Article

Past and Present Distribution of the Red-Bellied Monkey Cercopithecus erythrogaster erythrogaster in Benin

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Abstract

This study provides data on the past and present distribution of the red-bellied monkey, Cercopithecus erythrogaster erythrogaster, a subspecies that is endemic to Benin's southern ecosystems. The original distribution of this subspecies was between the Couffo River and the Nigerian border, but it has since been reduced to regions degraded by intense human settlement (such as the Oueme river valley) and to some better preserved areas, such as the Lama protected forest and some sacred grove forests in wet areas. Local people participated in this research programme and, as a result, many new localities have been discovered. All of these have been in wetlands in southern Benin, mainly in sacred groves. Conservation action for this subspecies will succeed only if local people are involved in its protection.

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... A wild population of red-bellied guenons was discovered in 1994 (Oates, 1996). We are sure people had seen them before; but Oates was the first to publish a sighting with a geographical distribution limited to forests of the southern Benin (Oates, 1996;Sinsin et al., 2002). Further information about the spatial distribution of the subspecies and the characterization of its remaining habitats are particularly important to ensure the survival of this endangered taxon (Sinsin et al., 2002;Campbell et al., 2008). ...
... We are sure people had seen them before; but Oates was the first to publish a sighting with a geographical distribution limited to forests of the southern Benin (Oates, 1996;Sinsin et al., 2002). Further information about the spatial distribution of the subspecies and the characterization of its remaining habitats are particularly important to ensure the survival of this endangered taxon (Sinsin et al., 2002;Campbell et al., 2008). Conservation agencies and scientists have acknowledged the necessity for spatial knowledge of biodiversity for purposes of planning, management and conservation evaluation (Acharya, 1999). ...
... The Ouémé River and its forested banks are rich in bird life, and serve as a focal point of primates and animals of many kinds (Natta, 2003), including the red-bellied guenon. In the redbellied guenon habitat, there is little human activity for the three months or more per year when the area is flooded, providing therefore a good refuge (Sinsin et al., 2002). ...
Article
The red-bellied guenon (Cercopithecus e. erythrogaster) is an endangered subspecies of primate endemic to the Dahomey Gap. To better understand its distribution pattern, interviews with local people in 180 localities in south Benin and southeast Togo and ground surveys were conducted from 2000 to 2007. The species was found inhabiting eight localities in swamp forests, gallery forests and seasonally-flooded semideciduous forests. Two of these are protected areas: the Lama Forest of Benin and the Togodo Reserve ofTogo. Appropriate conservation actions are necessary for the red-bellied guenon, including improved law enforcement and regular monitoring.
... Benin is known to harbour a mixture of savannah and forest faunal elements, and several species of major importance in terms of conservation and biological knowledge (Sinsin et al., 2002;Kassa & Sinsin, 2003;Nobime & Sinsin, 2003;Akpona, Djagoun & Sinsin, 2008). Small mammals (<20 kg) are known to represent more *Correspondence: E-mail: vnicolas@mnhn.fr ...
... Several endemic species of Coleoptera and Lepidoptera were also recorded from the remnant forest patches of Benin (Goergen, 2003), as well as a new chameleon species and probably also a new gecko species (Ullenbruch, 2003;Nagel, Sinsin & Peveling, 2004). A sub-species of primate, the Red-bellied monkey (Cercopithecus erythrogaster erythrogaster), is also endemic to Benin (Sinsin et al., 2002). ...
Article
We performed a terrestrial small mammal species inventory in the Agoua and Wari-Maro forest reserves (Benin). Four localities were sampled, and in each locality, three habitats were surveyed: dense forest, open forest or woodland savannah and shrub savannah. This is the first comprehensive inventory for small mammals in central Benin. We captured 794 small mammals representing twenty species (six shrew species, fourteen rodent species). Three new species that need to be described were recorded. We observed a mixture of both true forest species and of species adapted to a wider range of habitats ranging from savannah to forest clearings. Species with either Sudanian or Guinea-Congolian affinities were recorded, as well as a new species endemic to Togo and Benin. This rich biodiversity underlines the urgent need for an effective protection of these forests. The Sudanian species Crocidura cf. foxi was more abundant in Wari-Maro than in Agoua forest, while the Guineo-Congolian species Praomys misonnei and Hylomyscus sp were only captured in Agoua forest. These results are in agreement with the fact that these two forests belong to two distinct chorological zones.
... Likewise Cercopithecus mona, Cercopithecus nictitans, Cercopithecus diana live in forest areas and large and dense galleries. Cercopithecus erythrogaster erythrogaster, the endemic primate found so far in Benin (Grubb et al. 1999, Sinsin et al. 2002b) shares a part of only its time in riparian forests and forest patches in the Ouémé valley region. Raynaud & Georgy (1969) reported that Syncerus cafer nanus that was usually seen in woodlands and humid sites in the South and Central Benin follows gallery forests up to the Chapter 11: General discussion 133 latitude of Djougou to Bembèrèkè. ...
... Therefore the preservation of endemic animal species (e.g. Cercopithecus erythrogaster erythrogaster, a primate sub-species still found in Benin (Oates 1996, Grubb et al. 1999, Sinsin et al. 2002b, and the ornamental Thunbergia atacoriensis (Acanthaceae), should be coupled with the protection of their habitats. ...
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Thesis (doctoral)--Wageningen Universiteit, 2003. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (p. 167-189).
... Likewise Cercopithecus mona, Cercopithecus nictitans, Cercopithecus diana live in forest areas and large and dense galleries. Cercopithecus erythrogaster erythrogaster, the endemic primate found so far in Benin (Grubb et al. 1999, Sinsin et al. 2002b) shares a part of only its time in riparian forests and forest patches in the Ouémé valley region. Raynaud & Georgy (1969) reported that Syncerus cafer nanus that was usually seen in woodlands and humid sites in the South and Central Benin follows gallery forests up to the Chapter 11: General discussion 133 latitude of Djougou to Bembèrèkè. ...
... Therefore the preservation of endemic animal species (e.g. Cercopithecus erythrogaster erythrogaster, a primate sub-species still found in Benin (Oates 1996, Grubb et al. 1999, Sinsin et al. 2002b, and the ornamental Thunbergia atacoriensis (Acanthaceae), should be coupled with the protection of their habitats. ...
Article
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The present research deals with the flora, phytosociology and ecology of riparian forests. The overall objective of this research is to contribute to a better knowledge of the flora, diversity and ecology of riparian forests in Benin . The specific objectives are to (a) compile a preliminary riparian forests plant species list, (b) assess plant species and ecosystem diversities, (c) investigate plant communities, (d) clarify the structural and floristic relationship of riparian forests with adjacent plant communities, and (e) assess the ecology of certain endangered tree species in riparian forests. In chapter 1 (General introduction), the research background, objectives and approach for riparian forests biodiversity assessment, and the organisation of the thesis are presented. Chapter 2 introduces the study area which covered about 70 % of Benin , from 7 ° 10' to 12 ° 20' N. Chapter 3 presents an overview of riparian forests biodiversity, their importance and the threats they face making them endangered ecosystems. A definition of riparian forests (or gallery forests) is given in the Benin context. The floristic characteristics of riparian forests in each phytogeographic district are presented. Issues related to legal protection and rehabilitation of the function and resources of riparian forests are documented: specifications and weaknesses of the forest law regarding riparian forests are presented; challenges for various stakeholders are discussed, and some improvements of the current forest law are proposed. Chapter 4 assesses plant species diversity, as well as species abundance models that best fit representative collections of plant species of riparian forests throughout the country. This study shows the richness and diversity of riparian forests in Benin , in comparison to other vegetation types in this country. They harbour about 1/3 of the estimated total number of plant species of the whole country in sample plots totalling 19 ha. This flora shares many features with riparian forests and dense forests worldwide: e.g. most abundant families, species richness/ha, trees species richness/ha, Shannon index, equitability index of Pielou, and species abundance models. Endemism is very low compared to that in rain forests, what is not surprising in the Dahomey Gap. The main conclusion is that relatively large numbers of species are still maintained in small forest fragments along waterways. These remnants with their specific plant species composition can be used for the restoration of degraded forest stands. Chapter 5 assesses the structure and ecological spectra of 19 ha of riparian forests through selected parameters (e.g. life form, geographic affinity, diameter class distribution, basal area, stem density, species dominance) that give a general picture of different vegetation types present. Figures obtained for these parameters show that riparian forests in Benin are on the one hand similar to many riparian forests in West Africa as well as in South and Central America, and on the other hand to many tropical upland forests. A brief description of the process of riparian forests degradation is also presented. Chapter 6 deals with the phytosociological assessment of representative relevés of riparian forests of Benin . Floristic ordination (DCA analysis) and classification (TWINSPAN) were derived from a comprehensive floristic inventory of a data set of 818 plant species and 180 relevés. This yielded 12 plant communities or associations, most of which had not yet been formally described: 1 - Community of Isolona thonneri and Callichilia barteri (10 relevés) along streams. This community occurs at the lowest parts of the gallery forest with frequent inundation in the centre of Pénéssoulou protected forest. 2 - Community of Motandra guineensis and Pararistolochia goldieana (24 relevés) along streams at the East and West parts of Pénéssoulou reserve forest. This community is mainly present on drained sites ( i.e . seldom inundated). 3 - Community of Chrysobalanus icaco subsp . atacoriensis and Pentadesma butyracea (22 relevés) along streams at hill feet in the Atacora mountain chain. 4 - Community of Alchornea cordifolia and Ficus trichopoda (9 relevés) along streams on regularly inundated plateaus all over the country. 5 - Community of Berlinia grandiflora and Khaya senegalensis (8 relevés) along streams on drained plateaus ( i.e . seldom inundated), mainly in the Sudanian region of the country. 6 - Community of Raphia sudanica and Oxytenanthera abyssinica (8 relevés) along streams on drained plateaus, mainly in the Sudanian region. 7 - Community of Cynometra megalophylla and Parinari congensis (31 relevés) along the Ouémé river in the Guinean region of Southern Benin . 8 - Community of Capparis thonningii and Crateva adansonii (30 relevés) along the Ouémé river in the Sudano-Guinean region of Central Benin . 9 - Community of Lepisanthes senegalensis and Drypetes floribunda (17 relevés) along the Ouémé river in the Sudano-Guinean region of Central Benin . 10 - Community of Uapaca heudelotii and Irvingia smithii (8 relevés) along the Sota river in the Sudanian region of North East Benin. 11 - Community of Garcinia livingstonei and Combretum acutum (12 relevés) along the Pendjari river in the Sudanian region of North West Benin. 12 - Community of Mimosa pigra and Ficus asperifolia (20 relevés) widely distributed on sandy banks along rivers. Ordination proved invaluable in the exploration of environmental characteristics of the phytosociological groups. The environmental factors (waterways, relief, topography, latitude and longitude) helped in the grouping of floristic relevés in the above mentioned 12 plant communities. The distinguished plant communities were compared with syntaxonomic data in literature. Riparian forests in Benin belong to the Mitragynetea Schmitz 1963, which is the phytosociological class of hygrophile fresh water forests of tropical Africa . Based on similarities of ecological conditions and floristic composition, the 12 plant communities can be classified into 3 orders that are Alchornetalia cordifoliae Lebrun 1947, Lanneo-Pseudospondietalia Lebrun & Gilbert 1954 and Pterygotetalia Lebrun & Gilbert 1954. Chapter 7 presents the spatial distribution and ecological factors determining the occurrence of Pentadesma butyracea (Clusiaceae), a rain forest and multipurpose species found in Benin only along certain streams. Among the 224 tree species found along waterways, Pentadesma is one of the least known, yet of great ecological and economic importance. Field survey reveals the presence of this rain forest species in four non-contiguous remnant riparian areas, some located far from its optimal ecological range. If urgent actions are not taken to protect the remaining fragmented and dispersed riparian habitats, current human-induced disturbance could result in the disappearance of this species in Benin . Chapter 8 deals with the variation of the floristic composition, structural parameters (e.g. abundance, average height, basal area, tree richness) and spatial distribution of tree species at river edges across riparian forests. Horizontal and vertical structures of tree species exhibit complex patterns at riverside. On the one hand, tree stems are characterised by an uneven distribution across riparian forests, on the other hand height and basal area variations at riverside do not show any easily interpretable patterns. The numerical analysis confirms a gradual variation in the floristic composition across riparian forests and neighbouring plant communities. These results suggest a partitioning of riparian forests in three habitats ( i.e. river front, middle and riparian forest edge). An implication for diversity assessment is that plot size, shape and layout in the terrain should take into account the river front, the middle and the edge of riparian forest. Due to the non-coverage of the whole riparian forest width and unequal chance of species and stems to be sampled, circular and square plots are not suitable for structural parameters and phytodiversity assessment in riparian forests. Instead rectangular plots with varying length and width, and covering the whole cross section of riparian forest are the most suitable sampling units under the study area conditions, and probably for savanna regions too. The present study also provides scientific guidelines for an improvement of the forest law regarding the distance to be protected at riverside, and suggests 100 m instead of 25 m. In chapter 9 the floristic composition, species richness and structure of two riparian ecosystems in West Africa (the Comoé in Ivory Coast and the Ouémé in Benin ), are compared. The overall physiognomy of the two gallery forest sites seems similar and they share the most prominent families. However, there are marked differences in terms of canopy density and height, herb layer density, number of individuals, tree richness and diversity ( H' ), and species composition. The phenomenon of single species dominance at both sites is documented from Cynometra megalophylla , an evergreen tree species, which was time and again the most frequent and dominant tree at both riversides and in the middle of the gallery forests. Only detailed comparison shows the difference and complexity of ecological processes between and within gallery forests sites. The research carried out in chapter 10 facilitates the choice between several sampling designs for the estimation of a population parameter for endangered species. This study was carried out in the Pénéssoulou forest, in Central Benin . Stratified random sampling provided the lowest variance, coefficient of variation, standard error and sampling error. This method was taken as the most precise and reliable design over simple random and systematic samplings for the density estimation of Khayasenegalensis and K. grandifoliola trees. Results have confirmed empirical knowledge about the ecology of Khaya species and shown that the selection of the most precise sampling design, with regards to estimating a given parameter, can eventually be useful for the sustainable management of forest trees in the study area. A reliable density estimate for Khaya species within the given vegetation types facilitates the selection of areas to be protected and sustainably exploited. Chapter 11 presents a general discussion on issues discussed in this thesis. Sustainable rehabilitation and restoration of riparian forests biodiversity in Benin are discussed in the general conclusion ( chapter 12 ). This study has provided detailed site-specific data on plant species that can serve for further scientific research, as well as for conservation management and planning. It fills a gap of knowledge on the flora of Benin , and can contribute to better land-use planning and conservation of riparian forests.
... The red-bellied monkey is listed as Endangered on the IUCN red List, and the subspecies inhabiting the Lama forest is endemic to the Dahomey Gap. Due to hunting and habitat destruction, surviving populations now seem to be restricted to only a few forest patches, and its main population occurs in the Lama forest (Sinsin et al. 2002, Nobime & Sinsin 2003, Houngbédji et al. 2012. Several rare and threatened forest ungulates species, including the sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekii), the royal antelope (Neotragus pygmaeus), the black duiker (Cephalophus niger) and the yellow-backed duiker (C. ...
... In the Lama forest we captured one rodent species endemic to this region (H. pamfi), and the same result was obtained for several other animal species or subspecies (Sinsin et al. 2002, Goergen 2003, Ullenbruch 2003, Nagel et al. 2004 reinforcing the importance of the Lama forest for biodiversity conservation in the region. ...
Article
The Lama forest is the largest natural forest in southern Benin, and one of the last remnant forests within the Dahomey Gap. It harbours several species of major importance in terms of conservation. Small mammals are known to represent more than 80% of the African mammalian species diversity but they have received little attention in Benin. In this article we present the results of the first terrestrial small mammal species inventory (murid rodents and shrews) in the Lama forest. In September and October 2007, we captured 280 small mammals belonging to 12 species, identified by morphological and genetic analysis. We also provide detailed cytogenetic data for six of the 12 captured species. For five of them, we compare our data with previously published karyotypes, and for the sixth one (Hylomyscus pamfi), the karyotype is published here for the first time. Two of the captured species are closed-forest specialists (Praomys misonnei, H. pamfi), and H. pamfi is endemic to the Dahomey Gap region. Our results are congruent with those obtained on other animal groups, and highlight the importance of the Lama forest for the conservation of the country's forest biodiversity.
... The occurrence area of Dendrohyrax dorsalis ssp sylvestris was reduced by half in three decades from 8007 km² (past occurrence area) to 4003 km² (current occurrence area). This significant loss to the taxon habitat in southern Guinean zone in Benin is comparable to that recorded for the red-bellied monkey (Sinsin et al., 2002). However, the taxon distribution area extends beyond the Guinean zone and much of the Sudano -Guinean transition zone or even South -West of Nigeria. ...
... It is not only the classified forests, sacred or community forests usually degraded and used as last refuges by the taxon but also inaccessible gallery forests, swamps and flood forests. Like the redbellied monkey Cercopithecus erythrogaster erythrogaster (Sinsin et al., 2002), the taxon as refuge there probably because these habitats in the Oueme River Valley are generally difficult to access more than half of the year. These small colonies of D. dorsalis subsp sylvestris are not spared from a possible local extinction due to their sometimes irreversible isolation from other metapopulation (development of settlements and agricultural systems ....) 2331 ...
... The Lama forest reserve comprises some of the last vestiges of semi-deciduous lowland forest within the Dahomey Gap in southern Benin (Nagel, 1987;Ballouche et al., 2000). It is an important refuge for several endangered wildlife species and rare plants (Sinsin et al, 2002). Part of the former natural forest has been converted to plantations for timber (teak) and firewood production. ...
Article
Responses of termite assemblages to the conversion of semi-deciduous forest into teak plantations were studied in the Lama Forest Reserve in Benin, West Africa. Four belt transect surveys were run in each of the two forest types, adopting a modified termite diversity assessment protocol. Termite assemblages were remarkably species-poor in both forest types, with only 19 species encountered altogether. The low species richness was due to the rarity of soil-feeders of the soil/humus interface and the absence of true soil-feeders in the compact vertisol soil. Species richness was significantly higher in semi-deciduous forest than in teak plantations, but termite encounters were significantly lower. Termite assemblage and feeding group structure differed significantly among forest types. Wood-feeders were recorded only in semi-deciduous forest. In contrast, fungus-growers were more species-rich and about four times more abundant in teak plantations, mainly due to one Ancistrotermes species. The humification score, which depicts the position of termite assemblages along a gradient of increasing humification of their food substrate, was significantly higher in teak plantations, due to the absence of wood-feeders and the preponderance of fungus-growers. Combined principal components and multiple regression analysis identified two significant predictors of termite assemblages, soil water content and leaf litter biomass. The abundance of fungus-growers in teak plantations seemed to be mainly related to the high leaf litter biomass. Indirect evidence also suggests that lower predation pressure by ants on termites in teak plantations may have contributed to the abundance of termites.
... This limit their dispersal ability for several plant species including P. butyracea [31]. Similarly several Cercopithecus monkeys are threatened by hunting and habitat loss [35,36] in our study populations. We expect that if there was frugivory by these known frugivores, this will be limited and less likely to significantly affect our estimate of P. butyracea fruit number. ...
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Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are widely harvested by local people for their livelihood. Harvest often takes place in human disturbed ecosystems. However, our understanding of NTFPs harvesting impacts in fragmented habitats is limited. We assessed the impacts of fruit harvest, and reduction in habitat size on the population structures of Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (Clusiaceae) across two contrasting ecological regions (dry vs. moist) in Benin. In each region, we selected three populations for each of the three fruit harvesting intensities (low, medium and high). Harvesting intensities were estimated as the proportion of fruits harvested per population. Pentadesma butyracea is found in gallery forests along rivers and streams. We used the width of gallery forests as a measure of habitat size. We found negative effects of fruit harvest on seedling and adult density but no significant effect on population size class distribution in both ecological regions. The lack of significant effect of fruit harvest on population structure may be explained by the ability of P. butyracea to compensate for the negative effect of fruit harvesting by increasing clonal reproduction. Our results suggest that using tree density and population structure to assess the ecological impacts of harvesting clonal plants should be done with caution.
... Machado (1969) reviewed Cercopithecus ascanius in Angola. The rare and localized species Cercopithecus erythrogaster and C. sclateri have become better known in recent years (Oates, 1985;Oates et al., 1992;Sinsin et al., 2002), the latter having been detached from C. erythrotis and treated as a full species (Kingdon, 1980). Our list appears to be a widely accepted consensus taxonomy for the Cercopithecus cephus group which most of us endorse. ...
Article
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This account of the systematics of African primates is the consensus view of a group of authors who attended the Workshop of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group held at Orlando, Florida, in February 2000. We list all species and subspecies that we consider to be valid, together with a selected synonymy for all names that have been controversial in recent years or that have been considered to be valid by other authors in recent publications. For genera, species-groups or species, we tabulate and discuss different published systematic interpretations, with emphasis on more recent publications. We explain why we have adopted our taxonomic treatment and give particular attention to cases where more research is urgently required and in which systematic changes are most likely to be made. For all taxa, from suborder to subspecies, we provide English names.
... The forest remnants of the Dahomey Gap region are known to be home to several endemic species or subspecies. For example, several Coleoptera and Lepidoptera species (Goergen, 2003), a new chameleon and a new gecko species (Ullenbruch, 2003;Nagel et al., 2004) and the red-bellied monkey Cercopithecus erythrogaster erythrogaster (Sinsin et al., 2002;Nobime & Sinsin, 2003) are only present in this region. Thus, even if this region is not cited as a possible forest refugial area by Maley (1987Maley ( , 1996 or Dupont et al. (2000), the presence of these endemic forest species suggests that one or several forest patches may have persisted in this region during the Pleistocene, leading to allopatric speciation. ...
Article
Aim This study aims to elucidate the phylogeography of the murid rodent Praomys misonnei and to document whether or not rain forest refugia and rivers structure patterns of diversity within this species. Location Tropical Africa, from Ghana to Kenya. Methods Patterns of genetic structure and signatures of population history (cytochrome b gene) were assessed in a survey of 229 individuals from 54 localities. Using maximum likelihood, Bayesian, network and genetic structure analyses, we inferred intra-specific relationships and tested hypotheses for historical patterns of gene flow within P. misonnei. Results Our phylogenetic analyses reveal a strong phylogeographical structure. We identified four major geographical clades within P. misonnei: one clade in Ghana and Benin, a Nigerian clade, a West Central African clade and a Central and East African clade. Several subclades were identified within these four major clades. A signal of population expansion was detected in most clades or subclades. Coalescence within all of the major clades of P. misonnei occurred during the Middle Pleistocene and/or the beginning of Late Pleistocene. Main conclusions Our results suggest a role for both Pleistocene refugia and rivers in structuring genetic diversity in P. misonnei. This forest-dwelling rodent may have been isolated in a number of forest fragments during arid periods and expanded its range during wetter periods. Potential forest refugia may have been localized in Benin–Ghana, south-western Cameroon, southern Gabon, northern Gabon and eastern Democratic Republic of Congo–western Uganda. The Niger and/or the Cross Rivers, the Oubangui-Congo, Sanaga, Ogooue and/or Ivindo Rivers probably stopped the re-expansion of the species from relict areas.
... This limit their dispersal ability for several plant species including P. butyracea [31]. Similarly several Cercopithecus monkeys are threatened by hunting and habitat loss [35,36] in our study populations. We expect that if there was frugivory by these known frugivores, this will be limited and less likely to significantly affect our estimate of P. butyracea fruit number. ...
Article
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Studies on the ecological impacts of non-timber forest products (NTFP) harvest reveal that plants are often more resilient to fruit and seed harvest than to bark and root harvest. Several studies indicate that sustainable fruit harvesting limits can be set very high (>80% fruit harvesting intensity). For species with clonal and sexual reproduction, understanding how fruit harvest affects clonal reproduction can shed light on the genetic risks and sustainability of NTFP harvest. We studied 18 populations of a gallery forest tree, Pentadesma butyracea (Clusiaceae), to test the impact of fruits harvest, climate and habitat size (gallery forest width) on the frequency of sexual or clonal recruitment in Benin, West Africa. We sampled populations in two ecological regions (Sudanian and Sudano-Guinean) and in each region, we selected sites with low, moderate and high fruit harvesting intensities. These populations were selected in gallery forests with varying width to sample the natural variation of P. butyracea habitat size. Heavily harvested populations produced significantly less seedlings but had the highest density and proportion of clonal offspring. Our study suggests that for plant species with dual reproductive strategy (via seeds and clonal), fruit harvesting and associated disturbances that come with it can lead to an increase in the proportion of clonal offspring. This raises the issue that excessive fruit harvest by increasing the proportion of clonal offspring to the detriment of seed originated offspring, may lead to a reduction in genetic diversity with consequence on harvested species capability to withstand environmental stochasticity.
... The Lama classified forest (4777 ha) is larger than the Niaouli community forest (120 ha), and is subdivided into three main zones: the natural forest, which is strictly protected (''Noyau central''), the forest plantations, and the bordering zone, where local communities are allowed to use natural resources. Several emblematic species of mammals are encountered in this forest, including the mona monkey (Cercopithecus mona), the red-bellied monkey (Cercopithecus erythrogaster erythrogaster), which is endemic to Benin, the vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), and threatened ungulates, such as the sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), the royal antelope (Neotragus pygmaeus), the black duiker (Cephalophus niger), and the yellow-backed duiker (Cephalophus silvicultor) (Kassa 2001, Sinsin et al. 2002. The Niaouli community forest is subdivided into two phytocenoses: the hollow forest, which is located in the septentrional depression of the northern limit of the site and is crossed by the Ava River (a tributary of the Couffo River), and the plateau forest, rising approximately 35 m above the hollow forest (Hountondji 1998). ...
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Information on the ecology and local perception of par-ticular species is required for their conservation and man-agement in tropical forests, where their range has either disappeared or their numbers are shrinking due to anthropogenic factors. We combined indigenous knowl-edge and wildlife observations to record four species of mongooses in the Lama and Niaouli forests. Three diur-nal species, such as the cusimanse (Crossarchus obscurus), the ichneumon mongoose (Herpestes ichneu-mon), and the marsh mongoose (Atilax paludinosus), were directly observed, and one nocturnal species (the white-tailed mongoose: Ichneumia albicauda) was iden-tified by interviews. Factorial correspondence analysis shows that the marsh and the white-tailed mongooses are more frequent in the lowland habitat, whereas the ichneumon mongoose is often sighted near villages and the cusimanse is more generalist. Mongooses are used for food, medicine, and mythic purposes. They are rec-ognized as snake predators and thus their presence is appreciated by local communities to reduce snake bites (84.3% of interviews in Niaouli). Some species, such as cusimanse, are seen as natural pesticides. Our results suggest that the larger area of the Lama classified forest (4777 ha) allows for more intra-site movements as opposed to the inter-site movements observed in the Niaouli forest due to its small size (120 ha). We suggest further investigations of the ecology and ethology of the conservation of mongoose in Benin.
... Campbell /Teichroeb /Paterson Cercopithecus erythrogaster erythrogaster The red-bellied guenon (C. e. erythrogaster) is thought to be restricted and endemic to southern Bénin [Sinsin et al., 2002]. In 1987, a red-bellied guenon was shipped to the Mulhouse zoo in France. ...
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The Dahomey Gap, a strip of forest-savanna mosaic that interrupts the lowland rainforests of West Africa, is supposed to have acted as a natural barrier to the distribution of forest-dwelling mammals. However, few thorough mammal surveys have been conducted in this region. This study intended to gather distributional data and help clarify the distribution limits of diurnal primates occurring within this 'Gap'. Southern Togo and Bénin were surveyed between June and November 2003. The surveys consisted of interviews with hunters and guards from parks and reserves, and walking surveys of forests. As a result, seven diurnal primate species are listed for Togo and Bénin.
... Au plan international, nombreuses sont les études réalisées sur les colobes au nombre desquelles on peut citer les multiples travaux de Oates (1985de Oates ( , 1994de Oates ( , 1996), Galat et GalatLuong (1982, 1983), Gautier et Gautier-Hion (1983, 1988, 1997Colyn (1988Colyn ( , 1991Colyn ( , 1993), Grubb (1990) et Colyn et al. (1991ayant abordé l'aspect de distribution, restent encore focalisés sur l'importance des barrières géographiques puis des refuges dans la répartition des primates forestiers en général. Au plan national (Bénin), les travaux réalisés sur les primates sont ceux de Sayer et Green (1984), Kafichoni (1987), Hanon (2001), Nobimè (2002), Teichroeb et al. (2001), Assogbadjo et Sinsin (2002), Sinsin et al. (2002), Campbell et al. (2007) et Nobimè et al. (2008. La plupart de ces études sont réalisées sur l'ensemble des primates et les différents résultats ont toujours montré que le colobe de Geoffroy est très peu fréquent dans les formations végétales avec des effectifs faibles. ...
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La présente étude s’est déroulée dans les formations végétales du Bénin échantillonnées dans les aires d’occurrence probables du colobe de Geoffroy (Colobus vellerosus). Des données de chorologie spatiale etd’identification des pratiques endogènes de conservation ont été collectées aux moyens des entretiens avec les populations, puis des prospections pédestres dans les aires protégées et forêts villageoises. Le colobe deGeoffroy est une espèce sociable de moeurs diurnes, inféodé aux formations forestières. Au Bénin, l’aire de répartition de l’espèce, évaluée à 9.000 km² s’étend de la forêt classée de la Lama (6° 50’ - 7° 05’ N et 2° - 2°15 E) jusqu’à celle de l’Ouémé Supérieur (9°15- 9° 45’N et 2° - 2° 30 E). La dynamique de cette répartition montre une régression de l’espèce corrélativement à une diminution et à une fragmentation de son aire dont la superficie est passée de 56.000 km² en 1953 à 9.000 km² de nos jours. Heureusement, certaines populations riveraines observent des pratiques ancestrales liées à la culture et à la religion en faveur de la conservation du colobe de Geoffroy. Mots clés : Colobe de Geoffroy, distribution, conservation, régression, Bénin.
... Of the three hundred and ninety-one (391) individuals, 99 are red-bellied monkeys (Cercopithecus erythrogaster erythrogaster), which are endemic sub-species in the Dahomey Gap shared by Togo and Benin. This confirms the regular presence of this subspecies in Togo, contrary to the work of Sinsin (2002) and Nobimè (2005), which only reported it in the Benin part of the Dahomey Gap. These results complement, on the one hand, the work of Oates (1994) and Campbell (2005) who, despite their prospecting under similar conditions, did not make direct observations of the subspecies in Togo even though Campbell (2005) declared to have heard a vocalization that would be his cry. ...
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Due to the increasing pressure exerted on Protected Areas in Togo by neighboring populations, the fauna and its habitat are constantly threatened. To sustainably manage the natural potential of the complex, a thorough knowl appears necessary. Indeed, the numbers and distribution of non wildlife conservation in that their poaching is evidence of the scarcity of game targeted by hunters and poachers. of non which they are subjected. Six developed: (i) interviews of local residents, hunters, farmers and water and forest officials with a view to obtaining information on the status of primates and their coexistence with local resi inventory with geolocalization of the studied populations. The data collected were processed by Ms Excel 2013, software R version 3.1.3, and free software Qgis 2.14 for mapping. A total of 391 individuals belonging to six (6) species were counte both parts of the complex, the three main ones being Erythrocebus patas that poaching is reflects a strong human pressure on the non by hunters and poachers in finding other types of game. This is followe disruption of habitats through agriculture, transhumance and logging. As a result, non primates in the protected area complex will be in real danger of extinction if appropriate conservation action is not taken in time. Copyright © 2017, Eric AGBESSI et al. This is an open use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided
... The Lama forest reserve comprises some of the last vestiges of semi-deciduous lowland forest within the Dahomey Gap in southern Benin (Nagel, 1987;Ballouche et al., 2000). It is an important refuge for several endangered wildlife species and rare plants (Sinsin et al, 2002). Part of the former natural forest has been converted to plantations for timber (teak) and firewood production. ...
... Campbell /Teichroeb /Paterson Cercopithecus erythrogaster erythrogaster The red-bellied guenon (C. e. erythrogaster) is thought to be restricted and endemic to southern Bénin [Sinsin et al., 2002]. In 1987, a red-bellied guenon was shipped to the Mulhouse zoo in France. ...
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L’élevage des petits ruminants est une activité culturelle pratiquée par la grande majorité (90 %) de la population béninoise. C’est un élevage familial avec un effectif moyen de 2 à 10 têtes. Hormis les fonctions de prestige et d'épargne, ces animaux interviennent pour augmenter le revenu des éleveurs àtravers d'une part, la vente des animaux et de leurs sous-produits (peau, lait) et d'autre part à travers l'utilisation du fumier pour la fertilisation des exploitations agricoles. Au Bénin, les races locales sont inféodées à l’écosystème du milieu. Les ovins et les caprins sont les espèces représentatives des petits ruminants. Dans les deux espèces, les animaux (moutons et chèvres) appartiennent pour la plupart à la race guinéenne ou Djallonké originaire du Fouta-Djallon dispersés à travers tout le pays. La race Djallonké constitue la plus importante partie du cheptel des petits ruminants Béninois, avec une prédominance des caprins dans la zone sud alors que les ovins prédominent dans la zone nord. Le taux de croît du cheptel est estimé sur une période 35 ans (1960-1994) à 3% pour les ovins et 4,5% pour les caprins. Cependant on enregistre d’autres races telles que les ovins sahéliens (mouton Peul), les chèvres mossi et des chèvres bariolées et rousses de Maradi le long du fleuve Niger (Karimama et Malanville). Les modes d’élevage sont variés et tiennent compte de la variété des zones agroécologiques, des comportements ethniques et sociaux et du niveau technique des éleveurs. Le faible niveau de connaissance des principales races élevées dans notre pays et la non organisation des acteurs de la filière et leur faible niveau de professionnel s’ajoutent aux contraintes. La principale menace de distribution contre les espèces d’élevages est l’érosion génétique. Certaines races locales réputées pour leur résistance ou leur résilience (trypanosomes, parasitoses, …) font aujourd’hui objet de croisement anarchique dans une vision étriquée d’amélioration de format. Sur le plan sanitaire l’absence de spécialistes en santé animale près des éleveurs, la cherté des produits vétérinaires, la non valorisation de la tradithérapie vétérinaire augmentent le taux de mortalité des animaux. L’amélioration des procédés de vaccination et la valorisation de quelques recettes endogènes pour le traitement des maladies (traitement de la diarrhée, la gale etc..) est en cours et des enquêtes menées sur l’utilisation des produits pharmaceutiques et traditionnels dans le traitement des maladies des petits ruminants ont révélé que la phytothérapie vétérinaire est riche au Bénin.
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The distribution area of the red-bellied guenon (Cercopithecus erythrogaster erythrogaster) in the Dahomey Gap has not been fully documented. This study contributed to filling this information gap. Surveys were conducted in 21 villages located in the wetlands of southwestern Benin and southern Togo. We found that only a few small areas of forest along rivers and in swamps, difficult to access by humans, still sheltered primates. Three individuals of C. e. erythrogaster are reported for Toffangnanmè forest (Nakidahohoué village), a flooded and degraded forest surrounded by fields, and nine C. e. erythrogaster from the National Park of Togodo in Togo (NPT). The NPT may serve as the main refuge habitat for the red-bellied guenons in the study region. Interviews with local people in the area suggested the possibility that these monkeys may occasionally disperse from this refuge, entering adjacent habitats situated in the territory of Benin where thickets and fallows fringing cornfields are known to periodically host primates. Major threats to the conservation of C. e. erythrogaster documented in the area include poaching for crop protection, bush meat and the organ trade, as well as hunting for medicinal use, in addition to the increasingly detrimental habitat degradation due to agriculture and fuel wood collection. Résumé: L’aire de répartition du cercopithèque à ventre roux (Cercopithecus erythrogaster erythrogaster) dans le Dahomey Gap n’est pas encore bien cernée. Notre étude a permis à combler cette lacune. Des enquêtes ont été réalisées dans 21 villages situés dans les zones humides du Sud-ouest Bénin et au Sud Togo. Il ressort de nos investigations que seules les forêts galeries et les milieux marécageux, difficiles d’accès à l’homme abritent encore des primates. Trois individus de C. e. erythrogaster ont été observés à Nakidahohoué dans une forêt marécageuse dégradée, entourée de champs et jachères et 9 C. e. erythrogaster ont été observés dans le Parc National de Togodo au Togo (PNT). Le PNT constitue l’habitat principal des cercopithèques à ventre roux dans la zone d’étude. Les entretiens avec les populations de la zone d’étude révèlent la possibilité que ces singes fassent des incursions périodiques depuis le PNT dans les habitats adjacents situés au Bénin, constitués de fourrées et jachères proches des champs de maïs. Les principales menaces à la conservation de C. e. erythrogaster ont été le braconnage pour la protection des cultures, le commerce de la viande boucanée et des organes, la chasse pour des usages médico-magique, la dégradation de l’habitat par une agriculture extensive et le besoin en bois énergie et bois d’œuvre.
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When the author visited Nigeria in 1981 to look at forests on the lower Niger, there had been no reports for 15 years of the red-bellied guenon Cercopithecus erythrogaster, and only a single specimen of the olive colobus Procolobus verus was known from the country. He found surviving populations of both monkeys, but each is threatened by widespread, intensive hunting, and by habitat destruction. If effective measures are not taken to protect the guenon and its rainforest habitat, this species could become extinct, since it occurs only in southwestern Nigeria.
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Field observations and a study of museum skins showed that Cercopithecus erythrogaster is less variable than some accounts have suggested, and support its status as a valid species within the Cercopithecus cephus group. The species is still widespread in the lowland forest zone of southwest Nigeria, where it is most typically seen in dense, tangled growth below 15 m. Throughout the range of C erythrogaster, forests are being destroyed at a rapid rate and hunting for meat is intense, threatening the survival of the species. Alternative hypotheses for the existence of an endemic guenon in southwest Nigeria are discussed, and it is concluded that at present there is insufficient evidence to chose between them. ‘Cercopithecus signatus’ is shown not to be synonymous with C. erythrogaster; the signatus specimens may be hybrids.Copyright © 1985 S. Karger AG, Basel