region one week after the last session. Also one week after the completion of the treatment, 80% of the participants considered that the treatment improved their body contour. There was absence of reports of adverse events related to the treatment. Conclusion: Low level laser therapy is safe and effective in reducing the circumference measurements, particularly in the abdominal region.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Background Obesity is a significant public health problem and innovative treatments are needed. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the preliminary efficacy and safety of a combined treatment of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and lorcaserin on weight loss, health quality of life (QOL) measures, and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods Forty-five overweight and obese adult participants with a body mass index (BMI) >26.9 and <40 were randomized to receive LLLT, lorcaserin, or a combination of the two therapies. All study participants received treatment for 3 months and were followed for 3 months post-treatment. Participants were recruited from June 2014 through September 2014. ResultsThe majority of the 44 participants accrued to this study were female (84 %) with an average age of 43.9 years (range 22 to 64 years). Most participants (93 % LLLT alone, 87 % LLLT + lorcaserin) completed at least 80 % of the LLLT treatments. From baseline to end of treatment, significant reductions in waist circumference were noted for each treatment group (-2.3 ± 4.1 cm, -6.0 ± 7.3 cm, and -4.0 ± 5.5 cm for LLLT, lorcaserin and combination respectively); however, the reduction in body weight was only significant in those receiving lorcaserin and combination treatment (-0.4 ± 1.5 kg, -1.3 ± 1.2 kg and -1.3 ± 1.3 kg). No significant differences were noted between the groups. Self-reported satisfaction was higher in the lorcaserin versus the LLLT group. Conclusion This small pilot demonstrates that when combined with behavioral intervention, Lorcaserin and LLLT may be effective components of a comprehensive approach to the treatment of overweight and obesity in the clinical setting. Further studies with larger sample size and longer duration of treatment and follow-up are needed to further address efficacy. Trial Registry InformationTrial registration: NCT02129608. Registered June 15, 2014.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    AIM: To evaluate body composition changes after use of three different types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with healthy diet; aiming at achieving stable weight loss among obese Egyptian females.METHODS: A randomized longitudinal prospective study included 76 obese adult females; aged 26 up to 55 years. Anthropometric, body composition, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done.RESULTS: The three types of obesity management protocols showed significant improvement in body composition (decrease in fat% and increases in FFM and TBW) and visceral fat by US. However, nutritional intervention showed highly significant improvement in the skin fold thickness at triceps and biceps sites and peripheral adiposity index. Acupuncture intervention showed highly significant improvement in fasting blood glucose (decreased) and lipid profile (decreased triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and increased HDL). Laser intervention showed highly significant improvement in all the skin fold thickness and some parameters of lipid profile (decreased total cholesterol and LDL). CONCLUSIONS: The three obesity management protocols have significant effect on body composition, but acupuncture has the best effect in improving the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. In addition, Laser intervention was recommended to improve skin fold thickness and subcutaneous fat.
  • Conference Paper
    The association of new technologies with traditional therapies for treatment of obesity can be an important strategy for success of interventions, improving the quality of life and health of the obese patients
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Background Noninvasive body contouring is one of the fastest growing segments of the cosmetic aesthetic industry. There is increased public demand for procedures with fewer side effects and shorter recovery times. Cryolipolysis and Laser lipolysis have been used as treatments for localized body contouring. Objective To compare the effect of Cryolipolysis versus Laser lipolysis on adolescent's abdominal adiposity. DesignRandomized, controlled trial. SubjectsForty-five obese adolescents of both sexes ranged in age from 13 to 16 years participated in this study were to be categorized into three groups of equal number (each group 15 subjects) randomly selected from population. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to three groups. Group A was received (Cryolipolysis and diet), Group B was received (Laser lipolysis and diet), Group C was received (only diet) all groups were observed for 8 weeks. Weight and height scale for (change in weight), tape measurement for (waist-hip ratio), skinfold caliper, and MRI. ResultsThere was no significant difference between three groups post-treatment in BMI and body weight P-value were (0.2, 0.42, 0.67), respectively. There was a significant improvement for Cryolipolysis group in waist-hip ratio, Suprailiac skin fold, and subcutaneous adipose tissue than other groups P-value (0.001). Conclusions Cryolipolysis has a favorable effect than Laser lipolysis in the reduction of waist-hip ratio, skin folds at Suprailiac level and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), there is no significant difference between them in the reduction of BMI and body weight. All groups did not have an effect on VAT. Lasers Surg. Med. 48:365-370, 2016. (c) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The metabolic flexibility is often impaired in diseases associated with obesity, and many studies are based on the hypothesis that dysfunction in peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue represent the etiology of development of metabolic inflexibility. Experimental evidence shows that the use of phototherapy combined with exercise was effective in controlling the lipid profile, reducing the mass of adipose tissue, suggesting increased metabolic activity and changes in lipid metabolism. However, we found few data in the literature involving the use of phototherapy in association to physical training in the obese population. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the effects of exercise training (aerobic plus resistance exercises) plus phototherapy (laser, 808 nm) on metabolic profile and adiponectinemia in obese women.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Background: Recent advancements in body-contouring techniques have prompted the investigation of ultrasound (US) technology as a potential noninvasive alternative for nonobese subjects for lifting, tightening, and reducing small areas of unwanted fat. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the biological and aesthetic effects of a low-frequency, low-intensity US device in reducing localized fat deposits for improving the body contours. Methods: A total of 20 female subjects included in this study were subjected to low-frequency US in the abdomen area. The effectiveness of this technique was determined by measuring changes in the anthropometric measurements and body composition, photographs, and a Client Satisfaction Questionnaire. The safety of the technique for application was determined by assessing the clinical features and biochemical tests results. Results: After five US sessions, a significant mean reduction of 1.5, 2.1, and 1.9 cm was noted in the waist, abdominal, and umbilical circumferences, respectively. No significant changes were noted in the levels of free fatty acids, insulin, liver enzymes, or lipid profile. However, a significant increase in the fasting glucose level was noted. However, four adverse side effects were reported: mild burning or discomfort, tingling or unilateral numbness in the lower limbs, pain around the bony areas, and soreness in the abdomen. Conclusion: The low-frequency, low-intensity US device provides reduction in the abdominal region with a moderate level of satisfaction. However, more studies are required to assess the effectiveness of US for body contouring and its effect on glucose metabolism.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture combined with a diet-exercise intervention on features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Twenty-eight obese post-menopausal women were randomly distributed to the control and laser acupuncture group. The control group received the diet-exercise intervention and the study group received the same intervention and sessions of laser acupuncture, 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurement, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and lipid profile were assessed before and after the treatment course. Both groups showed a significant decrease in the anthropometric and metabolic parameters. However, laser acupuncture group showed a greater decrease in the waist (P=0.001) and hip (P=0.001) circumferences, cholesterol (P= 0.04), and insulin levels (P=0.043) than the control group. These results suggest that laser acupuncture is a valuable approach that could be added to the diet-exercise intervention to correct features of the MetS.
  • Article
    L’utilizzo dermatologico dei diodi elettroluminescenti (light-emitting diode [LED]) e sempre oggetto di controversie. Cio e dovuto a un misconoscimento delle fasi fisicochimiche, a una grande varieta di apparecchi non confrontabili tra di loro e a uno sfasamento tra le prove irrefutabili pubblicate basate sullo studio in vitro o sul piano cellulare e i risultati clinici discordanti in indicazioni diverse e varie: ringiovanimento, acne, cicatrizzazione, ulcere della gamba e processo infiammatorio o autoimmune cutaneo. I LED terapeutici possono emettere delle lunghezze d’onda che si estendono dall’ultravioletto al visibile e fino all’infrarosso vicino (247-1 300 nm), ma solo alcune bande hanno, per ora, mostrato un reale interesse. Siamo convinti che, restando aderenti ai fatti per questo articolo, i lettori giungeranno a un giudizio diverso o, almeno, sfumato su questi apparecchi a diodi elettroluminescenti per il loro utilizzo in dermatologia.
  • Article
    Hintergrund Die Fettgewebsreduktion zur Körperformung ist ein sehr häufiger Wunsch von Patienten. Die Liposuktion hat sich dabei als die effektivste Methode herausgestellt. Durch Verfeinerung der Techniken hat sie heutzutage in der Hand des geübten Operateurs ein sehr niedriges Risikoprofil. Zusatzverfahren zur Absaugung versprechen eine additive Verbesserung vor allem bei der Gewebestraffung. Dennoch wurden in den letzten Jahren viele Alternativverfahren im nicht-invasiven Bereich auf den Markt gebracht. Ohne Ausfallzeit für den Patienten soll mit diesen eine optimierte Körperkonturierung erreicht werden. Fragestellung Welche operativen und nicht-operativen Methoden zur primären Verschlankung gibt es, welche Risiken sind damit verbunden und wie effektiv sind sie? Methode Der vorliegende Artikel stellt diese Methoden vor, ordnet sie und bespricht die Vor- und Nachteile sowie ihre Effektivität anhand der Literatur und persönlicher Erfahrungen. Schlussfolgerungen Die Liposuktion, besonders die vibrationsassistierte in Tumeszenzlokalanästhesie, ist die effektivste Methode der Fettreduktion. Sie sollte immer durch einen erfahrenen Arzt erfolgen. Nichtoperative Techniken kommen bisher noch nicht an die Effektivität der Absaugung heran. Vielversprechend sind jedoch die synergistischen Effekte bei der Kombination verschiedener Verfahren.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Introduction: Lipo-reductive ultrasound devices are commonly used for non-invasive body sculpting purposes because they can achieve clinically appreciable subcutaneous fat pad reduction and are safe and well tolerated by patients. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the morphological changes induced on the different cell components of human skin as a result of weakly focused high-frequency ultrasound. Methods: Full-thickness skin samples exposed or not to ultrasound ex vivo, and skin biopsies from patients pre-treated or not with ultrasound before lipo-reductive surgery, were analyzed to evaluate possible morphological changes of adipocytes. Adipocyte apoptosis and triglyceride release were also assayed. Clinical evaluation of the effects of repeated ultrasound treatment vs. sham-treatment was also performed. Results: Compared with the control samples, ultrasound treatment induced an appreciable reduction in adipocyte size, the appearance of plasma membrane micropores and triglyceride release, without appreciable changes in microvascular, stromal and epidermal components, and in the number of apoptotic adipocytes. Clinically, the ultrasound treatment resulted in a time-dependent significant reduction of abdominal fat. Conclusions: This study supports the safety and efficacy of trans-cutaneous weakly focused high-frequency ultrasounds for localized fat reduction, and provides experimental evidence for a possible mechanism of action.
  • Article
    The aim of this comprehensive review is assess the relevant indications of LLLT in plastic surgery. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a safe adjunct treatment for a myriad indications such as pain, musculoskeletal disorders, or oral mucositis in cancer patients. A systematic literature review was performed using the automated computerized PubMed search, with the key words low-level laser therapy and plastic surgery. In vivo and in vitro comparative studies conducted in humans or animals were included. A total of 113 articles were retrieved for screening, and 40 articles were analyzed for data extraction: 28 on animals and 12 on humans. Thirteen studies on animals showed that LLLT had efficacy in the improvement of flap survival. LLLT on a single spot over the pedicle area of the flap or near the base of the flap seemed to be superior to multi-irradiation. Also, LLLT seemed to improve chronic burn scars in humans, and acute wound healing in animals. On the contrary, LLLT cannot be considered as a valid therapeutic option for venous ulcers. The published studies on alopecia did not show that LLLT had efficacy for this indication, and on skin aging only two studies are reported showing that LLLT globally improved aging of skin. No side effects have been reported. More comparative studies are needed to validate and widen the medical indications of LLLT in plastic surgery.
  • Article
    The demand for body contouring is rapidly increasing, and interest in noninvasive approaches has also grown. The author reviewed the evidence base behind the currently available devices and methods for nonsurgical body contouring. There is little high-level evidence in the present literature to support the effectiveness of any of these devices. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Cellulite is a multifactorial condition that is present in 80-90 % of post-pubertal women. Despite its high prevalence, it remains a major cosmetic concern for women. A wide range of products and treatments for cellulite reduction is available; however, no systematic review has been performed so far to evaluate the efficacy of the available treatment options for cellulite. The objective of this review is to provide a systematic evaluation of the scientific evidence of the efficacy of treatments for cellulite reduction. This systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Only original articles in English or German reporting data on the efficacy of cellulite treatments from in vivo human studies were considered. In total, 67 articles were analyzed for the following information: therapy, presence of a control group, randomization, blinding, sample size, description of statistical methods, results, and level of evidence. Most of the evaluated studies, including laser- and light-based modalities, radiofrequency, and others had important methodological flaws; some did not use cellulite severity as an endpoint or did not provide sufficient statistical analyses. Of the 67 studies analyzed in this review, only 19 were placebo-controlled studies with randomization. Some evidence for potential benefit was only seen for acoustic wave therapy (AWT) and the 1440 nm Nd:YAG minimally invasive laser. This article provides a systematic evaluation of the scientific evidence of the efficacy of treatment for cellulite reduction. No clear evidence of good efficacy could be identified in any of the evaluated cellulite treatments.
  • Article
    The demand for aesthetic body sculpting procedures has expanded precipitously in recent years. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) deposits of the central abdomen are especially common areas of concern for both males and females. To review the available literature regarding the underlying pathophysiology of subcutaneous fat accumulation in the abdominal area and available treatment options. A MEDLINE and Google Scholar search was performed accordingly. The preferential accumulation of SAT in the central abdomen is attributable to the reduced lipolytic sensitivity of its adipocytes. A number of therapeutic options are available for the treatment of central abdominal adiposity. Cryolipolysis, high-intensity focused ultrasound, nonthermal ultrasound, radiofrequency, and injection adipolysis lead to adipocyte destruction through multiple different mechanisms. Nonablative modalities such as injection lipolysis mobilize fat stores from viable adipocytes, although its effects may be curtailed in obese patients. Liposuction through tumescent technique, however, mechanically extricates SAT. Although tumescent liposuction remains the gold standard for SAT removal, less invasive ablative and nonablative options for targeting localized deposits of adipose tissue now permeate the aesthetic marketplace. Limited results associated with these modalities mandate multiple sessions or combination treatment paradigms.
  • Article
    INTRODUCTION The Meridian LAPEX Lipo Laser System is a semi-conductor based low energy laser device that emits light at 632 nm, is non-thermal and non-invasive. This Lipo Laser System was originally developed to treat carpel tunnel syndrome, but was modified for use in body contouring and spot fat reduction. In this study we explored the efficacy of the Lipo Laser in body contouring and fat reduction on subjects' waistlines as evidence by girth measurements and photographs. OBJECTIVES The 2 primary objectives are: (a)To improve the body contour as evidenced by girth measurement reduction of the waistline. (b)To improve body contour as evidenced by photographs showing a better and more defined body contour. STATISTICAL METHODS The difference in average reduction between the LAPEX 2000 Lipo Laser treatment / active arm, and the control / placebo for subjects in the modified intent to treat group was compared using a two-sided two sample t-test with an alpha of 0.05. METHODS Forty healthy men and women ages 18-65 with a BMI <30 kg/m2 were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either an experimental or control treatment. Each subject was treated with the Lipo Laser on their waistlines 30 minutes twice a week for four weeks. Standardized waist circumference measurements and photographs were taken before and after treatment 1, 3 and 8. Subjects were asked not to change their diet or exercise habits. RESULTS Each treatment with the Lipo Laser gave a loss of 0.4 -0.5 cm in waist girth. On the third treatment, this difference, 0.405 cm (-0.059 + 0.708 vs. -0.19 + 0.47 cm (mean + SD)), was significant (p<0.05). The cumulative girth loss at treatment three was 1.74 cm (-1.895 + 2.967 vs. -0.16 + 2.458 cm) (p<0.05). Cumulative girth loss at 4 weeks of treatment was 2.15 cm (-0.781 + 2.817 vs. 1.353 + 2.644 cm) in those who maintained their weight within 1.5 kg of their baseline weight (p<0.05). The standardized pictures showed 1.21 (1.21 + 0.419 vs. 0 + 0) difference between the Lipo Laser and the placebo treatment in appearance on a 0-3 scale favoring the Lipo Laser comparing the baseline to the week 4 pictures (p<0.001).
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Background: In aesthetic medicine, the most promising techniques for noninvasive body sculpturing purposes are based on ultrasound-induced fat cavitation. Liporeductive ultrasound devices afford clinically relevant subcutaneous fat pad reduction without significant adverse reactions. This study aims at evaluating the histological and ultrastructural changes induced by ultrasound cavitation on the different cell components of human skin. Methods: Control and ultrasound-treated ex vivo abdominal full-thickness skin samples and skin biopsies from patients pretreated with or without ultrasound cavitation were studied histologically, morphometrically, and ultrastructurally to evaluate possible changes in adipocyte size and morphology. Adipocyte apoptosis and triglyceride release were also assayed. Clinical evaluation of the effects of 4 weekly ultrasound vs sham treatments was performed by plicometry. Results: Compared with the sham-treated control samples, ultrasound cavitation induced a statistically significant reduction in the size of the adipocytes (P < 0.001), the appearance of micropores and triglyceride leakage and release in the conditioned medium (P < 0.05 at 15 min), or adipose tissue interstitium, without appreciable changes in microvascular, stromal, and epidermal components and in the number of apoptotic adipocytes. Clinically, the ultrasound treatment caused a significant reduction of abdominal fat. Conclusions: This study further strengthens the current notion that noninvasive transcutaneous ultrasound cavitation is a promising and safe technology for localized reduction of fat and provides experimental evidence for its specific mechanism of action on the adipocytes.
  • Article
    Major surgical body contouring procedures have several inherent drawbacks, including hospitalization, anesthetic use, pain, swelling, and prolonged recovery. It is for these reasons that body contouring through noninvasive and minimally invasive methods has become one of the most alluring areas in aesthetic surgery. Patient expectations and demands have driven the field toward safer, less-invasive procedures with less discomfort, fewer complications, and a shorter recovery. In this article, the current minimally invasive and noninvasive modalities for body contouring are reviewed.
  • Article
    Cellulite beschreibt eine lokalisierte Veränderung der Hauttopographie, die häufig an den posterolateralen Oberschenkel, dem Gesäß und dem Bauch vorkommt. Wegen ihres welligen und dellenartigen Aussehens wird die Cellulite charakteristisch auch als Orangenhaut bezeichnet.
  • Chapter
    The field of cosmetic medicine has evolved rapidly in the recent years offering patients and their treating physicians a plethora of non-invasive options for body rejuvenation. Particularly for indications such as fat reduction, innovations in technology and scientific breakthroughs have led to non-invasive strategies validated for their safety and efficacy through several high-evidence-level peer-reviewed studies. Four main types of energy-based devices have dominated the field of fat reduction: radiofrequency, laser, ultrasound, and cryolipolysis. In addition, injectable biologics have been developed with the goal to target localized pockets of fat. In this chapter, our goal is to provide an unbiased overview of the scientific evidence regarding procedure selection, effectiveness, and safety for non-invasive fat reduction.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Cell-assisted lipotransfer (CAL) has been widely used in various clinical applications, including breast augmentation following mammectomy, soft‑tissue reconstruction and wound healing. However, the clinical application of CAL has been restricted due to the transplanted fat tissues being readily liquefied and absorbed. The present review examines 57 previously published studies involving CAL, including fat grafting or fat transfer with human adipose‑stem cells in all known databases. Of these 57 articles, seven reported the clinical application of CAL. In the 57 studies, the majority of the fat tissues were obtained from the abdomen via liposuction of the seven clinical studies, four were performed in patients requiring breast augmentation, one in a patient requiring facial augmentation, one in a patient requiring soft tissue augmentation/reconstruction and one in a patient requiring fat in their upper arms. Despite the potential risks, there has been an increased demand for CAL in in cosmetic or aesthetic applications. Thus, criteria and guidelines are necessary for the clinical application of CAL technology.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has found increasing clinical acceptance in cosmetic body contouring and spot fat reduction. This study examined whether LLLT using 630-680 nm, 150 mW shower arrays and single 40 mW diode laser radiation sources produced significant clinical effect for this purpose. A review of clinical results was made of 311 patient records collected over a 26 month period that underwent LLLT for cosmetic purposes to the abdominal/torso area. Clinical results showing measured abdominal reduction are presented. Overall, 130 patients in 6 session and 12 session groups achieved average sustained losses of 6.55 cm and 11.04 cm corresponding to an average girth reduction of 0.48 -0.55 cm per session. With weight loss of a minimum of 0.68 kg per week, results averaged 9.0 cm for the 6 session group and 16.1 cm for the 12 session group corresponding to an average girth reduction 0.67-0.75 cm per session. Initial session losses of 253 patients averaged 2.79 cm or 1.4 cm in girth reduction. 75.2% were able to sustain at least 4 cm or more loss in 6 or more sessions. Effects of variations in protocol to include number treatments, session time, total laser time per treatment, weight loss effects, use of topical fat reduction creams as well as potential topics for further study are discussed. Based on the review of patient results, it would appear that LLLT can be an effective therapy for body contouring and spot fat reduction.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Background. The lipid metabolism is essential for maintaining the body's energy responses. Laser photobiomodulation triggers many important cellular effects, but these effects on lipid metabolism are not well described. In this study, we analyzed the laser photobiomodulation in the Lipase Sensitive Hormone activity, a key enzyme in the triglycerides hydrolysis in adipose tissue. 3T3-L1 Methods. Cells were submitted to the differentiation protocol in adipose cells, irradiated with 1J, 2J and 3J with laser (904 nm - 60 mw - laser diode) and incubated for 4 hours after irradiation. Results. The response of laser photobiomodulation was able to trigger an inhibition of Hormone-Sensitive Lipase activity (control = 0,057 ± 0,0008; 1J = 0,050 ± 0,0003; 2J = 0,0477 ± 0,002; 3J = 0,051 ± 0,002. p = 0,0003 against the control), but no modulations was observed in triglycerides levels into the medium (control =26,5856 ± 0,52; 1J = 26,5856 ± 0,52; 2J = 27,2372 ± 1,41; 3J = 25,9991 ± 0,1303, p = 0,18). Conclusion. This is the first describe of Hormone-Sensitive Lipase activity modulation with laser radiation, suggesting that photobiomodulation can influence adipose tissue metabolism and open a new field of study.
  • Chapter
    The use of lasers and light devices for the removal of adipose tissue and cellulite represents a new and exciting frontier in the laser field. To date, there are few non-invasive devices in the laser field all of which can only claim limited efficacy. This chapter will review the laser, light sources, as well as devices with radiofrequency and ultrasound devices that currently purport to treat cellulite or adipose tissue.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Research into photobiomodulation reveals beneficial effects of light therapy for a rapidly expanding list of medical conditions and illnesses. Although it has become more widely accepted by the mainstream medicine, the effects and mechanisms of action appear to be poorly understood. The therapeutic benefits of photobiomodulation using low-energy red lasers extend far beyond superficial applications, with a well-described physics allowing an understanding of how red lasers of certain optimum intensities may cross the cranium. We now have a model for explaining potential therapeusis for applications in functional neurology that include stroke, traumatic brain injury, and neurodegenerative conditions in addition to the currently approved functions in lipolysis, in onychomycosis treatment, and in pain management.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Photobiomodulation (PBM), the therapeutic use of low intensity light, typically in the visible and infrared (IR) wavelengths, has been demonstrated to be efficacious in the treatment and prevention of numerous skin conditions. The PBM biological response begins with chromophores, photon accepting molecules which convert light into signals that can stimulate certain biological processes. Important chromophores initiating the PBM response are Cytochrome C Oxidase (CCO), with absorption peaks in the red and near IR wavelengths, opsins absorbing blue and green wavelengths and intracellular water acting at specific sites in the cell. PBM can activate cell signaling processes. The increase in electron transport, oxygen consumption, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP synthesis, particularly in hypoxic or stressed cells, can lead to the up-regulation of cell repair and survival pathways. In PBM, the light delivery parameters which maximize the therapeutic response are defined within specific ranges, with total fluence and irradiance being of particular importance. PBM emerges as a valuable complementary treatment modality in dermatology. In terms of tissue repair, wound healing is accelerated by PBM. Cutaneous wounds, erosive mucositis in oncology, leg ulcers, as well as burns and radiodermatitis all benefit from PBM treatment. Widely used to accelerate healing after aggressive aesthetic treatments, PBM reduces inflammation following treatments like skin resurfacing, vascular and benign pigmented lesions, or chemical peels. It has also been shown to be effective in treating dyspigmentation. In the case of hyperpigmentation, melanin synthesis is inhibited with IR light. Additionally, PBM has shown benefits in the treatment of acne and the prevention / treatment of hypertrophic scars. It has shown promise in skin rejuvenation, the treatment of alopecia, cellulite, as well as other skin diseases. The discovery of new applications for PBM, already an effective form of treatment and prevention for many skin conditions, is continually expanding. Medical Research Archives, Vol 6, No 1, p 1-30.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a combination of 3 wavelengths (including red, infra-red, and blue) of low-level laser (LLL) as a non-invasive therapeutic method to reduce abdominal girth. To achieve biochemical activity on adipocytes, a red laser was used in our selective laser combination. Near-infrared laser was used to increase depth of penetration. Nitrosyl complexes of hemoglobin (NO-Hb) are sensitive to blue light, thereby leading to increase in release of biologically active nitric oxide (NO), which can affect tissue perfusion. Thus, a blue LED was added to the laser combination. Methods: Eighteen females participated in the study. Twelve sessions of laser therapy were performed, 2 sessions per week for each subject. Continuous wave diode lasers, including red (630 nm), infra-red (808 nm), and a blue LED (450 nm) were applied and were all designed by the Canadian Optic and Laser Center. Results: Statistical analyses revealed that upper abdomen size significantly decreased from pre- (91.86 ± 11.16) to post- (87.41 ± 10.52) low-level laser therapy (LLLT) (P<0.001). Middle abdomen size showed significant reduction from pre- (97.02 ± 8.82) to post- (91.97 ± 8.49) LLLT (P<0.001). Lower abdomen size significantly decreased from pre- (100.36 ± 9.45) to post- (95.80 ± 8.52) LLLT (P<0.001). Conclusion: Based on this case series pilot investigation, the combination of 3 different wavelengths of LLL was effective for abdominal girth reduction in 100% of our subjects (P<0.001), without any side effects. Future studies will assess the long-term benefits of this laser combination for reduction of subcutaneous fat deposits.
  • Article
    Object: Complementary therapies can increase the success rate of losing weight with a calorie-restricted diet. Acupuncture is a popular complementary therapy for obesity treatment. To our knowledge, no studies have summarized the effects of Laser Acupuncture (LA) on obesity. Accordingly, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of LA on improving anthropometric features and lowering appetite in obese adults using systematically reviewing previous clinical trials. Methods: We searched PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, Embase and, Google Scholar electronic databases for papers published through Oct 2016. All clinical trials in English language containing either anthropometric indices or appetite parameters, were included. Two reviewers independently examined studies based on pre-defined form for data extraction and the Jadad scale for quality assessment in order to minimize the bias throughout the evaluation. Results: After screening the papers, 7 clinical trials met the criteria and were included for the systematic review. Positive effects of LA therapy were observed in body weight (n=3), body mass index (n=5), waist circumference (n=4), hip circumference (n= 3), waist to hip ratio (n=4) and %fat mass (n=3). Appetite parameters were reported in one study, which revealed that LA can lower appetite and increase the sensation of feeling fullness. Conclusion: Although some studies has indicated beneficial effects for LA on obesity, the lack of evidence with high methodological quality made it impossible to make a definitive conclusion about the efficacy of LA for obesity management. Further high quality, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trials with larger sample size are needed to shed light on the efficacy of LA for obesity management and weight maintenance.
  • Article
    The use in dermatology of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) continues to be surrounded by controversy. This is due mainly to poor knowledge of the physicochemical phases of a wide range of devices that are difficult to compare to one another, and also to divergences between irrefutable published evidence either at the level of in vitro studies or at the cellular level, and discordant clinical results in a variety of different indications: rejuvenation, acne, wound healing, leg ulcers, and cutaneous inflammatory or autoimmune processes. Therapeutic LEDs can emit wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet, through visible light, to the near infrared (247-1300 nm), but only certain bands have so far demonstrated any real value. We feel certain that if this article remains factual, then readers will have a different, or at least more nuanced, opinion concerning the use of such LED devices in dermatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Article
    Recently, a number of modalities have been used for noninvasive fat reduction. Radiofrequency (RF) technology is a promising tool for noninvasive body and face contouring. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of novel noninvasive RF technology for the reduction of submental fat with 6 months of follow-up. Twenty-one subjects with submental fat accumulation were treated twice at 1-month intervals with monopolar RF, which could also be used to monitor real-time temperature. The submental fat thickness and the circumference were evaluated with ultrasonography and a tape measure, respectively, at baseline followed by 1 and 6 months after the last treatment (0, 2, and 7 months). Pain and adverse effects were documented through a questionnaire. The submental circumference and thickness showed a statistically significant reduction after treatments. There was no subject who was not satisfied with the treatment and a physician’s assessment showed that 82.3 and 52.9 % of patients showed above mild improvement at 2 and 7 months. The mean pain score corresponded with discomfort or moderate pain. There were no significant adverse effects such as scars or hyper/hypopigmentation. A novel noninvasive RF technology is shown to be effective and safe for submental fat reduction. The effectiveness of fat reduction was maintained for 6 months after the last treatment.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Context Today, different kinds of non-invasive body contouring modalities, including cryolipolysis, radiofrequency (RF), low-level laser therapy (LLLT), and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are available for reducing the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue or cellulite. Each procedure has distinct mechanisms for stimulating apoptosis or necrosis adipose tissue. In addition to the mentioned techniques, some investigations are underway for analyzing the efficacy of other techniques such as whole body vibration (WBV) and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). In the present review the mechanisms, effects and side effects of the mentioned methods have been discussed. The effect of these devices on cellulite or subcutaneous fat reduction has been assessed. Evidence Acquisition We searched pubmed, google scholar and the cochrane databases for systemic reviews, review articles, meta-analysis and randomized clinical trials up to February 2015. The keywords were subcutaneous fat, cellulite, obesity, noninvasive body contouring, cryolipolysis, RF, LLLT, HIFU, ESWT and WBV with full names and abbreviations. Results We included seven reviews and 66 original articles in the present narrative review. Most of them were applied on normal weight or overweight participants (body mass index < 30 kg/m²) in both genders with broad range of ages (18 to 50 years on average). In the original articles, the numbers of included methods were: 10 HIFU, 13 RF, 22 cryolipolysis, 11 LLLT, 5 ESWT and 4 WBV therapies. Six of the articles evaluated combination therapies and seven compared the effects of different devices. Conclusions Some of the noninvasive body contouring devices in animal and human studies such as cryolipolysis, RF, LLLT and HIFU showed statistical significant effects on body contouring, removing unwanted fat and cellulite in some body areas. However, the clinical effects are mild to moderate, for example 2 - 4 cm circumference reduction as a sign of subcutaneous fat reduction during total treatment sessions. Overall, there is no definitive noninvasive treatment method for cellulite. Additionally, due to the methodological differences in the existing evidence, comparing the techniques is difficult.
  • Chapter
    Obesity is growing around the world in epidemic proportions. Diabetes follows obesity by approximately 10 years and the prevalence of diabetes is growing rapidly as well. Not only are diabetes and obesity associated with much suffering and disease, they are also expensive and threaten the economics of public health systems globally. Obesity medications give modest weight loss at best. Diet and lifestyle change are the basis of obesity treatment, and the growing obesity epidemic is testimony to their limitations. Obesity is a stigmatized condition. The fat in obesity is usually concentrated around the waist or at the hips and thighs. Women with lower body obesity become discouraged and may stop dieting, because fat is lost predominantly from their breasts which they often feel are too small, and not from their hips and thighs where they would prefer to lose it. Local fat reduction represents a way that people can direct the area from which fat is lost which gives them control over their own anthropometry. This ability can encourage subjects to remain in weight loss programs for longer periods of time, lose more weight and improve their health to a greater degree. There have been several approaches to local fat reduction. Invasive approaches include plastic surgery and liposuction. Mesotherapy, the injection of lipolytic stimulators or substances that destroy fat cells subcutaneously, is a less invasive method of removing fat locally. The least invasive approaches are low energy laser treatments that release fat from fat cells through the creation of pores in the cell membranes or topical creams containing lipolytic substances that cross the skin into the fat tissue. Although one might be tempted to dismiss all these methods as being cosmetic without any medical benefit, directing the areas from which fat is lost during a weight loss program is encouraging to many obese subjects, improves their self-image and gives them the motivation to continue losing weight for a longer period of time. Longer weight loss programs are associated with greater weight loss and greater health benefits. We hope this chapter allows a risk-benefit assessment of the different methods of local fat reduction. We also hope this chapter makes a case for the benefits of directing the area from which fat is lost during a weight loss program, potentially leading to longer and greater fat loss with a commensurate increase in medical benefits.
  • Article
    Non-surgical body contouring technologies have progressed rapidly following the introduction of Thermage in 2002. Since then, exciting developments in multiple modalities have followed, including radiofrequency, low-level laser therapy, cryolipolysis, and thermal and non-thermal ultrasound. Each of these treatment options are associated with distinct efficacy and side effect profiles. In this article, the authors provide a critical review of several body contouring technologies. Throughout the paper, the authors compare the mechanisms of action, efficacy and potential adverse effects of the five main modalities.
  • Article
    The landscape of aesthetic dermatology has changed dramatically over the past couple of years due to soaring patient demands for minimally invasive, safe, effective, and fast whole-body procedures and the continuously emerging new technologies. Moreover, the concept of whole-body rejuvenation as the new paradigm that ensures skin health and age prophylaxis by stimulating dermal remodeling, epidermal turnover, skin tightening, and modulating repletion or depletion of volume requires clinical application of a combination of energy-based devices (intense-pulsed light, fractional lasers, vascular lasers, ultrasound, radiofrequency, shockwave, and low-energy laser light devices) alongside fillers/toxins and an at-home skin care regimen. This present-day reality has mobilized physicians to carefully assess the best strategies for their patient’s goals while capitalizing on the advantages of each of the technologies entering the arena. As such, this report aims to provide an overview of the mainstream energy-based modalities currently used for whole-body rejuvenation.
  • Article
    BACKGROUND Non‐invasive body shaping is becoming a growing demand. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the combined treatments of 1064nm Nd:YAG and 2940nm Er:YAG in non‐invasive lipolysis and skin tightening. MATERIALS AND METHODS 10 females were enrolled, all women’s side of the waist or the lower part of the abdomen were treated. In the first step, the 1064 nm Nd:YAG was used. As a second step, the 2940 nm Er:YAG laser was applied. Each woman was treated four times, once every two weeks. The effects were determined by comparative photo documentation, waist circumference measurement, 2D B‐mode ultrasonography and low‐dose native CT, whereas body fat was monitored with bioelectric impedance. The tissue firmness was measured by ultrasound shear wave elastography. RESULTS Combined laser treatment significantly reduced waist circumference and total body fat. Ultrasonography has revealed that the treatment considerably decreased fat thickness and improved skin stiffness in the treated region. Subcutaneous fat volume, measured by low dose CT, displayed a moderate decrease in the waist region. CONCLUSION The combined 1064nm Nd:YAG and 2940nm Er:YAG laser treatment results in the reduction of fat tissue and tightens the skin as confirmed by objective measurements. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Introduction: Obesity is a major health problem worldwide due to its high morbidity and mortality. Objective: To evaluate the reduction of abdominal fat in volunteers who underwent low-frequency diode laser therapy. Methods: A total of 60 volunteers (18 to 50 years of age, with a BMI of between 18.5 kg/m2 and 30 kg/m2, and who had abdominal fat), underwent a treatment performed twice a week for 31 days and were then evaluated. The abdominal circumference was evaluated in three locations, with photographic and ultrasound images taken of the studied area. Results: There was a reduction in the abdominal circumference measurements in the evaluated sites, with dermal compression and a significant reduction of hypodermis verified through ultrasound. Conclusion: The low-frequency diode laser therapy showed significant results in the reduction of localized fat and abdominal circumference measurements.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Over the last few years, low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to be beneficial to the field of aesthetic medicine, specifically aesthetic dermatology. LLLT encompasses a broad spectrum of procedures, primarily cosmetic, which provide treatment options for a myriad of dermatological conditions. Dermatological disorders involving inflammation, acne, scars, aging and pigmentation have been investigated with the assistance of animal models and clinical trials. The most commercially successful use of LLLT is for managing alopecia (hair loss) in both men and women. LLLT also seems to play an influential role in procedures such as lipoplasty and liposuction, allowing for noninvasive and nonthermal methods of subcutaneous fat reduction. LLLT offers a means to address such conditions with improved efficacy versatility and no known side-effects; however comprehensive literature reports covering the utility of LLLT are scarce and thus the need for coverage arises.
  • Book
    See how energy therapies can normalize physiology and restore your patients' health! Energy Medicine: The Scientific Basis, 2nd Edition provides a deeper understanding of energy and energy flow in the human body. Using well-established scientific research, this book documents the presence of energy fields, discerns how those fields are generated, and determines how they are altered by disease, disorder, or injury. It then describes how therapeutic applications can restore natural energy flows within the body. Written by recognized energy medicine expert Dr. James Oschman - who is also a physiologist, cellular biologist, and biophysicist - this resource shows how the science of energetics may be used in healing diseases that conventional medicine has difficulty treating.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    RESUMEN Estudios recientes 1, 2 muestran un aparente efecto de pequeñas dosis de la irradiación con luz láser a 635 nm, realizada inmediatamente antes de intervenciones de lipoescultura que utilizan el método de tumescencia 3 . Estos efectos se manifiestan en la facilidad para la extracción del tejido graso y microscópicamente en la ruptura de la pared celular de los adipocitos, facilitando la salida de las grasas 1 ,4 . Para observar el efecto en adipocitos separados, se produjeron disoluciones poco densas de adipocitos separados por centrifugación, en solución de tumescencia. Las disoluciones fueron irradiadas in vitro con luz láser de 635 nm (Diodo Láser). Se estudiaron los espectros de transmisión de la luz visible para diferentes concentraciones de las disoluciones y para diferentes dosis de irradiación. INTRODUCCIÓN Observaciones clínicas [1, 2] realizadas desde finales de 1999, muestran que la aplicación externa de radiación láser previa a intervenciones de liposucción por la técnica de tumescencia [3] presentaba efectos muy interesantes, presumiblemente debido a una interacción entre la luz y las células, que facilitaba la salida de la grasa. La observación microscópica muestra destrucción del tejido adiposo y gotas de grasa en la región intercelular. Al mismo tiempo, las demás estructuras, como vasos capilares, tejido conectivo y células sanguíneas, se conservan. Con el fin de corroborar un posible efecto de la radiación sobre el tejido adiposo en la distribución de la grasa, se realizaron además estudios por métodos de imágenes (MRI) [1] .
  • Article
    Confocal microscopy was used for irradiation and observation of the same area of interest, allowing the imaging of low power laser effects in subcellular components and functions, at the single cell level. Coverslips cultures of human fetal foreskin fibroblasts (HFFF2) were placed in a small incubation chamber for in vivo microscopic observation. Cells were stimulated by the 647 nm line of the Argon- Krypton laser of the confocal microscope (0.1 mW/cm2). Membrane permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential ((delta) Psim), intracellular pHi, calcium alterations and nuclear chromatin accessibility were monitored, at different times after irradiation, using specific fluorescent vital probes. Images were stored to the computer and quantitative evaluation was performed using image- processing software. After irradiation, influx and efflux of the appropriate dyes monitored changes in cell membrane permeability. Laser irradiation caused alkalizatoin of the cytosolic pHi and increase of the mitochondrial membrane potential ((delta) Psim). Temporary global Ca2+ responses were also observed. No such effects were noted in microscopic fields other than the irradiated ones. No toxic effects were observed, during time course of the experiment.
  • Article
    "Lipexeresis" is a successful method for removing excessive local fatty tissue from the female body for pathologic or for aesthetic reasons. In contrast to other surgical operations, it is highly important that no disturbing scars remain. Except for two patients who underwent operation on the lower leg, with more serious complications, the results have been very encouraging.
  • Article
    The low power laser radiation is widely applied for treatment of various diseases. In our research we investigated the influence of low power laser radiation on the mast cells degranulation process. The object of the research were the mesentery mast cells of the rat thin intestine. A loop of thin intestine was irradiated by the therapeutic diode laser device Uley - 2K (lambda - 890 nm, pulse). The process of mast cells degranulation served as a criterion for their functional activity estimation. The estimation was fulfilled with the help of light microscope (toluidine blue staining, pH02,0; degranulating mast cells counting on 100 cells; immersion technique; X 980). To study the dependence of degranulation process of mast cells irradiated with lasre from intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentration we applied 0,000015 M solution of verapamil, which was applied to the mesentery for 2 minutes. Laser radiation (890 nm) stimulates mesentery mast cells degranulation. This effect is dose-dependent. Maximal degranulation was registered after laser irradiation wiht power 25 mW, exposure time 15-30 s (energy density 7.5 x 103 J/m2 to 6 x 104 j/m2). Further increasing of exposure time caused the effect decreasing. The results of our experiments with verpamil let us suppose light interaction with the voltage-dependent subunit of calcium channel, changing intracellular Ca2+ and leading to stimulatory effects.
  • Article
    Far-field exposures of male albino rats to 2.45-GHz microwaves (10-microseconds pulses, 100 pps) at a low average power density (10 mW/cm2; SAR approximately 2 W/kg) and short durations (30-120 min) resulted in increased uptakes of tracer through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The uptake of systemically administered rhodamine-ferritin complex by capillary endothelial cells (CECs) of the cerebral cortex was dependent on power density and on duration of exposure. At 5 mW/cm2, for example, a 15-min exposure had no effect. Near-complete blockade of uptake resulted when rats were treated before exposure to microwaves with a single dose of colchicine, which inhibits microtubular function. A pinocytotic-like mechanism is presumed responsible for the microwave-induced increase in BBB permeability.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    We report on experimental proves of light-induced changes in the transmission spectrum of human venous blood under the action of low- intensity radiation from He-Ne laser. The transmission spectra of diluted and nondiluted heparinized human blood have been analyzed before, after and in the course of irradiation. The reproducible variations of the blood transmission spectrum in the range 730-780 nm have been observed. These changes have been shown to correlate with oxygen saturation. The decreased oxygen saturation in venous blood is stabilized at the level of about 70-80% from the initial one after 5-8 procedures of laser irradiation.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Recently, a new liposuction technique, using a low-level laser (LLL) device and Ultrawet solution prior to the procedure, demonstrated the movement of fat from the inside to the outside of the adipocyte (Neira et al., 2002). To determine the mechanisms involved, we have performed Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy studies; Light transmittance measurements on adipocyte dilutions; and a study of laser light propagation in adipose tissue. This studies show: 1. Cellular membrane alterations. 2. LLL is capable to reach the deep adipose tissue layer, and 3. The tumescence solution enhances the light propagation by clearing the tissue. MRI studies demonstrated the appearance of fat on laser treated abdominal tissue. Besides, adipocytes were cultivated and irradiated to observe the effects on isolated cells. These last studies show: 1. 635 nm-laser alone is capable of mobilizing cholesterol from the cell membrane; this action is enhanced by the presence of adrenaline and lidocaine. 2. Intracellular fat is released from adipocytes by co joint action of adrenaline, aminophyline and 635 nm-laser. Results are consistent with a laser induced cellular process, which causes fat release from the adipocytes into the intercellular space, besides the modification of the cellular membranes.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    An experimental setup was carried out to acquire images of the diffraction and the scattering patterns of coherent light due the interaction with different kind of scatters, in particular by random distributed. The setup was done to study the effects of scattering and diffraction on the propagation of coherent radiation in biological tissues, which is of particular interest for therapeutic applications. Skin and adipose tissue are complex media that scatter light as well as produce diffraction and absorption. Various models of scatters, and also biological samples, were produced. They were illuminated by a previously spatially filtered laser beam (HeNe). The scattering and diffraction patterns were photographed using a CCD camera and evaluated numerically. Adipose tissue presents diffraction; each adipocyte produces it, behaving like a spheroid. In particular, each layer of tissue diffracts and redistributes light, contributing to its diffusion in the tissue. The adipocytes are grouped into structures with short-range order, and in thin layers of adipose tissue they behave as randomly distributed objects.
  • Article
    In vitro effects of 635-nm diode laser irradiation on the lipidic inclusions and the cellular fat distribution were observed in situ on a selected multilocular adipose cell in culture by an effective laser power of 3.16 mW. Selected microscopic field was 12 times sequentially irradiated, using 100 seconds exposures, a free spot of 5 mm and effective energy density of 1.6 Jcm2 per exposure. Same field was irradiated 24 times using a beam spot of 10 mm, 0.4 Jcm2. Digital microphotograph sequences permit to observe and follow changes in fat distribution. Results show changes in fat vesicles. Microscopic follow-up shows an almost empty vacuole 15 hours after irradiation, the cell was empty after 42 hours, and dies after 52 hours.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Se estudió la propagación de un haz coherente de radiación, que incide sobre muestras de tejido cutáneo humano, para observar la penetración de la radiación en el tejido adiposo y aclarar sus posibles efectos en procedimientos quirúrgicos1. Se estudió la luz dispersada lateralmente por la muestra al ser iluminada por un haz láser que incide normalmente sobre la epidermis. Como son conocidos los efectos dispersor y reflector de la epidermis y en particular el efecto de barrera del estrato córneo, la piel fue tratada con glicerol como agente reductor 2. Utilizando una cámara CCD se tomaron fotografías de la muestra iluminada y mediante un proceso de separación de color y procesamiento de imagen se determinó la distribución espacial de la radiación dispersada por la muestra, para diferentes intensidades de la radiación incidente, comparando el efecto del agente reductor.
  • Article
    Multicolour near-infrared femtosecond experiments of a genetically modified bacterial reaction centre show that the phase of two excited-state vibrational modes is conserved for a period of picoseconds over a large range of temperatures. The direct visualization of low-frequency nuclear vibrations in this protein, which is embedded in its natural membrane, implicates coherent nuclear motion in the primary electron transfer reaction in functional reaction centres.
  • Article
    The effect of irradiation with a gallium-aluminum-arsenide semiconductor laser on responses evoked in trigeminal subnucleus caudal neurons by tooth pulp stimulation was investigated electrophysiologically in Wistar rats anesthetized with urethane plus α-chloralose. The pulp of lower incisor was electrically stimulated and the evoked action potentials were extracellularly recorded in the ipsilateral caudal neurons. The laser beam was applied on the cervical surface of the stimulated incisor. The rate of firing discharges and the numbers of spikes evoked in the caudal neurons were compared before and after laser irradiation. Laser irradiation suppressed the late discharges in the response of the caudal neurons which were evoked by excitatory inputs from C-fiber afferents, but did not suppress the early discharges evoked by inputs from Aδ-fiber afferents. This indicates that low power laser irradiation (semiconductor laser: 830 nm, 350 mW, CW, through the tooth structures, for 120 s) inhibited the excitation of unmyelinated fibers of the pulp without affecting fine myelinated fibers. These results suggest that low power laser irradiation has a suppressive effect on injured tissue by blocking the depolarization of C-fiber afferents. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • Article
    Broadband measurements of the millimeter-wave and far-ir absorption (10–104 GHz) of lyophilized hemoglobin are reported. Additionally, the absorption of poly(L-alanine) and crystalline L-alanine at 70 GHz was measured for comparison. All measurements were extended over the temperature range from liquid helium to room temperature. For the millimeter range, this was attained by using the novel oversized-cavity technique. It was found that the millimeter-wave absorption of the materials increased nearly exponentially with temperature and increased as ν1.2–ν2 with frequency. The far-ir absorption of hemoglobin showed broadbands with almost no temperature dependence. The frequency and temperature dependence of the millimeter-wave absorption is quantitatively described as due to three distinct relaxation processes on a picosecond time scale occurring in asymmetric double-well potentials. These processes are most probably assigned to the NH ⃛OC hydrogen bonds of the peptide backbone.
  • Article
    Low power laser irradiation has been reported to cause biological effects due to the photochemical and/or photophysical action of the radiation. This study determined quantitatively if transcutaneous low power laser irradiation can affect the regeneration of the rat facial nerve. The facial nerve was crushed unilaterally in anesthetized rats and transcutaneously irradiated daily with a laser beam directed at the area of the crush injury. Laser treatment began on the day of the crush injury and was continued daily for 7, 8, or 9 days. Preliminary experiments determined the most effective wavelength, laser power, length of irradiation, and treatment schedule. The wavelengths examined were 361, 457, 514, 633, 720, and 1064. The laser powers and lengths of irradiation examined ranged from 8.5 to 40mW and 13 to 120min. Irradiation treatment was done daily, on alternating days and on the first 4 days postcrush. The most effective laser parameters for the low power treatment included daily irradiation with a helium-neon (HeNe) or argon pumped tunable dye laser a wavelength of 633nm, with a power of 8.5mW for 90 minutes (45.9J, 162.4J/cm2). The number of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled neurons in the facial motor nucleus was used as an assay of the degree of regeneration. In rats in which the facial nerve was crushed but not irradiated, the average number of HRP labeled neurons in the facial nucleus was 22 on day 7 postcrush, 54 on day 8, 116 on day 9, and 1,149 on day 10. After HeNe or argon pumped tunable dye laser irradiation, the average number of HRP labeled neurons increased to 34 on day 7 postcrush, 148 on day 8, and 1,725 on day 9. There was a statistically significant difference between the control and irradiated rats on day 9 postcrush (P<0.01). These data indicate that transcutaneous low power irradiation with the lasers and parameters involved in this study increased the rate of regeneration of rat facial nerve following crush injury.
  • Article
    Twenty rats underwent a crush injury to their sciatic nerve, followed immediately by a single low-power coherent or non-coherent irradiation administered transcutaneously on the projection of an injured peripheral nerve. Five wavelengths were tested: 632.8, 660, 830, 880 and 950 nm. The electrical activities of the crushed nerve, immediately after irradiation and on the following first, third and seventh day post-crush, were compared to the precrush activity. The results indicate that energy at the wavelength of 632.8 nm (CW He-Ne laser), delivered transcutaneously (10 J cm–2 at each point) along the projections of the nerve, prevents the drop in the functional nerve activity as measured by the combined action potential (AP) after crush injury. Other wavelengths were either less effective (660 nm) or totally ineffective under the same conditions. The beneficial effects were temporary and lasted only one day after injury and the single irradiation session.
  • A new laser method for the spectroscopy of locally absorbing microvolumes much smaller than the radiation wavelength in size is discussed. Such an absorption is characteristic of biotissues and other biological media. The method allows data to be obtained on the size of local microvolumes absorbing at the radiation wavelength. It is based on the possibility of transient overheating of the microvolumes by means of an ultrashort pulse with a duration much shorter than the time it takes to heat to diffuse from the microvolumes. The pulse-heated microvolumes must have an altered refractive index leading to an additional scatter of another probe laser pulse, that is made to irradiate the medium under study after some delay. Besides, the locally heated microvolumes will have temperature-altered fluorescence induced either by the heating laser pulse or by an additional probe pulse at another wavelength more suitable for fluorescence excitation.
  • Article
    A two-stage postal survey was carried out among Chartered physiotherapists in Northern Ireland to assess current clinical practice in low level laser therapy (LLLT), and thus indicate appropriate areas for future research. Results from the analysis of 116 returned completed questionnaires (response rate=63.1%) are presented. These show that LLLT has become a relatively popular treatment modality within the province. Based upon the subjective ratings of respondents, LLLT seems indicated for a range of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, shingles, and various types of ulcer — but especially for burns, for which LLLT was rated ‘very effective’. However, 94% of respondents complained about the lack of information/instruction available to them on LLLT, especially concerning the selection of optimal treatment parameters. This may represent one reason for the variable results reported by physiotherapists in the treatment of a number of conditions which are recommended for LLLT by manufacturers (eg osteoarthritis and muscle spasms).Given the popularity of LLLT, its apparent efficacy, and the dissatisfaction expressed by physiotherapists, future research should aim to establish laser's mechanisms of action, the optimal treatment parameters for therapeutic effects, and (based upon this) its efficacy in the treatment of selected conditions by means of properly organised and controlled clinical trials.
  • Article
    SOME time ago it was proposed that the energy produced in biological activities is partly stored in various materials through excitation of coherent electrical vibrations (polarization waves). If strong enough, such excitations can be stabilized through non-linear effects leading to various types of deformations1,2. R. Ferreira (personal communication) has suggested that such considerations might be of importance for an understanding of the action of enzymes. In fact the properties of a model which I have considered recently (unpublished) seems to support this idea.
  • Article
    Suction-assisted lipoplasty has limitations, particularly in dealing with fibrous areas such as the back, sides, and male chest, or when secondary lipoplasty is performed. The use of low-level laser-assisted lipoplasty was evaluated in a series of 700 cases. After adequate infiltration was obtained in all targeted body areas, a 635-nm electric diode laser was applied to the targeted areas for 6 to 12 minutes, depending on the specific area, to liquefy the fat, which was extracted immediately after laser treatment. Excellent aesthetic results, including an improved silhouette contour, smooth abdominal surface, and good skin retraction, were obtained in 95% of cases. Postoperative recovery was rapid, and complications were minimal. Low-level laser-assisted lipoplasty can be a valuable adjunctive tool for the performance of lipoplasty. (Aesthetic Surg J 2002;22:451-455.).
  • Article
    We present a new technique for umbilical reconstruction in abdominoplasty. (C)1979American Society of Plastic Surgeons
  • Article
    From very general theoretical considerations it is concluded that many biomolecules (i) should have metastable excited states with very high dipole moment, and (ii) should be capable of strongly excited giant dipole vibrations with frequencies near 10(11) Hz. Experimental evidence available so far seems to support these postulates. It is suggested that the two postulates should be of importance for the action of enzymes, and relevant experiments are proposed.
  • Article
    The absorption spectrum of human fibroblast monolayers showed several absorption peaks, among them one at a wave-length of 630 nm. Cultures of these fibroblasts were subjected to He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) irradiation of various energy doses by varying power density and exposure time. On three consecutive days the cell monolayers were irradiated for periods between 0.5 and 10 min. Laser power varied from 0.55 to 5.98 mW. Both cell number and collagen type I production were determined for each irradiation condition within one experiment. Results show that laser power below 2.91 mW could enhance cell proliferation (as determined by cell counting), whereas higher laser power (5.98 mW) had no effect. Stimulatory effects were most pronounced at irradiation times between 0.5 and 2 min. Collagen type I production (as determined by an ELISA) was affected in the opposite direction to cell proliferation: when the cell proliferation was increased, collagen type I production was decreased. From these experiments it is clear that exposure time and power density determine the effects of laser irradiation. Both stimulation and inhibition of the observed cell properties can be obtained with the same laser on the same cells.
  • Article
    The author describes a revolutionary body contouring technique based on the surgical use of ultrasonic energy. It allows the selective destruction of only excess adipose tissue. The technique is based on three fundamental steps: (1) preparation of the areas to be treated with a large infiltration of a special solution, (2) treatment of the areas with ultrasonic energy through special titanium probes, (3) manual remodeling of the treated areas to eliminate the fluid from the bursted adipocytes (fatty acids). The advantages of this new technique are selective destruction of just the undesired tissues, elimination of the fluid from the adipose tissues, and the possibility of a real "lifting" of the skin of the treated areas, and a reduction of physical strain on the surgeon. The author has already treated more than 280 patients with excellent results and without contraindications or undesired side effects. The fundamental steps of ultrasonic liposculpturing, including a description of the physical principles on which the technique is based, are presented.
  • Article
    A monolayer of HeLa cells, at the stationary phase of growth, exposed to He-Ne laser radiation (632.8 nm; 100 J/m2) either 5 min or 60 min prior to gamma irradiation (0.1-10 Gy; 6.75 Gy/min), or 5 min after irradiation has been investigated. With a 5-min interval between irradiation sessions (both sequences) the survival curves are virtually the same as those for gamma-irradiated cells only. With He-Ne laser radiation delivered 60 min before gamma irradiation with doses exceeding 5 Gy, a fraction of radioresistant cells is identified whose D0 is almost twice as high as D0 of basic cell mass (3.6 and 1.7 Gy respectively. The survival curve becomes a two-component one. A hypothesis is proposed that He-Ne laser radiation activates, in some cells, the processes that promote the repair of radiation damages.
  • Article
    Picosecond phase-grating spectroscopy is highly sensitive to density changes and provides a new holographic approach to the study of protein dynamics. Photodissociation of carbon monoxide from heme proteins induces a well-defined transition from a ligated to a deoxy structure that is important to hemoglobin and myoglobin functionality. Grating spectroscopy was used to observe protein-driven density waves on a picosecond time scale after carbon monoxide dissociation. This result demonstrates that global tertiary structure changes of proteins occur on an extremely fast time scale and provides new insight into the biomechanics of deterministic protein motion.
  • Article
    Based on the analgesic effect of laser therapy in clinic, the effect of laser irradiation at acupoints on the experimental arthritis in rats was further observed. The experiments were carried out on Wistar rats, which were divided into three groups: The normal group (n = 6): without any treatment. The laser group (n = 8): 24 hours after an injection of Freund's adjuvant, the typical symptoms of acute arthritis (red, swelling, pain and hyperalgesia) occurred. Then transcutaneous irradiation with a low power Helium-neon laser (3 mw, 6328 A) at ipsilateral Kun-Lun point was applied ten minutes every day for five days. The control group (n = 8): with the same treatment as the laser group except laser irradiation. All the indexes, such as foot volume, pain score and pain threshold (Heat-leg-withdrawal latency, HWL and electric-shock vocalization, VOC) were measured every day. Comparing with the symptoms in the control group, the intensity of pain as measured on pain score and the swelling of the ankles (foot volume) were significantly reduced by laser irradiation (P less than 0.01), but the pain threshold (HWL and VOC) did not show any improvement in laser group. However, immediately after laser irradiation, the average pain threshold (VOC) was significantly raised (P less than 0.01). It is concluded that low power laser irradiation at local points can produce the relief from arthralgia and reduction in the swelling of ankles, and it can also produce instant analgesic effect in test of pain threshold (VOC).
  • Article
    Using the tumescent technique, liposuction can remove large volumes of fat with minimal blood loss. A maximal safe dosage of dilute lidocaine using the tumescent technique is estimated to be 35 mg/kg. The slow infiltration of a local anesthetic solution of lidocaine and epinephrine minimizes the rate of systemic absorption and reduces the potential for toxicity. Dilution of lidocaine (0.05% of 0.1%) and epinephrine (1:1,000,000) further delays absorption and reduces the magnitude of peak plasma lidocaine concentrations. Using the tumescent technique for liposuction, peak plasma lidocaine levels occur 12 hours after the initial injection. Clinically significant local anesthesia persists for up to 18 hours. For liposuction, it is not necessary to use local anesthetics, which are longer acting and potentially more cardiotoxic than lidocaine.
  • Article
    Low-energy laser irradiation produces significant bioeffects. These effects are manifested in biochemical, physiological and proliferative phenomena in various enzymes, cells, tissues, organs and organisms. Examples are given of the effect of He-Ne laser irradiation in preventing the post-traumatic degeneration of peripheral nerves and the postponement of degeneration of the central nervous system. The damage produced by similar radiant exposures to the corneal epithelium and endothelium is also described. It is suggested that the mechanism of laser/tissue interaction at these low levels of radiant exposure is photochemical in nature, explaining most of the characteristics of these effects. These low-energy laser bioeffects are of importance on a basic scientific level, from a laser safety aspect and as a medical therapeutic modality.
  • Article
    Lipoplasty procedures have been performed safely since 1977. Evaluation of patients to rule out bleeding disorders, low serum albumin level, anemia, and systemic diseases is mandatory. A well-planned procedure involves estimation of the amount of removal and the percentage of body surface area involved in the "internal burn." This allows a clinical prediction of the amounts and type of fluid resuscitation required. The maintenance of a near normal circulating albumin level is of at least as great importance as maintaining adequate circulating red cell mass. The goal should be normal intravascular volume with a postoperative hematocrit well above 30 per cent and an albumin level above 3 g. Careful preoperative assessment and planning, the use of Hespan, and, especially, autologous blood transfusions allow the safe removal of localized fatty tissue on an outpatient basis.
  • Article
    To gain some insight into the mechanism of cell photostimulation by laser light, measurements were made of the rate of ADP/ATP exchange in mitochondria irradiated with the low power continuous wave Helium Neon laser (energy dose 5 Joules/cm2). To do this a method has been developed to continuously monitor ATP efflux from phosphorylating mitochondria caused by externally added ADP, by photometrically following the NADP+ reduction which occurs in the presence of glucose, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and effluxed ATP. The NADP+ reduction rate shows hyperbolic dependence on ADP concentration (Km and Vmax values 8.5 +/- 0.87 microM and 20.7 +/- 0.49 nmoles NADP+ reduced/min x mg mitochondrial protein, respectively), and proves to measure the activity of the ADP/ATP translocator as shown by inhibition experiments using atracyloside, powerful inhibitor of this carrier. Irradiation was found to enhance the rate of ADP/ATP antiport, with externally added ADP ranging between 5 and 100 microM. As a result of experiments carried out with mitochondria loaded with either ATP or ADP, the increase in the activity of the ADP/ATP translocator is here proposed to depend on the increase in the electrochemical proton gradient which occurs owing to irradiation of mitochondria.
  • Article
    Biological information processing, storage, and transduction are theorized to occur by “computer-like” transfer and resonance among subunits of polymerized cytoskeletal proteins: microtubules. Biological information functions (ciliary and flagellar control, axoplasmic transport, conscious awareness) could be explained by comparing microtubule structure and activities to Boolean switching matrices, parallel computers, and such technologies as transistor circuits, magnetic bubble memory, charge transfer devices, surface acoustic wave resonators, and/or holography.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Eight agents that increase the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP were tested for their effect on edema formation. The specificity of the agents for vascular smooth muscle or the endothelium was determined by measuring vasodilation with a laser Doppler flow probe and cAMP production by endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells in culture. The agents were injected intradermally in anesthetized rabbit skin and the local accumulation of 125I-labeled albumin in response to intradermal bradykinin was measured. Iloprost, prostaglandin E1, prostaglandin E2, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) potentiated bradykinin-induced edema. These same agents also increased blood flow and vascular smooth muscle cAMP concentrations, but did not increase endothelial cell cAMP production. Albuterol suppressed edema formation, did not cause vasodilation, but did increase endothelial cell cAMP concentrations. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram did not cause vasodilation, but suppressed edema and potentiated the cAMP response to albuterol in cultured endothelial cells. L-Isoproterenol affected both cell types. At a lower concentration L-isoproterenol was a potent stimulus to endothelial cell cAMP production and inhibited edema formation; a higher dose had additional effects on vascular smooth muscle and significantly increased blood flow. These findings support the hypothesis that increasing intracellular cAMP concentrations in vascular smooth muscle promotes edema via increased blood flow. In contrast, increasing cAMP concentrations in endothelium may suppress edema by enhancing the permeability barrier.
  • Article
    This paper introduces the ideas of neural networks in the context of currently recognized cellular structures within neurons. Neural network models and paradigms require adaptation of synapses for learning to occur in the network. Some models of learning paradigms require information to move from axon to dendrite. This motivated us to examine the possibility of intracellular signaling to mediate such signals. The cytoskeleton forms a substrate for intracellular signaling via material transport and other putative mechanisms. Furthermore, many experimental results suggest a link between the cytoskeleton and cognitive processing. In this paper we review research on intracellular signaling in the context of neural network learning.
  • Article
    Changes in the number of individual cells and cellular complexes after a standard dispergation procedure were used as a criterion for evaluating the strength of the cellular contacts at various time-points after the irradiation of HeLa monolayers with a He-Ne laser (100 J/m2, 10 W/m2, 10 s). The per cent of cellular complexes increased after the irradiation, being maximal (19.5 +/- 0.6) at 30 minutes of post-irradiation, and then decreased to the control level (12.1 +/- 0.5). Per cent of cellular complexes increased again at longer intervals (90-180 min) after the irradiation.
  • Article
    Amount of ATP in HeLa cells in various phases of growth was measured after He-Ne laser irradiation (100 J/m2, 10 W/m2, 10 s) by a bioluminescent luciferin-luciferase method. In cells of the exponential phase of growth, the amount of ATP (basal level 8 x 10(-16) mole/cell) starts to increase in 15 min after the irradiation with a maximum (170% above the basal level) at 20 min, and then decreases gradually to the basal level. The sensitivity of the cells to He-Ne laser radiation is lowest in lag-phase of growth, then increases to a plateau (approximately 185% above the control level) from 5th day of cultivation.
  • Article
    BACKGROUND and The adhesion of HeLa cells was evaluated after irradiation with monochromatic low-intensity light or laser irradiation. It is well known that the cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion changes during wound repair. For better understanding of low-power laser light action on the wound healing process, it would be of interest to study the light action on cellular adhesion in vitro. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS and The monochomatic light was in the range 580-860 nm (bandwidth 10 nm, 5-150 J/m2 1.3 W/m2) and the He-Ne laser irradiation was 632.8 nm (100 J/m2, 10 W/m2). Cell-cell and cell-glass adhesion were evaluated after irradiation of HeLa cells. It was found that cell-cell and cell-glass adhesion increased following irradiation depending on the irradiation conditions (wavelength, dose) and the time elapsed after the irradiation. The cell attachment to glass surface increased after irradiation of samples of HeLa cells in suspension. The adhesion was stimulated in the wavelength ranges 600-625, 645-700, and 720-850 nm with maxima at 620, 680, 750, and 820-830 nm, respectively.
  • Article
    Endothelins are well-known vasoconstrictor peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells that have been reported to have a fundamental role in regulation of the systemic blood circulation. Plasma levels of endothelins are increased by burn injury, which also causes thrombosis and occlusion of vessels in the dermis as well as a vascular response in the adjacent uninjured dermis. Diminished blood flow leads to progressive ischemia and necrosis of the dermis beneath and around the burn (zone of stasis). If blood flow could be restored in this zone, secondary tissue damage would be minimized. In this study we examined the effects of a new nonselective endothelin receptor antagonist, TAK-044 (Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd., Osaka, Japan), on burn trauma in rats. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing an average of 450 gm were burned with a brass probe that produced a row of three burns 10 x 30 mm in size and two intervening unburned areas 5 x 30 mm in size. Rats were divided into five groups of 10 animals. Four groups received 0.01, 0.1, 1 or 10 mg/kg of TAK-044 via the dorsal vein of the penis immediately after burn trauma, while the control group received the same volume of saline. Skin blood flow was measured with a laser-Doppler flowmeter, and the development of edema and the area of necrotic tissue also were determined. Inhibition of endothelin activity by TAK-044 after burn injury improved microvascular perfusion in the zone of stasis and prevented the progression of tissue damage in this zone. This supports the role of endothelins in the progression of burn injury in the zone of stasis. TAK-044 was most effective in preventing progressive burn damage at a dose of 1 mg/kg. The extent of necrosis and edema was reduced significantly, and blood flow in the zone of stasis was increased in the treated rats.
  • Article
    The influence of low power laser irradiation on pain was studied by the quantification of substance P in the rat spinal dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Forty-one Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control (n = 12), stimulated group (n = 16), and laser application group (laser group) (n = 13). Under pentobarbital anesthesia, the right sciatic nerve of rats was exposed. The sciatic nerve was stimulated electrically in the stimulated group and the laser group. The laser irradiation was continued during the electrical stimulation in the laser group. Immediately after the electrical stimulation with or without the laser application, DRG of the fourth to sixth lumbar spinal roots were excised. Immunohistochemical substance P staining and substance P-like immunoreactivity (SP-LI) quantification were done in the excised DRG. There was a statistically significant difference of SP-LI between the control group (14.9 +/- 5.02 pg/mg tissue) and the stimulated group (20.9 +/- 7.54 pg/mg tissue) (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the control and the laser group (16.2 +/- 4.83 pg/mg tissue). These results suggest that the laser irradiation suppresses the excitation of the unmyelinated C-fibers in the afferent sensory pathway.
  • Article
    The effects of Ga-Al-As diode laser (830 nm, 16.2 mW) irradiation on the distal portion of the processes of cultured murine dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons associated with C-fibers were studied by patch-clamp whole-cell recording of membrane potentials at the cell body. The chemical as well as laser light stimulations were limited to the processes of the neuron isolated from the cell body with a separator. The action potentials elicited by bradykinin (BK) in the cell body were reversibly suppressed by the irradiation of laser light. The laser irradiation may block the conduction of nociceptive signals in primary afferent neurons. The present experimental method offers a simple and easy to use procedure for studying the pain relief effects by laser irradiation.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    A method to increase light transport deeply into target areas of tissue would enhance both therapeutic and diagnostic laser applications. The effects of a hyperosmotic agent on the scattering properties of rat and hamster skin were investigated. A hyperosmotic agent, glycerol, was applied in vitro and in vivo to rat and hamster skin to assess the changes in tissue optical properties. Changes in the reduced scattering coefficient after application of the agent in vitro to rat skin and after the skin has been rehydrated were assessed to evaluate the effect of the agent on tissue. Experimental results showed a transient change in the optical properties of in vitro rat skin. A 50% increase in transmittance and decrease in diffuse reflectance occurred within 5-10 min after the introduction of anhydrous glycerol. In addition, reduction of light scattering with this technique increased depth of visibility with optical coherence tomography. Injection of glycerol under the skin allowed in vivo visualization of blood vessels. The application of the agent reduces the amount of refractive mismatch found in the tissue and markedly reduces random scattering, thereby making the skin less turbid for visible wavelengths for a controlled period of time.
  • Article
    Knowledge of the optical parameters of the skin is important for all kinds of phototherapy. We analyzed penetration of laser light and proved different optical properties of in vitro specimens of normal skin and granular tissue from skin ulcers. An He-Ne laser (lambda = 632.8 nm, output 50 mW) and a semiconductor laser (lambda = 675 nm, output 21 mW) were used. The distribution of laser radiation was detected by a CCD camera and evaluated by the image analysis software DIPS. Transmittance in granular tissue was about 2.5 times higher than that in normal skin. In the thickest skin sample (2 cm), approximately 0.3% of He-Ne laser and 2.1% of semiconductor laser light penetrated. The results demonstrate the percentage of incident light penetrating the individual skin layers in different localizations on the skin surface, which is a decisive factor for the selection of the radiation dose.
  • Article
    The technique of tumescent liposuction involves the subcutaneous infusion of a solution containing lidocaine, followed by the aspiration of fat through microcannulas. Although the recommended doses of lidocaine are as high as 55 mg per kilogram of body weight, few safety data are available. Since reporting of adverse events associated with tumescent liposuction is not mandatory, the incidence of complications and deaths is unknown. We identified 5 deaths after tumescent liposuction among 48,527 deaths referred to the Office of Chief Medical Examiner of New York City between 1993 and 1998. The patients' records and postmortem examination results were reviewed to identify common contributory factors. The five patients had received lidocaine in doses ranging from 10 to 40 mg per kilogram. Other drugs, such as midazolam, were also administered. Three patients died as a result of precipitous intraoperative hypotension and bradycardia with no definitively identified cause. Postmortem blood lidocaine concentrations in two of the patients were 5.2 and 2 mg per liter. One patient died of fluid overload, and one died of deep venous thrombosis of calf veins with pulmonary thromboembolism after tumescent liposuction of the legs. Tumescent liposuction can be fatal, perhaps in part because of lidocaine toxicity or lidocaine-related drug interactions.
  • Article
    This study aimed to evaluate a 815-nm diode-laser system to assist wound closure to accelerate and improve healing process. A total of 25 male hairless rats (mutant OFA Sprague-Dawley rats, IFFA-CREDO, L'Arbresle, France) with four dorsal skin incisions were used for the study. For each wound, the good apposition of the edges was obtained with buried absorbable suture. In the laser group, the laser beam was applied spot by spot through a transparent adhesive dressing along two incisions with the following parameters: 1.5 W; 3 seconds; spot diameter, 2 mm; fluence, 145 J/cm(2). Both control wounds were closed with conventional suture techniques. The duration of the closure procedure was noted for each group. Clinical examination, histologic study, and measurement of tensile strength were performed at 3, 7, 15, and 21 days after surgery. Determination of activation of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) through immunocytochemistry was performed at days 1 and 7. LASC was 4 times faster to process than conventional suture: 1 minute 49 +/- 20.6 seconds vs. 7 minutes 26 +/- 62.2 seconds. In the laser group, healing was accelerated resulting in a more indiscernible scar than in the control groups. Histologic aspect was better with earlier continuous epidermis and dermis and a thinner resulting scar. Tensile strength was 30 to 58% greater than in control groups at 7 and 15 days (P < 0.001). Expression of Hsp70 was markedly induced in skin structures examined after laser exposure. This study shows the ability of the 815-nm diode-laser system to assist wound closure leading to an acceleration and an improvement of wound healing with indiscernible resulting scar. The mechanisms of this phenomenon are still unclear but further investigations are in progress to attempt to explain them.