To review the clinical aspects of hemorrhagic shock and provide recommendations for therapy.
Early recognition of hemorrhagic shock and prompt systematic intervention will help avoid poor outcomes.
Establish guidelines to assist in early recognition of hemorrhagic shock and to conduct resuscitation in an organized and evidence-based manner.
Medline references were sought using the MeSH term "hemorrhagic shock." All articles published in the disciplines of obstetrics and gynaecology, surgery, trauma, critical care, anesthesia, pharmacology, and hematology between 1 January 1990 and 31 August 2000 were reviewed, as well as core textbooks from these fields. Selected references from these articles and book chapters were also obtained and reviewed. The level of evidence has been determined using the criteria described by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination.
1. Clinicians should be familiar with the clinical signs of hemorrhagic shock. (III-B) 2. Clinicians should be familiar with the stages of hemorrhagic shock. (III-B) 3. Clinicians should assess each woman's risk for hemorrhagic shock and prepare for the procedure accordingly. (III-B) 4. Resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock should include adequate oxygenation. (II-3A) 5. Resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock should include restoration of circulating volume by placement of two large-bore IVs, and rapid infusion of a balanced crystalloid solution. (I-A) 6. Isotonic crystalloid or colloid solutions can be used for volume replacement in hemorrhagic shock (I-B). There is no place for hypotonic dextrose solutions in the management of hemorrhagic shock (I-E). 7. Blood component transfusion is indicated when deficiencies have been documented by clinical assessment or hematological investigations (II-2B). They should be warmed and infused through filtered lines with normal saline, free of additives and drugs (II-3B). 8. Vasoactive agents are rarely indicated in the management of hemorrhagic shock and should be considered only when volume replacement is complete, hemorrhage is arrested, and hypotension continues. They should be administered in a critical care setting with the assistance of a multidisciplinary team. (III-B) 9. Appropriate resuscitation requires ongoing evaluation of response to therapy, including clinical evaluation, and hematological, biochemical, and metabolic assessments. (III-B) 10. In hemorrhagic shock, prompt recognition and arrest of the source of hemorrhage, while implementing resuscitative measures, is recommended. (III-B)VALIDATION: These guidelines have been reviewed by the Clinical Practice Obstetrics Committee and approved by Executive and Council of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada.
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Minimizing patient morbidity and avoiding mortality are dependant on efficient teamwork. The nursing staff at the recovery bay, operating theatre, and inpatient wards have to be diligent in early recognition and prompt notification of postoperative hemorrhage, and systematic intervention would help avoid poor outcomes.3 "
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ABSTRACT: Bleeding is a major complication in contemporary gynecological surgery. We discusses this rare, albeit potentially serious, unexpected complication. The authors mean by "reactionary," hemorrhage that occurs within the first 24 hours after surgery. More or less, all gynecological surgeons have had to deal with this situation at some stage of their career. The seriousness of this complication stems from the fact that often the surgeon is not in the immediate vicinity to promptly step in and treat the patient. Nevertheless, the key to successful management is prompt diagnosis, immediate resuscitation, and operative intervention.
By using the collective hospital database, we reviewed 719 patient records. The authors operated on these patients between November 1990 and March 2007 (inclusive) in one hospital, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, the main teaching hospital in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The procedures performed in the 719 patients comprised 476 vaginal hysterectomies and 243 laparoscopic hysterectomies. Both public and private patients were included. The objective of the review was to establish the incidence of postoperative reactionary hemorrhage following the initial operation, as defined by the number of patients returning to the operating theatre (OT) because of postoperative hemorrhage within 24 hours of the initial hysterectomy.
Of the 719 patients, 6 experienced reactionary postoperative hemorrhage, 3 each in the vaginal hysterectomy and laparoscopic hysterectomy groups. That would make the incidence of postoperative reactionary hemorrhage 0.6% in the vaginal hysterectomy and 1.2% in the laparoscopic hysterectomy group. None of these 6 patients had any preoperative hemorrhagica diatheses. There was neither ureteric, bladder, intestinal, nor any other injuries in the whole series. No long-term complications or mortalities occurred.
Reactionary postoperative hemorrhage is a rare, albeit serious, complication of contemporary gynecological surgery; this complication may occur despite meticulous surgical technique. The key to successful management is prompt diagnosis, urgent resuscitation, and return to the OT to arrest the bleeding.
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In the absence of clinical practice guidelines prior to 1999, the consumption of human albumin in the Liguria region of Italy was very high, despite possible adverse effects, limited supply, and significant cost.Objective
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of comprehensive guidelines on the amount of albumin used in 2 general hospitals and to compare it with that of a third general hospital that did not adopt the guidelines.Methods
We analyzed the influence of the guidelines on albumin use in 2 general hospitals (hospitals 1 and 2) in the Liguria region by comparing albumin consumption during the year before the distribution of the guidelines (1999) with consumption in the 2 years after their distribution (2000 and 2001). We compared these data with those of a third general hospital that did not adopt the guidelines (hospital 3). The parameters considered were total consumption of albumin, consumption per bed, consumption per hospital stay, mean time to discharge, expenditure per bed, and mortality rate.ResultsIn the years 2000 and 2001, the adoption of guidelines reduced albumin consumption in hospitals 1 and 2. In hospital 1, where the release of albumin was carefully controlled by the transfusion service, albumin use per hospital stay decreased 8.7% in 2000 and 7.6% in 2001 from 1999; in hospital 2, use decreased 73.8% and 77.4%, respectively, from 1999. In hospital 3, rejection of the guidelines was coupled with an increase of 2.9% and 8.4%, respectively, in the amount of albumin used per hospital stay. In the years 2000 and 2001, the savings in the expenditure for albumin was ∼17,000 euro in hospital 1 and ∼200,000 euro in hospital 2.Conclusion
This study confirms that the adoption of guidelines may substantially reduce the inappropriate use of albumin and relative costs.
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ABSTRACT: Hospital pharmacists are often consulted for their knowledge about coagulation and therapeutic interventions for the management of critical bleeding. Many pharmacotherapies are available for this purpose, both systemic and topical, and others are in development. These agents and their mechanisms of action are reviewed, and perspectives are provided regarding their use in various clinical settings. Also provided are associated precautions to promote safe use. Current controversies surrounding pharmacotherapeutic agents used to control serious bleeding (e.g., in various types of surgery, trauma, obstetrics, and intracranial hemorrhage) are also discussed.
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