Substrate Conformational Restriction and CD45-catalyzed Dephosphorylation of Tail Tyrosine-phosphorylated Src Protein
Hydrolysis of the tail phosphotyrosine in Src family members is catalyzed by the protein-tyrosine phosphatase CD45, activating Src family-related signaling pathways. Using purified recombinant phospho-Src (P-Src) (amino acid residues 83-533) and purified recombinant CD45 catalytic (cytoplasmic) domain (amino acid residues 565-1268), we have analyzed the kinetic behavior of dephosphorylation. A time course of phosphatase activity showed the presence of a burst phase. By varying the concentration of P-Src, it was shown that the amplitude of this burst phase increased linearly with respect to P-Src concentration. Approximately 2% of P-Src was shown to be rapidly dephosphorylated followed by a slower linear phase. A P-Src protein substrate containing a functional point mutation in the Src homology domain 2 (SH2) led to more rapid dephosphorylation catalyzed by CD45, and this reaction showed only a single linear kinetic phase. These results were interpreted in terms of a model in which P-Src exists in a relatively slow dynamic equilibrium between "closed" and "open" conformational forms. Combined mutations in the SH2 and SH3 domain or the addition of an SH3 domain ligand peptide enhanced the accessibility of P-Src to CD45 by biasing P-Src to a more open form. Consistent with this model, a phosphotyrosine peptide that behaved as an SH2 domain binding ligand showed approximately 100-fold greater affinity for unphosphorylated Src versus P-Src. Surprisingly, P-Src possessing combined SH3 and SH2 functional inactivating point mutations was dephosphorylated by CD45 more slowly compared with P-Src completely lacking SH3 and SH2 domains. Additional data suggest that the SH3 and SH2 domains can inhibit accessibility of the P-Src tail to CD45 by interactions other than direct phosphotyrosine binding by the SH2 domain. Taken together, these results suggest how activation of Src family member signaling pathways by CD45 may be influenced by the presence or absence of ligand interactions remote from the tail.
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