Article

Brief Report Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Conditions in Children Aged 5-11 Years in Cambridgeshire, UK

Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
Autism (Impact Factor: 3.5). 10/2002; 6(3):231-7. DOI: 10.1177/1362361302006003002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to establish prevalence of the broader autistic spectrum, including Asperger syndrome, in 5- to 11-year-olds in Cambridgeshire, UK. Cases of diagnosed autism spectrum condition (ASC) in children who were in Cambridgeshire schools and aged between 5 and 11 years on 31 December 1999 were sought using public records, screening instruments, educational psychology and special educational needs coordinator (SENCO) records. We report a prevalence of ASC in the age group 5-11 years of almost 0.6 percent (57 in 10,000). This is 11 times higher than the rate of classic autism but in line with other recent national and international rates for the broader spectrum. In the responding mainstream schools the prevalence was 0.33 percent. In the responding special school population it was 12.5 percent. The overall sex ratio of the children with ASC replicated findings for classical autism of 4:1 (M:F), but in those children being educated in mainstream schools the sex ratio was 8:1 (M:F).

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    • "Males are more likely to be diagnosed with ASD than females, with an approximate male-to-female ratio of 4:1 (ADDM 2014). More females are diagnosed among children with ASD and profound intellectual disability (maleto-female ratio reaching to 1.3:1), than among children without intellectual disability (male-to-female ratio reaching 8:1) (Fombonne 2003; Scott et al. 2002; Yeargin-Allsopp et al. 2003). The lower proportion of females among those with ASD without intellectual disability might indicate that females with higher cognitive ability have symptoms that are either different or more subtle than in males, and could therefore lead to under-recognition and delay in diagnosis (Goldman 2013; Lai et al. 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the differences in clinical symptoms between females and males with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across three verbal ability groups (nonverbal, phrase and fluent speech), based on which Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule module was administered to 5723 individuals in four research datasets. In the Simons Simplex Collection and Autism Treatment Network, females with ASD and phrase or fluent speech had lower cognitive, adaptive, and social abilities than males. In the Autism Genetics Resource Exchange and the Autism Consortium, females with phrase or fluent speech had similar or better adaptive and social abilities than males. Females who were nonverbal had similar cognitive, adaptive, and social abilities as males. Population-based longitudinal studies of verbally fluent females with ASD are needed.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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    • "The ADOS and ADI-R were administrated by members of the research team who were fully trained in the use of these instruments to reliability levels for research purposes (Baron-Cohen et al., 2009). The examiners had been working in our research centre for a number of validation and prevalence studies (Allison et al., 2007; Scott et al., 2002a, 2002b; Williams et al., 2005; Williams, Higgins, & Brayne, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: A total number of 11,635 screening packs were distributed to 5–10 year-old children in 136 schools in Cambridgeshire to investigate the associations between levels of parental concern (none/minor/strong), socioeconomic status and the risk of having Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). The variables for investigating associations and possible confounders were extracted for analysis, including parental concern question score, SES, age of the child, sex, maternal age at birth, paternal age at birth, mother's age of leaving education, father's age of leaving education, birth order and the number of children in the family. The SES, age of the child, sex and mother's age at leaving education were associated with parental concern. Parents with higher SES reported higher levels of concern (Chi-square = 11.8; p = 0.02). However, a higher SES was not associated with the risk of having ASC (p = 0.50). After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of children meeting ASC criteria whose parents had reported strong parental concern were 8.5 times (odds ratio: 8.5; 95%CI: 4.5, 16.2; p < 0.001) the odds of children having ASC whose parents reported minor concern. No child met ASC criteria where parents expressed no concerns. Parents with higher social class express more concerns than those from lower social classes. However, the concerns reported by parents in higher SES did not appear to be specific for ASC as there was no relationship between ASC and SES.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Research in Developmental Disabilities
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    • "The ADOS and ADI-R were administrated by members of the research team who were fully trained in the use of these instruments to reliability levels for research purposes (Baron-Cohen et al., 2009). The examiners had been working in our research centre for a number of validation and prevalence studies (Allison et al., 2007; Scott et al., 2002a, 2002b; Williams et al., 2005; Williams, Higgins, & Brayne, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Epidemiological studies consistently find an association between Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and high socioeconomic status (SES) in families. We hypothesized that parents with high SES might have more concerns about their children with ASC. So far, limited research has investigated the association between parental concern, socioeconomic status and the risk of having ASC. Objectives: To investigate whether higher levels of parental concern about autistic symptoms predict higher risk of meeting ASC criteria; To investigate whether the SES of parents plays a role in any association between parental concern and risk of having ASC. Methods: A total number of 11,635 screening packs were distributed to 5-10 year-old children in 136 schools in Cambridgeshire. Parental concern was examined by using the Social Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ). The socioeconomic status of parents was generated using the self-coded National Statistics Socio-economic Classification (NS-SEC). The ASC status of children was investigated through assessments using ADOS and ADI-R and clinical diagnosis. The variables for investigating associations and possible confounders were extracted for analysis, including parental concern question score, SES, age of the child, sex, maternal age at birth, father’s age at birth, maternal age at leaving education, father’s age at leaving education, birth order and the number of children in the family. The associations between levels of parental concern (none/minor/strong) and SES, as well as the other variables were tested (Chi-squared). The association between parental concern, SES and the risk of ASC was examined by adjusting all the other variables in the model using unconditional logistic regression. Results: The SES, age of the child, sex and maternal age at leaving education were associated with parental concern. Parents with higher SES reported higher levels of concern (Chi-square=11.8; p=0.02). However, a higher SES was not associated with the risk of having ASC (p=0.50). Sex was found to be associated with both parental concern and the risk of ASC, and both were included in the final model. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of children meeting ASC criteria whose parents had reported strong parental concern were 8.5 times (odds ratio: 8.5; 95%CI: 4.5, 16.2; p<0.001) the odds of children having ASC whose parents reported minor concern. No child met ASC criteria where parents expressed no concerns. Conclusions: Parents with higher social class express more concerns than those from lower social classes. However, the concerns reported by parents in higher SES did not appear to be specific for ASC as there was no relationship between ASC and SES. Parental concern itself was strongly associated with a child meeting ASC criteria. The higher the degree of parental concern over their child in terms of emotions, concentration, behaviour or getting on with others, the more likely it is that the child will have ASC, independently of potential confounders. Conversely this study shows that where there is no parental concern expressed a child is extremely unlikely to meet diagnostic criteria. These findings should be of value in discussions related to which measures at what times are helpful in identifying children with ASC.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · May 2014
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