Article

How the presence of passengers influences the risk of a collision with another vehicle

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The risk of a collision with another vehicle due to the presence of passengers is analysed in detail in a large sample of accidents from Mittelfranken, Germany, from the years 1984 to 1997. Using a responsibility analysis, the overall effect of the presence of passengers and the influence of modifying variables is examined. While a general protective effect of the presence of passengers is found, this is reduced in young drivers, during darkness, in slow traffic and at crossroads, especially when disregarding the right of way and passing a car. These findings are interpreted as a general positive effect of the presence of passengers who influence the driver's behaviour towards more cautious and thus safer driving behaviour. However, passengers may also distract drivers' attention in an amount which cannot be compensated for in all situations and by all drivers by cautious driving. Besides educational measure, a potential solution to this problem may be driver assistance systems which give an adapted kind of support when passengers are present.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Some authors have found the presence of peer passengers to be a factor preventing risky driving. Young drivers accompanied by peers are more likely to comply more frequently with traffic regulations, like speed limitations (Black, 1978), time headways (Evansm, Wasielewski, & von Buseck, 1982), ''stop" signs (McKelvie & Schamer, 1988) and, as a result have a lower risk of car crashes (Engstrom, Gregersen, Granstrom, & Nyberg, 2008;Rueda-Domingo et al., 2004;Vollrath, Meilinger, & Krüger, 2002). However, other studies have found that peer presence increases the crash risk and the severity of resulting injuries (Lambert-Bélanger, Dubois, Weaver, Mullen, & Bédard, 2012;Lee & Abdel-Aty, 2008;Preusser et al., 1998;Vollrath et al., 2002). ...
... Young drivers accompanied by peers are more likely to comply more frequently with traffic regulations, like speed limitations (Black, 1978), time headways (Evansm, Wasielewski, & von Buseck, 1982), ''stop" signs (McKelvie & Schamer, 1988) and, as a result have a lower risk of car crashes (Engstrom, Gregersen, Granstrom, & Nyberg, 2008;Rueda-Domingo et al., 2004;Vollrath, Meilinger, & Krüger, 2002). However, other studies have found that peer presence increases the crash risk and the severity of resulting injuries (Lambert-Bélanger, Dubois, Weaver, Mullen, & Bédard, 2012;Lee & Abdel-Aty, 2008;Preusser et al., 1998;Vollrath et al., 2002). Moreover, studies have shown that drivers are more likely to engage in risky behaviors, such as paying less attention to the driving activity ( Vollrath et al., 2002), drinking and driving (Lee & Abdel-Aty, 2008), and to speed and follow closely (Delhomme, 1994;Simons-Morton, Lerner, & Singer, 2005). ...
... However, other studies have found that peer presence increases the crash risk and the severity of resulting injuries (Lambert-Bélanger, Dubois, Weaver, Mullen, & Bédard, 2012;Lee & Abdel-Aty, 2008;Preusser et al., 1998;Vollrath et al., 2002). Moreover, studies have shown that drivers are more likely to engage in risky behaviors, such as paying less attention to the driving activity ( Vollrath et al., 2002), drinking and driving (Lee & Abdel-Aty, 2008), and to speed and follow closely (Delhomme, 1994;Simons-Morton, Lerner, & Singer, 2005). The conclusions regarding the effect of peer presence are contradictory. ...
Article
Although many countermeasures have been implemented in Europe, young driverscontinue to have a high rate of involvement in car crashes. Their crash rate is higher inpresence of peer passengers than when driving alone. Peer presence could contributetoward explaining this involvement, especially regarding speeding. Peers are known tooften influence young drivers' risky behaviors through proximal (direct and indirect activepressures) and distal (passive pressure) forms of intervention (Allen & Brown, 2008). This present study examined the effect of peer pressure and peer risk taking on the estimated speeding behavior of a scenario driver (ESBSD) as well as on the estimated speeding inten-tion of a scenario driver (ESISD). The scenario driver was the main character in an online-scenario based questionnaire regarding speeding. The main character is a fictional young male depicted driving with his best friends in all the experimental scenarios in which the variables type of pressure and peer risk taking were manipulated. One hundred and eighty young French drivers (18-25 years, 50% men) took part in the study. The key findings were that (1) only direct and indirect active pressure, but not passive pressure, increased the ESBSD and that (2) high (vs. low) peer risk taking lead to a higher ESISD. However, no interaction between the pressure type and peer risk taking on ESBSD and ESISD was found. Implications of the findings are discussed.
... Some authors have found the presence of peer passengers to be a factor preventing risky driving. Young drivers accompanied by peers are more likely to comply more frequently with traffic regulations, like speed limitations (Black, 1978), time headways (Evansm, Wasielewski, & von Buseck, 1982), ''stop" signs (McKelvie & Schamer, 1988) and, as a result have a lower risk of car crashes (Engstrom, Gregersen, Granstrom, & Nyberg, 2008;Rueda-Domingo et al., 2004;Vollrath, Meilinger, & Krüger, 2002). However, other studies have found that peer presence increases the crash risk and the severity of resulting injuries (Lambert-Bélanger, Dubois, Weaver, Mullen, & Bédard, 2012;Lee & Abdel-Aty, 2008;Preusser et al., 1998;Vollrath et al., 2002). ...
... Young drivers accompanied by peers are more likely to comply more frequently with traffic regulations, like speed limitations (Black, 1978), time headways (Evansm, Wasielewski, & von Buseck, 1982), ''stop" signs (McKelvie & Schamer, 1988) and, as a result have a lower risk of car crashes (Engstrom, Gregersen, Granstrom, & Nyberg, 2008;Rueda-Domingo et al., 2004;Vollrath, Meilinger, & Krüger, 2002). However, other studies have found that peer presence increases the crash risk and the severity of resulting injuries (Lambert-Bélanger, Dubois, Weaver, Mullen, & Bédard, 2012;Lee & Abdel-Aty, 2008;Preusser et al., 1998;Vollrath et al., 2002). Moreover, studies have shown that drivers are more likely to engage in risky behaviors, such as paying less attention to the driving activity ( Vollrath et al., 2002), drinking and driving (Lee & Abdel-Aty, 2008), and to speed and follow closely (Delhomme, 1994;Simons-Morton, Lerner, & Singer, 2005). ...
... However, other studies have found that peer presence increases the crash risk and the severity of resulting injuries (Lambert-Bélanger, Dubois, Weaver, Mullen, & Bédard, 2012;Lee & Abdel-Aty, 2008;Preusser et al., 1998;Vollrath et al., 2002). Moreover, studies have shown that drivers are more likely to engage in risky behaviors, such as paying less attention to the driving activity ( Vollrath et al., 2002), drinking and driving (Lee & Abdel-Aty, 2008), and to speed and follow closely (Delhomme, 1994;Simons-Morton, Lerner, & Singer, 2005). The conclusions regarding the effect of peer presence are contradictory. ...
... However, in general, an association is reported between passengers in the car and crash risks among drivers. On the one hand, driving alone leads to an increased risk of an accident as compared to driving with passengers (Vollrath, Meilinger, & Krüger, 2002). Furthermore, there is evidence for decreased death rates when there are passengers in the car and specifically, 30-59 year-old drivers who carried passengers had decreased death rates (Chen, Baker, Braver, & Li, 2000). ...
... Most of the previous studies that have investigated the effect of passengers' presence focused at the rate of crashes as an outcome of others' presence at the car (Lee & Abdel-Aty, 2008;Vollrath et al., 2002). Following the distinction between errors and violations that may cause road crashes (Reason et al., 1990) and since traffic violations are related to crashes (e.g. ...
... In general, our findings indicate that drivers displayed safer driving behavior when passengers accompany drivers, namely, higher likelihood of seatbelt use and lower likelihood of violating. It is already known that drivers who carry passengers in the car are involved in less road crashes (for example, Vollrath et al., 2002) but little is known how it happens. Our research is focus at the drivers' behavior, more specifically, violating the traffic rules. ...
... These include factors that affect people's behaviors and depend on their personal characteristics (e.g., gender, age, and capabilities), the surrounding people (e.g., type of companion or crowd), the resources they use (e.g., type of vehicle and mobile phones), and the context (e.g., activity and meaning of the environment). The literature already acknowledges the influence of these aspects on traffic (e.g., pedestrians in groups [8], bicycles [9], or passengers [10]).However, there are few studies that focus on how to incorporate them into traffic systems, and most of them adopt ad-hoc approaches [6,7]. This makes it difficult to integrate systems or different information types to provide more sophisticated services. ...
... Traffic social properties describe prototypical social contexts or processes over them. For instance, on the behavior of pedestrians in groups [8], passengers in vehicles [10], or AT contradictions (see Section 2.2). They follow the template for general social properties [12] but using the SADAS-ML. ...
... The type of vehicle used also implies differences in traffic behavior (e.g., for pedestrians [8], cars [10], bicycles [9] and scooters [31]). Vehicles have different characteristics (e.g., maneuverability, maximum speed, applicable norms, and allowed lanes). ...
Article
Full-text available
Shared spaces are gaining presence in cities, where a variety of players and mobility types (pedestrians, bicycles, motorcycles, and cars) move without specifically delimited areas. This makes the traffic they comprise challenging for automated systems. The information traditionally considered (e.g., streets, and obstacle positions and speeds) is not enough to build suitable models of the environment. The required explanatory and anticipation capabilities need additional information to improve them. Social aspects (e.g., goal of the displacement, companion, or available time) should be considered, as they have a strong influence on how people move and interact with the environment. This paper presents the Social-Aware Driver Assistance System (SADAS) approach to integrate this information into traffic systems. It relies on a domain-specific modelling language for social contexts and their changes. Specifications compliant with it describe social and system information, their links, and how to process them. Traffic social properties are the formalization within the language of relevant knowledge extracted from literature to interpret information. A multi-agent system architecture manages these specifications and additional processing resources. A SADAS can be connected to other parts of traffic systems by means of subscription-notification mechanisms. The case study to illustrate the approach applies social knowledge to predict people’s movements. It considers a distributed system for obstacle detection and tracking, and the intelligent management of traffic signals.
... Moreover, the crash risk increased for every year that the vehicles' age increased (2). Driving alone, when compared to driving with passengers, increases the risk of an accident (3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9). Furthermore, female drivers had a lower accident risk than males, while older (aged over 50) and younger drivers (18-21 years old) had an increased risk compared to middle-aged drivers (3). ...
... Young male passengers increased a younger drivers' crash potential, whereas female passengers who accompanied male drivers strongly decreased the risk of a crash. For drivers aged 65 to 70, although the presence of passengers reduced the risk of some unsafe actions (eg, driving the wrong way), it increased the risk of other actions such as; ignoring signs, warnings, and right of way (3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9). Trucks were identified to be responsible for causing some of the accidents. ...
... The declared aim of this study is to enrich the driving task with new stimuli in order to prevent the driver's performance from constantly declining and ultimately preventing the driver from losing sight of the driving task altogether. It has been proven that new stimuli or an increase in mental strain [101], such as those offered by co-drivers [20,99], increase driving performance. According to the studies by Markey et al. [58], four aspects have to be considered to continuously engage drivers. ...
... The topics of conversation during the passenger ride did not offer any potential for conflict and the co-drivers were also urged not to engage in any disputes in order not to influence the trials. Nevertheless, disputes with the co-driver can have a considerable influence on driving safety [99]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Driving fatigue can have serious consequences. Too often fatal accidents are caused by fatigue. However, it is not uncommon for fatigue to occur while driving when the driver is under-challenged. Due to the increasing automation of vehicles, it is foreseeable that the number of accidents caused by monotony will increase. Interactions between driver and vehicle through gamification can remedy the situation and provide the driver with new stimuli during an otherwise monotonous journey. Methods In order to test the effectiveness of such interactions, we conducted a driving simulator study with 31 test persons to investigate driving performance and psycho-physiological parameters. Each subject ran through the experiment three times in randomized order to test the interaction system in comparison to a ride in which the driver was alone and a ride in which the driver had a co-driver. Results The results provide clear indications of safer driving of the test subjects when driving with gamification and with a passenger. The tested interaction system prevents upcoming fatigue in a similar way to communication with a passenger. The experiments also provide insights into the effects of monotony in vehicle driving.
... Driver behaviors such as speed (17), mobile phone use while driving (18), alcohol/drug involvement (8,12), smoking, driving errors, regular walking, and having adequate sleep (19) are also predictors of seatbelt use for drivers. Furthermore, age and sex of passengers along with their wearing of seatbelts and their seating position (5,20) affect driver seatbelt use (3,13,14,18,19,(21)(22)(23)(24). ...
... However, the latter factor was found to be the strongest predictor in the multivariate model. Generally, most previous studies have found a protective effect of passenger presence on car crash, especially when either the driver or passenger is not young (13,15,16,19,(21)(22)(23)(24). Although this effect could also be applicable in the context of seatbelt use, the final model failed to support this result. ...
... Road transportation can be defined as a social activity involving interactions between different road users (e.g., drivers, pedestrians, cyclists) and enabling them to adopt numerous risky behaviors depending on the presence or the absence of others. For example, the presence of passengers has often been linked to either adopting safer behaviors (Baxter, Manstead, Stradling, Campbell, Reason, & Parker, 1990; Doherty, Andrey, & MacGregor, 1998; Evans, 1991; Hing, Stamatiadis, & Aultman-Hall, 2003; Isaac, Kennedy, & Graham, 1995; Reiß & Krüger, 1995; Rueda-Domingoa et al., 2004; Vollrath, Meilinger, & Kruger, 2002) or engaging in risky ones (Lam, Norton, Woodward, Connor, & Ameratunga, 2003; Preusser, Ferguson, & Williams, 1998). Sanders (1981) suggested that passengers enable the driver to divide his/her attention between the primary task (= driving) and the interaction with the passenger(s) which leads to a cognitive conflict. ...
... This conflict motivates drivers to compensate for the lack of cognitive focus on the primary task by driving slower (Black, 1978), taking more distance when crossing intersections (e.g., Ebbensen & Haney, 1973), respecting more frequently the time headway (Evans, Wasielewski & Von Busenck, 1982), respecting the " stop " sign or using the seat-belt (McKelvie & Schamer, 1988). Nonetheless, the presence of passengers was also associated with engaging in risky behaviors such as paying less attention to the driving activity (Cooper, Atkins, & Gillen, 2005; Doherty et al., 1998; Vollrath et al., 2002), drinking and driving (Lee & Abdel-Aty, 2008; Williams, Rappold, Ferguson, & Wells, 1997; Williams & Shabanova, 2002), and speeding (Simons-Morton, Lerner, & Singer, 2005). However, in most of these studies, the passengers were passive spectators; what happens in situations where we observe other road users engaged in the same activity performing a risky action/behavior? ...
... Road transportation can be defined as a social activity involving interactions between different road users (e.g., drivers, pedestrians, cyclists) and enabling them to adopt numerous risky behaviors depending on the presence or the absence of others. For example, the presence of passengers has often been linked to either adopting safer behaviors (Baxter, Manstead, Stradling, Campbell, Reason, & Parker, 1990; Doherty, Andrey, & MacGregor, 1998; Evans, 1991; Hing, Stamatiadis, & Aultman-Hall, 2003; Isaac, Kennedy, & Graham, 1995; Reiß & Krüger, 1995; Rueda-Domingoa et al., 2004; Vollrath, Meilinger, & Kruger, 2002) or engaging in risky ones (Lam, Norton, Woodward, Connor, & Ameratunga, 2003; Preusser, Ferguson, & Williams, 1998). Sanders (1981) suggested that passengers enable the driver to divide his/her attention between the primary task (= driving) and the interaction with the passenger(s) which leads to a cognitive conflict. ...
... This conflict motivates drivers to compensate for the lack of cognitive focus on the primary task by driving slower (Black, 1978), taking more distance when crossing intersections (e.g., Ebbensen & Haney, 1973), respecting more frequently the time headway (Evans, Wasielewski & Von Busenck, 1982), respecting the " stop " sign or using the seat-belt (McKelvie & Schamer, 1988). Nonetheless, the presence of passengers was also associated with engaging in risky behaviors such as paying less attention to the driving activity (Cooper, Atkins, & Gillen, 2005; Doherty et al., 1998; Vollrath et al., 2002), drinking and driving (Lee & Abdel-Aty, 2008; Williams, Rappold, Ferguson, & Wells, 1997; Williams & Shabanova, 2002), and speeding (Simons-Morton, Lerner, & Singer, 2005). However, in most of these studies, the passengers were passive spectators; what happens in situations where we observe other road users engaged in the same activity performing a risky action/behavior? ...
... Studies evaluating crash risk have come to inconsistent conclusions about the effects of passengers. Some studies suggest that passengers may be a source of distraction and are associated with increased crash risk (Williams et al., 2007), while others suggest that passengers may have a positive (i.e., protective) effect on drivers and are associated with lower crash risk (Vollrath, Meilinger, & Kruger, 2002). These contradictory findings are likely due to different characteristics of the driver and passengers, such as their relationship to one another, age and gender, as well as varying driving conditions. ...
... On the other hand, passengers may have a protective effect on drivers by warning them of potential hazards, helping with navigation, and encouraging safer driving behaviors. Vollrath et al. (2002) found that, for the majority of the driving population , passengers were associated with a reduced rate of accidents compared to driving solo; however this positive effect was smaller in driving situations where high attentional demand was required, such as when passing another vehicle. Lee and Abdel-Aty (2008) found that, with the exception of younger drivers with younger passengers, the presence of passengers was generally associated with safer driving behaviors, such as wearing seatbelts and not driving after alcohol use. ...
... Considering the fact that a substantial percentage of vehicles involve more than one occupant, there is an extensive literature that has looked at how the presence of passengers affects the likelihood of a crash (Hing et al., 2003;Simons-Morton et al., 2005;Lee and Abdel-Aty, 2008). In this regard, some studies have shown that passengers may reduce the risk of causing a crash (Vollrath et al., 2002;Hing et al., 2003;Rueda-Domingo et al., 2004;Lee and Abdel-Aty, 2008), while other studies have shown a higher potential of causing a crash in the presence of passengers (Lin and Fearn, 2003;Keall et al., 2004;Cooper et al., 2005;Simons-Morton et al., 2005). The effects of various sub-populations of passengers on the risk of causing a crash has also been the focus of some studies in the past. ...
... It has been speculated that this might be due to the fact that risky driving such as speeding is more prevalent in the presence of peer passengers (Ross et al., 2016). Moreover, peer passengers have been found to have more distractive effects on the younger drivers (Vollrath et al., 2002;Ross et al., 2016). Distracted younger drivers in the presence of teenage passengers have also been reported in other studies (Lam et al., 2003;Cooper et al., 2005). ...
Article
This paper seeks to investigate the effects of passengers on driver-injury severities. Using single-vehicle crashes, a random parameters logit model with heterogeneity in parameter means is estimated to explore the differences in driver-injury severities in three distinct subgroups; vehicles with one occupant (driver-only), vehicles with two occupants (driver and a passenger), and vehicles with three occupants (driver and two passengers). In addition to considering age, gender and the presence of the passenger(s), a wide range of variables that potentially affect driver-injury severity were considered, including weather conditions, roadway characteristics, vehicle characteristics and driver attributes. Estimation results show that both the age and the gender of the passenger(s) significantly affected driver-injury severities. The findings of this research point toward the need to further study the potentially complex interactions between drivers and passengers.
... For example, a video analysis by Carney et al., (2015) found that a driver conversing or otherwise interacting with a passenger was the most common factor in teen-driver crashes (15%), followed by a driver being engaged in a cell phone conversation (12%). However, a different pattern emerges when there is an adult driver/passenger dyad; the crash rate falls below 1.0 ( Rueda-Domingo et al., 2004;Vollrath, Meilinger, & Kruger, 2002). By contrast, when adult drivers are engaged in a cell phone conversation, there is an elevated in crash risk ( Dingus et al., 2016;Redelmeier & Tibshirani, 1997;McEvoy et al., 2005). ...
... As mentioned above, passenger conversations and cell phone conversations are associated with different crash risk profiles. Epidemiological evidence (Rueda Domingo et al., 2004;Vollrath, Meilinger, & Kruger, 2002) indicates that the crash rate drops below 1.0 when there is an adult passenger in the vehicle (i.e., there is a slight safety advantage for having another adult passenger in the vehicle, but not for teen driver/passenger dyads, see Carney et al., 2015). By contrast, the epidemiological evidence suggests an elevated crash risk (ranging between 2.2 and 4.0, depending on the method) associated with cell phone conversations ( Dingus et al., 2016;Redelmeier & Tibshirani, 1997;McEvoy et al., 2005). ...
... Many studies are epidemiological in nature and have focused on the link between passenger presence and accident risk. Despite evidence of an overall decrease in accident risk when driving with a passenger (Engström et al., 2008;Lee and Abdel-Aty, 2008;Vollrath et al., 2002), findings are inconclusive when characteristics of the driver such as age or gender are taken into account. In some studies, the protective effect of the passenger was reduced for young drivers but still remained (Engström et al., 2008;Vollrath et al., 2002). ...
... Despite evidence of an overall decrease in accident risk when driving with a passenger (Engström et al., 2008;Lee and Abdel-Aty, 2008;Vollrath et al., 2002), findings are inconclusive when characteristics of the driver such as age or gender are taken into account. In some studies, the protective effect of the passenger was reduced for young drivers but still remained (Engström et al., 2008;Vollrath et al., 2002). Other studies, in contrast, point to an increased accident risk of young, in particular male drivers in the company of a passenger (Lee and Abdel-Aty, 2008;Regan and Mitsopoulos, 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Vehicle speed is a key component in road traffic safety. Extending the notion that road traffic is a complex social system, an experimental driving simulator study was conducted to investigate the unique and joint effects of speed limitation, road geometry, passenger presence, and driver characteristics on drivers’ choice of speed in an urban environment. These factors were only found to affect drivers’ choice of speed under a 50-km/h speed limit but not under a 30-km/h limit. Moreover, speed compliance was conditional on the level of the speed limit. Implications for road traffic safety are addressed.
... Passenger presence: Passenger presence and their behavior and interaction with drivers have been conventionally interpreted to have an adverse effect on driving, leading to an RwD crash. However, studies have also suggested the presence of passengers could influence all drivers to be more cautious (Orsi et al., 2013;Vollrath et al., 2002). Older drivers with passengers were found to be safer during nighttime (Hing et al., 2003), and younger drivers were also reported to be in reduced risk due to assistance with guidance for directions (McDonald and Sommers, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Roadway departure (RwD) crashes are a major contributor of rural two-lane (R2L) highway crashes and fatalities. For targeted reduction of crashes and fatalities due to roadway departure, a thorough understanding of factors associated with RwD crashes is necessary. This study quantitively assessed the available pre-crash factors that might influence the RwD crashes by developing a logit model comparing roadway, crash environment, and the vehicle and driver-related characteristics of 122,978 crashes that occurred in Louisiana over thirteen years. With a high prediction accuracy (81.9% area under the receiver operating characteristics curve), the model presented significant individual associations across crash characteristics with RwD crashes on R2L highways, for example-animals on roadways, snow/sleet/hail, 50-55 mph speed limit, AADT of 1,001 to 5,000 vehicles per day, drug intoxication, motorcycles, driving during 12 am to 6 am, curve radius of 501 to 1,000 ft., absence of streetlight, alcohol intoxication. Investigation on these top factors using association rules mining reveals findings such as-a higher likelihood of RwD crashes can be strongly associated animal presence coupled with the absence of streetlights, male drivers during the early morning (12 am to 6 am), male drivers driving with no passengers, drivers being intoxicated by both drugs and alcohol, etc. Findings from this study are expected to help highway safety specialists not only in identifying and predicting RwD crashes but also in an improved understanding of associated contributing factors leading to the application of proper countermeasures for the strategic reduction of RwD crashes.
... the car than when the driver is alone (Rueda-Domingo et al., 2004;Vollrath, Meilinger, & Krüger, 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive load from secondary tasks is a source of distraction causing injuries and fatalities on the roadway. The Detection Response Task (DRT) is an international standard for assessing cognitive load on drivers’ attention that can be performed as a secondary task with little to no measurable effect on the primary driving task. We investigated whether decrements in DRT performance were related to the rate of information processing, levels of response caution, or the non-decision processing of drivers. We had pairs of participants take part in the DRT while performing a simulated driving task, manipulated cognitive load via the conversation between driver and passenger, and observed associated slowing in DRT response time. Fits of the single-bound diffusion model indicated that slowing was mediated by an increase in response caution. We propose the novel hypothesis that, rather than the DRT’s sensitivity to cognitive load being a direct result of a loss of information processing capacity to other tasks, it is an indirect result of a general tendency to be more cautious when making responses in more demanding situations.
... However, peer pressure does not always result in risky driving since it depends on the norms within the group and in some instances, it could also protect people from risky driving (Engström, 2008;Guggenheim & Taubman -Ben-Ari, 2015;Rueda-Domingo et al., 2004;Shope & Bingham, 2008;Vollrath, Meilinger & Krüger, 2002). According to Engström, (2008) group cohesion is thus an important factor determining how driver behaviour develops, positively or negatively. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of what motivates young people to take risks in traffic but also why young men are more likely to get involved in road crashes. The participants aged 16-19 years (N=945) completed an online survey. The questions were influenced by the Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the Prototype willingness model (PWM) and included a scenario describing a person riding a moped at 65 km/h in an urban area, in which the speed limit was 50 km/h. The results, using a regression analysis, showed that a model which explained their willingness to speed was slightly better than a model explaining their intention. The best predictor, according to the beta weights in both models, was that it was "fun". However, this variable was more important in explaining their willingness than their intention. Other similar factors describing emotions with immediate rewards were also significantly more important in the prediction of willingness than intention. When analysing the willingness to speed amongst young men and women, the results presented both similar and different results. Both were heavily influenced by a belief that it would be "fun". However, only young men also believed that it would impress others and that it would make them popular. Young women on the other hand did not believe that the behaviour was particularly boylike which could explain why they could identify with a person who sped. The conclusion, from this study, is that speeding can be described as a reactive behaviour, but it could not be ruled out that it also can be planned. Based on the results from this study it is concluded that TPB would benefit from the inclusion of PWM variables.
... In general, studies based on accident data have suggested that the presence of passengers reduces adult drivers' crash risk, but that the effect is neutral or even reversed when a teenage driver is driving with teenage passengers (e.g. Lee and Abdel-Aty 2008;Preusser et al. 1998;Rueda-Domigo et al. 2004;Vollrath et al. 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Studies based on accident statistics generally suggest that the presence of a passenger reduces adult drivers' accident risk. However, passengers have been reported to be a source of distraction in a remarkable portion of distraction related crashes. Although the effect of passengers on driving performance has been studied extensively, few studies have focused on how a child passenger affects the driver. A child in a car is a potential distractor for parents, especially for mothers of small children who often suffer from sleep deficit. The aim of this study was to examine how the presence of child passengers of different ages is associated with a higher driver culpability, which was expected due to child related distraction and fatigue. Methods: The analysis was based on the comprehensive data of fatal crashes studied in-depth by multidisciplinary road accident investigation teams in Finland during 1988-2012. Teams determine the primary party who had the most crucial effect on the origin of the event. We define the primary party as culpable and the others involved as non-culpable drivers. The culpability rate was defined as the percentage of culpable drivers and rates were compared for drivers with a child/teen passenger aged 0-17 year (N = 348), with an adult passenger without children (N = 324) and when driving alone (N = 579), grouped by child age and driver gender. Drivers with specific risk-related behavior (substantial speeding, driving when intoxicated, unbelted, or without license) were excluded from the analyses, in order to make the drivers with and without children comparable. Only drivers 26-47 years old were included, representing parents with children 0-9 years of age. Results: Male drivers were less often culpable with 0-17 year old passengers in the car than alone or with adults. This was not the case with female drivers. The gender difference in culpability was most marked with small children of 0-4 years. Female drivers' culpability rate with a 0-4 year old child passenger was higher but male drivers' lower as compared to drivers without passengers or with only adult passenger. Conclusion: The results indicate that female drivers are at higher risk of crashes than male drivers when driving with small children. Further research is needed to replicate this finding and to determine causal mechanisms.
... Furthermore, with certain additional information, the co-driver could have a positive effect since he/she could support the driver with the driving task. Such a positive effect of co-driver support was also found in the study by Perterer et al. (2015) and the positive effect of co-driver presence on driving safety was supported by Vollrath et al. (2002). Besides an increase of co-driver comfort such an assistant system could also make it more attractive being a co-driver. ...
Article
Full-text available
This work investigates which conditions lead to co-driver discomfort aside from classical motion sickness, what characterizes uncomfortable situations, and why these conditions have a negative effect. The automobile is called a “passenger vehicle” as its main purpose is the transportation of people. However, passengers in the car are rarely considered in research concerning driving discomfort. The few studies in this area focus on driver discomfort, automated vehicles, or driver assistant systems. An earlier public survey indicated that discomfort is also a relevant problem for co-drivers. In this paper, these results are confirmed and extended through an online questionnaire with N = 119 participants and a detailed follow-up interview study with N = 24 participants was conducted. The results of the online questionnaire show that co-driver discomfort is a widespread problem (88%). The interviews indicate that the driving style is one factor contributing to co-driver discomfort, in particular close following or fast driving. In those situations, participants experienced a feeling of being exposed, which additionally contributed to their discomfort. Uncomfortable situations were also perceived as safety critical. A model for possible cognitive origins of discomfort in co-drivers, extending theories from the areas of stress and self-regulation, is developed based on the results. Co-driver discomfort is a common problem, highlighting the relevance of further research on supporting co-drivers. The reported correlations and the proposed model can help to explain the origin of this discomfort. The results provide a foundation for the future design of interventions like human machine interfaces aiming at reducing co-driver discomfort.
... 4,14 Yet other studies demonstrate a "two heads are better than one" effect, increasing the total amount of vigilance in a car when conversation is carefully managed. 32,37 These studies reiterate that drivers and passengers have a shared understanding of the driving context and may be able to modulate their talking as the situation demands. 18 Entertainment systems are a known distraction. ...
Article
AUTONOMOUS CARS PROMISE to give us back the time we spend in traffic, improve the flow of traffic, reduce accidents, deaths, and injuries, and make personal car travel possible for everyone regardless of their abilities or condition. But despite impressive demonstrations and technical advances, many obstacles remain on the road to fully autonomous cars.20 Overcoming the challenges to enabling autonomous cars to safely operate in highly complex driving situations may take some time. Manufacturers already produce partially automated cars, and a spirited competition to deliver the most sophisticated ones is under way. Cars that provide high levels of automation in some circumstances (such as highway driving) have already arrived in the marketplace and promise to be in the hands of a large number of car owners in the next few years.
... Passenger presence: Passenger presence and their behavior and interaction with drivers have been conventionally interpreted to have an adverse effect on driving, leading to an RwD crash. However, studies have also suggested the presence of passengers could influence all drivers to be more cautious (Orsi et al., 2013;Vollrath et al., 2002). Older drivers with passengers were found to be safer during nighttime (Hing et al., 2003), and younger drivers were also reported to be in reduced risk due to assistance with guidance for directions (McDonald and Sommers, 2016). ...
... A summary of previous studies related to possible difficulty faced by drivers Difficulties faced by road users to get updated with real start conditions of electric vehicle. M. Vollrath, T. Meilinger, H. P.Krüger[26] ...
Article
Full-text available
Not only pollution concerns, but also the rising prices of fuel used in conventional vehicles are enforcing people to make use of electric vehicles. In spite of numerous advantages such as pollution‐free, noiseless smooth drive; there may be the new possibility of difficulties occurring due to the quiet nature of electric vehicles (EVs). To examine this, it was intended to conduct an extensive questionnaire survey with 398 driver participants to acquire technical data at Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR). The analysis used a well‐proven driver behaviour questionnaire (DBQ) built on a six‐point scale to statistically evaluate driver behaviour responses to perceived risk. This study aims to evaluate the perceived risk encountered by drivers that influence road safety by considering age group, driving experience, and gender. A systematic ANOVA approach was employed to evaluate the significant factors. The results show that the perceived risk is different based on the gender of the driver, especially when parking the vehicle (p=0.000, F=10.11716>Fcrit). The moderate difficulty level for identifying the presence of electric vehicles is present in almost all situations; however, no significant difference was recorded based on gender, age, and driving experience in the rest of the cases. The outcome of the proposed work would be useful while designing the safety policy for electric vehicles.
... Les conducteurs novices sont plus susceptibles que les conducteurs expérimentés d'avoir leurs comportements influencés négativement par les pressions exercées par leurs passagers (e.g. Chein, Albert, O'Brien, Uckert, & Steinberg, 2011;Gheorghiu, Delhomme, & Felonneau, 2015;Simons-Morton, Lerner, & Singer, 2005;Vollrath, Meilinger, & Krüger, 2002). Cette influence négative des pairs se traduit par l'adoption de plus de comportements à risque et des violations, à la fois en situations réelle et en conditions expérimentales (Chein et al., 2011;Van Hoorn, Crone, & Van Leijenhorst, 2017). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This PhD thesis aims at two main goals. First, it seeks to identify how newly licensed drivers learn high order driving skills (i.e. perception, comprehension, anticipation), during the first few months of autonomous driving. Second, it seeks as identify how virtual reality and simulation tools can be used to assess and promote learning of these skills. These goals have been motivated by observation of young drivers being 3 to 4 times more likely to die in a car accident compared to older drivers (McCartt, Shabanova, & Leaf, 2003). However, this higher risk decreases rapidly during the first 6 to 8 months, or first thousands of miles of autonomous driving (Gregersen et al., 2000; McCartt et al., 2003). Therefore, these first times would involve novice drivers learning safety crucial higher order driving skills (Hatakka et al., 2002). Indeed, literature shows that these skills are by far the most involved in novice drivers' higher risk (Braitman et al.,2008). They include perceptive and cognitive skills that are necessary for assessment of (perception, comprehension, projection) and decision making in, normal and/or risky driving situations (Deery, 1999). Three studies have been conducted. A first paradigm uses semi-directed interviews with novice drivers (study 1) to show that perceptive and cognitive skills are acquired through a "learning by doing" process during the first moments of autonomous driving. Characteristics of involved situations include dynamic, complex and somewhat unexpected events. A second paradigm uses a full-scale simulator and oculometry (study 2), as well as complex and unexpected situations, to assess drivers perceptive and cognitive skills. Results show that characteristics of situations (visible or hidden danger) involve different skills (perception VS. anticipation). Results also identify combined indicators (eg. measurement of time between danger perception and braking) permitting precise measurements of anticipation and decision-making driving skills. A last paradigm uses a medium-fidelity simulator to compare retroaction-based protocols for learning of perceptive and cognitive driving skills. Results show that simple, immediate retroactions, using textual explanations of learning situations, are effective for skills improvement. Based on these results, recommendations are produced to improve driving simulator's efficiency for training. On a theoretical standpoint, this work first increases knowledge about learning mechanisms of higher order driving skills. Second, this work also suggests several updates of perceptive and cognitive skills models.
... Nevertheless, the protective effect of passengers was revealed by Vollrath et al. [5]. Statistical analysis was fulfilled on data of vehicle collisions in Germany, 1984-1997. ...
Article
Numerous aspects exist to characterize product quality. Nowadays, in the case of road vehicles, one of the most important issues is the acoustic comfort of the interior. However, the detection of the traffic environment is a further key question. In the case of minor vehicle collisions, the perceptibility is to analyze. Within the framework of the current study, the results of airborne noise measurements are presented. Experimental data were used to design predictive fuzzy models to estimate cabin noise level, which is in connection with the audibility of outer sourcing sounds. Two concepts of inference systems were investigated by examining accuracy, conformity and,0 residuals: Mamdani and Sugeno type ones. It was finally concluded that for estimating interior noise, Sugeno type fuzzy model is the better choice, as the accuracy and conformity are higher. In addition, the range of residuals is a magnitude lower: Mamdani type FIS provided-2.30 ~ 2.30 dB (-3.84 ~ 3.30%), Sugeno type one resulted-0.40 ~ 0.20 dB (-0.57 ~ 0.33%). Furthermore, the residuals follow Gaussian distribution in the case of the Sugeno predictive fuzzy model.
... Participants reported a moderate intention to run the red light and turn left into an intersection in the described situations in the following 12 months and expressed a mildly positive attitude toward both behaviors. These results may be explained by the fact that risky behaviors such as running the red light and turning left in an intersection have often been associated with positive outcomes such as preserving physical energy and gaining time (e.g., Cristea & Delhomme, 2016) and, therefore, are frequently encouraged by peers and significant others (e.g., (Curry, Mirman, Kallan, Winston, & Durbin, 2012;Vollrath, Meilinger, & Krager, 2002). ...
Article
The theory of planned behavior (TPB, Ajzen, 1985) has proved its efficiency in predicting different behaviors among road users (Sheeran & Orbell, 2000). The present study examined the TPB factors explaining risk taking among vulnerable road users (e.g., cyclists). We presumed that attitude, social norms, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) would predict cyclists’ intention to adopt a risky behavior in two traffic contexts considered as risk-conducive (i.e., run the red-light, turn left). Participants (N = 224, Mage = 23.34) filled in an online scenario-based questionnaire describing two traffic situations conducive to risk taking and including measures for cyclists’ intentions to adopt risky behaviors in these specific contexts, TPB factors, and self-perceived efficacy. TPB factors explained 49% and 65% of the variance in the intention to cross the red light, respectively the intention to turn left, with positive attitude and high PBC as the best predictors. Implications of the results were discussed.
... Moreover, the pattern of findings that was observed paves the way for exploring the role of other types of distractors on the driving behavior of patients with MCI as well as of the impact of the mobile phone use on drivers belonging to other clinical groups. Finally, the absence of a negative impact of the driving condition with conversation on the reaction time and accident risk of patients with MCI complements previous studies that support the view that older drivers may benefit by a capable co-passenger that provides effective instructions and comments regarding traffic and navigation parameters (Lam et al., 2003;Michel and Meyers, 2004;Padlo et al., 2005;Vollrath et al., 2002). Nonetheless, this does not imply that conversing with a copassenger about irrelevant issues could be a positive recommendation for any group of drivers because the specific practice is commonly a main source of distraction during the driving routine. ...
Article
Objectives: In-vehicle distraction is considered to be an important cause of road accidents. Drivers with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), because of their attenuated cognitive resources, may be vulnerable to the effects of distraction; however, previous relevant research is lacking. The main objective of the current study was to explore the effect of in-vehicle distraction on the driving performance of MCI patients, by assessing their reaction time at unexpected incidents and accident probability. Methods: Thirteen patients with MCI (age: 64.5±7.2) and 12 cognitively intact individuals (age: 60.0±7.7), all active drivers were introduced in the study. The driving simulator experiment included three distraction conditions: (a) undistracted driving, (b) conversing with passenger and (c) conversing through a hand-held mobile phone. Results: The mixed ANOVA models revealed a greater effect of distraction on MCI patients. Specifically, the use of mobile phone induced a more pronounced impact on reaction time and accident probability in the group of patients, as compared to healthy controls. On the other hand, in the driving condition "conversing with passenger" the interaction effects regarding reaction time and accident probability were not significant. Notably, the aforementioned findings concerning the MCI patients in the case of the mobile phone were observed despite the effort of the drivers to apply a compensatory strategy by reducing significantly their speed in this driving condition. Conclusion: Overall, the current findings indicate, for the first time, that a common driving practice, such as the use of mobile phone, may have a detrimental impact on the driving performance of individuals with MCI.
... We used an Infinity Q50 instrumented to monitor participants' bio-metrics, behaviors, and driving dynamics ( Figure 1). We designed our system for a single driver driving alone, as 76.4% of all US commuters drive alone [17], and because the presence of a passenger impacts a driver's behavior often reducing aggressive driving and increasing caution thus resulting in a safer driving experience [26,34]. Here, we outline the instrumentation of the car and provide an overview of our haptic guidance system. ...
Article
Full-text available
Commutes provide an opportune time and space for interventions that mitigate stress-particularly stress accumulated during the workday. In this study, we test the efficacy and safety of haptic guided slow breathing interventions of short duration while driving. We also present design and experimental implications for evolving these interventions from prior simulator to moving vehicle scenarios. We ran a controlled study (N=24) testing a haptic guided breathing system in a closed circuit under normal and stressful driving conditions. Results show the intervention to be successful in both user adoption and system effectiveness with an 82% rate of engagement in intervention and clear reduction of breathing rate and physiological arousal, with no effect on driving safety and minimal effect on performance. The haptic intervention received positive acceptance from the participants: all indicated a willingness to engage with the intervention in the future and all rated the intervention as safe for traffic applications. The results of this study encourage further investigations exploring the use of the intervention on public roads and monitoring for longitudinal health benefits.
... For drivers aged 65 to 79 years, the presence of passengers was associated with a reduced risk for some unsafe actions (e.g., driving the wrong way) but a higher risk of other actions (e.g., ignoring signs/warnings/right of way). Bedard and Meyers noted that this is a crucial finding because many researchers have shown that intersections are problematic for older drivers 4,68,72 ; and given the growing body of evidence suggesting that older individuals may have difficulties in dividing attention, [54][55][56] it raises the possibility that, in some critical situations, the presence of passengers may act as a source of distraction for the older drivers, thereby increasing their crash risk 133 . Bedard and Meyers concluded that, in order to maximize safe driving for older drivers, it would be desirable to enhance the role of passengers in situations where they may play a beneficial role and minimize the potential negative effect they have in others. ...
... During the 5 years from 2008 through 2012 (the last year for which final data are available) 1 , motor vehicle crashes killed 34,091 people each year in the United States, on average, 23,783 (69.8) percent of whom were motor vehicle occupants (excluding motorcyclists) [1][2][3]. As a cause of death in the United States in 2009, traffic crashes ranked first among both 5-14 and 15-24 year olds, third among 1-4 year olds, and fifth among [25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44] year olds [4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
During the 5 years from 2008 through 2012, motor vehicle crashes killed 34,091 people each year in the United States, on average, 23,783 (69.8) percent of whom were motor vehicle occupants. This study analyzes motor vehicle occupant fatality risk in terms of person-time exposed as a function of age, sex, period of week, and interactions of these factors. Results reveal strong circadian periodicities of occupant fatalities and fatality risk, with greater risk during late evening-early morning hours every day of the week and the greatest risk during Friday-Saturday and Saturday-Sun-day evening-to-morning hours. But these circadian trends interact with age and sex whereby young male occupants exhibit the most fatalities and risk. The circadian variation in occupant fatality risk-across demographic age-sex populations , days of the week, and drunk-and nondrunk-driver-related fatal crashes-suggests a drowsiness component acting alone, and sometimes synergistically with alcohol, to impair the judgment and performance of motor vehicle occupants.
... 5 years and older). Vollrath et.al. (2002) reported 28% reduction in the risk of a driver being responsible for an accident in the presence of passengers. A possible explanation for this finding is that older drivers use passengers as co-pilot to help them navigate to unfamiliar destinations or to alert them to potential hazards. However, although Vollrath et. al. (2002) showed that this benefit was strongest in some situations (e.g., keeping a safe distance from other cars), it was weaker in other situations (e.g., at crossroads, in situations involving right of way, while overtaking, while turning). ...
... However, the pattern changes for adult drivers. Epidemiological evidence (Rueda-Domingo et al., 2004;Vollrath, Meilinger, & Kruger, 2002) indicates that the crash rate drops below 1.0 when there is an adult passenger in the vehicle (i.e., there is a slight safety advantage for having another adult passenger in the vehicle). Drews et al. (2008) found that adult passengers are often actively engaged in supporting the driver by pointing out hazards, helping to navigate, and reminding the driver of the task (i.e., exiting at the rest stop). ...
Article
Full-text available
Driver distraction is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. Distraction can arise from visual/manual interference, for example, when a driver takes his or her eyes off the road to interact with a device. Impairments also come from cognitive sources of distraction when attention is withdrawn from the processing of information necessary for the safe operation of a motor vehicle. In the latter case, the driver’s eyes may be on the roadway and his or her hands on the steering wheel, but he or she may not be attending to the information critical for safe driving. Concern over distracted driving is growing as more and more wireless devices are being integrated into the vehicle. We developed and validated a metric of distraction associated with the diversion of attention from driving. Our studies show that the distraction potential can be reliably measured, that cognitive workload systematically varies as a function of the secondary task performed by the driver, and that some activities, particularly newer voice-based interactions in the vehicle, are associated with surprisingly high levels of mental workload. Changing the culture of distracted driving will require a combination of scientifically based education concerning the hazards of inattention, regulations that target the root causes of distraction, and enforcement of the distracted driving laws.
... For instance, numerous studies have shown safer driver behaviors with the presence of passengers, such as fewer traffic violations (e.g., Precht et al., 2017b;Rosenbloom & Perlman, 2016), driving errors (e.g., Ross, Jongen, Brijs, Brijs, & Wets, 2016) and lower crash risk (e.g., Vollrath, Meilinger, & Krüger, 2002). Conversely, some findings have indicated that passen- ger presence correlates with an increase in driving errors and crash risk, as well as a decrease of hazard avoidance due to cognitive distraction, particularly for young drivers (for a review, see Durbin, McGehee, Fisher, & McCartt, 2014). ...
Article
Researchers have identified various factors that likely affect aberrant driving behaviors and therefore crash risk. However, it remains unclear which of these factors poses the greatest risk for committing either errors or violations under naturalistic driving conditions. This study investigated important variables contributing to driving errors and traffic violations based on naturalistic driving data from the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2). The analyzed driving segments preceded both safety critical events and matched baselines. Results showed that intersection influence, high-risk visually distracting secondary tasks, and the severities of the safety critical events were the main factors associated with driving errors. The primary factors linked to violations were intersection influence, persistent individual differences in driver behavior, and the severities of the safety critical events. Furthermore, the number of aberrant driving behaviors in trip segments preceding crashes was higher than in the matched segments unrelated to safety critical events. However, the most common aberrant driving behavior types in the respective segment groups appeared to resemble each other. This suggests that crashes became more likely due to drivers committing more violations and errors overall as opposed to drivers making one certain type of error or violation.
... It remains to be determined to what extent co-pilots impact older driver safety and performance. Some studies have suggested that older adults have lower collision rates when passengers in the car [71][72][73]; but these studies do not address whether it is the co-piloting role of the front seat passenger that is protective. From our previous work on visually impaired drivers who use bioptic telescopes, some drivers report they value the presence of a normally sighted passenger in clarifying the roadway environment [55]; yet the drivers we studied were young-to-middle aged adults, not older adults. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Older drivers aged ≥70 years old have among the highest rates of motor vehicle collisions (MVC) compared to other age groups. Driving is a highly visual task, and older adults have a high prevalence of vision impairment compared to other ages. Most studies addressing visual risk factors for MVCs by older drivers utilize vehicle accident reports as the primary outcome, an approach with several methodological limitations. Naturalistic driving research methods overcome these challenges and involve installing a high-tech, unobtrusive data acquisition system (DAS) in an older driver’s own vehicle. The DAS continuously records multi-channel video of driver and roadway, sensor-based kinematics, GPS location, and presence of nearby objects in front of the vehicle, providing an objective measure of driving exposure. In this naturalistic driving study, the purpose is to examine the relationship between vision and crashes and near-crashes, lane-keeping, turning at intersections, driving performance during secondary tasks demands, and the role of front-seat passengers. An additional aim is to compare results of the on-road driving evaluation by a certified driving rehabilitation specialist to objective indicators of driving performance derived from the naturalistic data. Methods Drivers ≥70 years old are recruited from ophthalmology clinics and a previous population-based study of older drivers, with the goal of recruiting persons with wide ranging visual function. Target samples size is 195 drivers. At a baseline visit, the DAS is installed in the participant’s vehicle and a battery of health and functional assessments are administered to the driver including visual-sensory and visual-cognitive tests. The DAS remains installed in the vehicle for six months while the participant goes about his/her normal driving with no imposed study restrictions. After six months, the driver returns for DAS de-installation, repeat vision testing, and an on-road driving evaluation by a certified driving rehabilitation specialist (CDRS). The data streams recorded by the DAS are uploaded to the data coordinating center for analysis. DiscussionThe Alabama VIP Older Driver Study is the first naturalistic older driver study specifically focused on the enrollment of drivers with vision impairment in order to study the relationship between visual dysfunction and driver safety and performance.
... One of main causes of young drivers incidents is driving after using alcohol and or/drugs, speeding and exhaustion [42,43]. There is some evidence which show that presence of peers or passenger in car can be a factor to decrease the risky driving because when young drivers go somewhere with peers are more tend to follow traffic regulations such as speed limitation, stop signs and so lower risk of accident [44,45]. But on other hand, some studies show that young drivers have higher tendency to take more risk and it can increase the accident risk. ...
Article
Full-text available
Road traffic accidents represented as the third cause of “death and disease” also the major cause of death among young people aged 15-29 years. In recent decade consequential investigation has been conducted on road crash contributing factors. All these researches showed that the recurrence and severity of accidents depend on many causes, such as vehicle performance, roadway environment, and characteristics of road users. Despite many studies in this field, the function of human factors on road accidents, is still unclear, due to the complex human characteristics. The lack of comprehensive model or procedure for scrutiny and evaluating the human characteristics which contributed to road incidents, motivate us to review on previous studies in order to indicate the relationships between human factors and road safety. This paper focus on the natural driving behavior of drivers including hazard perception and risk-taking of drivers which is affected by age, perceptual/cognitive abilities and driving experience. The study clearly shows that the mentioned factors have a huge impact on road incidents. Therefore, this paper indicate and recommend a number of solutions in order to mitigate the severity and frequency of accidents caused by human errors. Also previous road safety studies will provide series of crucial information for improvement of driver licensing and their training procedure.
... (3) Discussion on how to prepare the data to train supervised algorithms to find the right time to intervene stress while driving. As the great majority of Americans commute by car alone [7], and driver behavior might change with passengers on board [16], we sent participants as single passengers into morning (7.00 to 10.00 am) or evening (3.30 to 8.00 pm) commute traffic. Participants. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper focuses on the larger question of when to administer in-car just-in-time stress management interventions. We look at the influence of driving-related stress to find the right time to provide personalized and contextually-aware interventions. We address this challenge with a data driven approach that takes into consideration driving-induced stress, driver (cognitive) availability, and indicators of risky driving behavior such as lane departures and high steering reversal rates. We ran a study with sixteen commuters during morning and evening traffic while applying an in-situ experience sampling. During 45 minutes of driving through various scenarios including city, highway, and neighborhood roads we captured physiological measurements, video of participants and surroundings, and CAN bus driving data. Initial review of the data shows that stress levels changed greatly between 2 and 9 (out of a 0-min to 10-max scale). We conclude with a discussion on how to prepare the data to train supervised algorithms to find the right time to intervene stress while driving.
... Abdel-Aty, 2008;Orsi et al., 2013;Braitman et al., 2014;Ouimet et al., 2015;Behnood and Mannering, 2017). Studies have shown that the presence of an adult passenger reduces adult drivers' crash risks (e.g. Lee and Abdel-Aty, 2008;Vollrath et al., 2002) and it has been suggested that the presence of a child passenger also reduces adult drivers' crash risks (Dingus et al., 2016;Rueda-Domingo et al., 2004). Adult passengers may reduce crash risks by helping the driver (e.g. in copiloting), but this same mechanism cannot explain the lower risks with small child passengers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective A remarkable portion of children’s traffic-related deaths occurred when travelling in as passengers in vehicles, but so far, few studies have focused on crash characteristics and crash risks of drivers with child passengers. It has been assumed that drivers with child passengers drive responsibly, but on the contrary, children in vehicles can distract drivers, increasing crash risks. In this study, we examined fatal crash characteristics and fatal crash risks of drivers with child passengers. Methods Fatal crash data from the U.S. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for 1996–2015 were used. Only passenger-vehicle drivers aged 23–46 years old were included in the analysis because they represent the typical age of drivers with 0–9-year-old child passengers in the database. Prevalence of crash characteristics and the odds of being at fault were examined for drivers with only child passengers and compared to drivers with only adult passengers, with no passengers and with both adult and child passengers. Analyses were done separately for intersection crashes and non-junction crashes. Results Female drivers were involved in twice as many fatal crashes alone with child passengers compared to male drivers. Drivers with only child passengers were more often reported as being inattentive, but for them, risk-taking behaviours were less typical than for drivers without child passengers. Our results showed that these differences were more evident in non-junction crashes than in intersection crashes. When risk-taking behaviours were controlled, both male and female drivers with only child passengers had higher odds of being at fault than drivers with adult passengers (with or without children) in non-junction crashes, but these differences were not significant in intersection crashes. Conclusions Drivers with child passengers represent a specific driver population. They have a higher tendency to engage in distractions while driving, but they have fewer risk-taking behaviour-related fatal crashes compared to drivers with no child passengers. Our results indicate that the effects of child-passenger-related distractions on fatal crash risks are more relevant outside intersections, presumably because drivers may try to self-regulate their interactions with child passengers and focus on driving in more demanding traffic situations.
... Increased crash risk due to the influence of passengers can be observed via driving performance metrics: measures that serve as proxy for crash risk, including speeding, maneuvering the vehicle in a safe manner, braking in a safe manner, and maintaining lane position (Ferguson, 2013;Mahmud et al., 2017). Peers may encourage a teen driver to speed up and negotiate a dangerous pass (Allen and Brown, 2008;Brechwald and Prinstein, 2011;Chipman et al., 1998;Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004;Vollrath et al., 2002). Past research has found that when riding with teen passengers, particularly male drivers with male passengers, teen drivers have higher instances of speeding (> 15 mph above the posted speed limit) than the general population (Simons-Morton et al., 2005). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
D’un point de vue de santé publique, la route fait encore beaucoup trop de victimes, pour la plupart évitables : 704 décès et 6 397 blessés graves selon la SAAQ (2005). Le bilan des cinq dernières années (2000-2005) exprime une nette tendance à la hausse au Québec. En effet, le nombre de victimes décédées a augmenté de plus de 9 % entre 2004 et 2005 et les blessures graves de 14,2%. Dans le réseau hospitalier, cela représente plus de 4 000 hospitalisations en moyenne par année (INSPQ, 2006). Les gains importants réalisés depuis vingt ans sont largement attribuables aux programmes qui se sont attaqués à la conduite avec facultés affaiblies, ont renforcé le port de la ceinture de sécurité, de même que la construction de véhicules plus sécuritaires. Cependant, plusieurs facteurs, qui n’ont pas eu le même traitement contribuent aujourd’hui à cette situation au Québec. Le phénomène généralisé du non respect de la vitesse légale sur l’ensemble du réseau routier de même que la conduite avec facultés affaiblies peuvent expliquer en partie cette stagnation du bilan sinon sa détérioration. À ces problèmes, il faut ajouter la multiplication des sources de distraction dans les véhicules et parmi ces dernières, le téléphone cellulaire. Le Québec n’échappe pas au phénomène mondial de l’engouement pour le « cellulaire ». Au Canada, le nombre d’abonnés à un service de télécommunications sans fil est passé de 6 000 à 17 000 000 entre 1985 et 2005. Des sondages récents rapportent que plus de 50 % des Québécois possédant un cellulaire en font usage en conduisant, soit l’équivalent d’un conducteur sur quatre. Cet avis s’intéresse à ce comportement et répond à la question suivante: l’utilisation du cellulaire au volant augmente-t-elle le risque de collision et de traumatisme routier? D’autres questions sont aussi traitées : 1. les dispositifs « en main » et « main libre » produisent-ils les mêmes effets sur la performance et le risque? 2. les effets liés au cellulaire au volant sont-ils similaires à d’autres sources de distraction (radio, conversation, autres instruments et télématiques embarqués)? 3. y a-t-il un effet d’apprentissage sur le risque? 4. doit-on interdire le cellulaire au volant et quelles sont les mesures efficaces pour éliminer ce risque? Pour répondre à ces questions, nous avons adopté une approche de recension systématique des écrits scientifiques sur le sujet. Les bases de données, pages web et experts en sécurité routière ont été consultés pour le repérage et la sélection des études et des documents jugés pertinents. Les conclusions générales s’appuient sur des critères appliqués à des populations relativement homogènes d’études. La convergence des résultats d’études qui emploient des méthodologies variées et des données de sources distinctes permet de statuer avec davantage de certitude sur le risque de ce comportement routier (Simpson, 2005). Les analyses ont permis d’établir l’effet du cellulaire sur la performance des conducteurs, leurs comportements routiers et le risque de collision. Elles déterminent ces effets respectifs selon le type de dispositifs « en main » et « main libre ». Finalement elles abordent les Avis de santé publique sur les effets du cellulaire au volant et recommandations RÉSUMÉ La route : encore trop de victimes! Institut national de santé publique du Québec III Avis de santé publique sur les effets du cellulaire au volant et recommandations résultats obtenus au regard des actions mises de l’avant pour limiter les risques associés au cellulaire au volant. L’utilisation du cellulaire au volant détériore la performance et augmente le risque de collision Toutes les études recensées pointent dans la même direction : l’utilisation du cellulaire au volant détériore la performance des conducteurs et augmente leur risque de collision. Certaines tâches dites « primaires » sont requises lors de la conduite d’un véhicule à moteur. L’utilisation d’un cellulaire constitue une tâche « secondaire ». Or, selon les résultats des études expérimentales qui évaluent l’effet du cellulaire sur la performance, les conducteurs ont plus de difficulté à réaliser les tâches primaires requises à la conduite d’un véhicule lorsqu’ils parlent au cellulaire. Cette baisse de la performance se traduit, entre autres, par une augmentation du temps de réaction au freinage, une plus grande difficulté à rester au centre de la voie, une diminution du champ visuel et des aptitudes à éviter les obstacles sur la route. Bref, le cellulaire affecte négativement les tâches de nature cognitive, visuelle et biomécanique. Selon les mesures de performance, le cellulaire affecte davantage les tâches cognitives et visuelles que biomécaniques. Cette dégradation de la performance a pour effet d’augmenter le risque de collision. En effet, selon toutes les études épidémiologiques consultées, les utilisateurs de cellulaire affichent des taux de collisions supérieurs aux non-utilisateurs de cellulaire. Ces études montrent également que le risque croît avec l’usage. Les utilisateurs fréquents de cellulaire ont un risque plus élevé d’être impliqués dans une collision que les utilisateurs sporadiques. D’autres études employant des méthodologies différentes permettent d’étayer ces conclusions. Trois études ont établi que les utilisateurs qui emploient leur cellulaire au volant multiplient d’environ quatre fois leur risque de collision. De plus, on a démontré que cette différence n’était pas due à une propension accrue à prendre des risques chez ces utilisateurs. Une étude québécoise a démontré qu’avant qu’ils ne se procurent un cellulaire, les utilisateurs actuels de cellulaire avaient un taux de collision comparable au groupe qui est resté non-utilisateur. C’est par la suite que leur taux de collision s’est détérioré. Cette même étude démontre non seulement que le cellulaire augmente le risque de collision, mais elle remplit aussi les critères permettant d’avancer qu’il existe une relation causale entre l’utilisation du cellulaire au volant et le risque de collision. Dispositif « en main » ou « main libre » : le risque de collision est le même Tant les études expérimentales qu’épidémiologiques établissent que le dispositif « main libre » affecte autant la conduite que le dispositif « en main ». Même si la baisse de performance agit sur l’ensemble des tâches, la distraction causée par le cellulaire est principalement cognitive. On ne peut donc pas supprimer la distraction en retirant les tâches manuelles liées au dispositif « en main ». IV Institut national de santé publique du Québec Des analyses plus pointues ont aussi permis d’établir que la distraction perdure même lorsque les participants ont réalisé le même parcours routier à plusieurs reprises lors des expérimentations. Bien que les participants aient parfois tendance à s’améliorer d’une séance à l’autre, la performance reste toujours inférieure pour le participant qui utilise le cellulaire par rapport à une condition témoin qui demande de conduire sans distraction. Autres sources de distraction et risque de collision : preuves insuffisantes Bien que le cellulaire ne soit pas la seule source de distraction au volant, la majorité des études portent sur ce dispositif. En raison du peu d’études et de la disparité des résultats, il est impossible de comparer l’effet du cellulaire à celui d’autres télématiques ni de se prononcer sur les effets des autres télématiques et instruments de bord sur la conduite. On peut penser cependant que l’usage de tout instrument qui entraîne une tâche secondaire et nécessite une attention cognitive, visuelle ou biomécanique aussi importante que le cellulaire aurait des effets similaires sur la performance et le risque de collision. Ainsi, l’utilisation du système de courriels à reconnaissance de la voix affecterait autant la conduite que le cellulaire. Enfin, la comparaison du cellulaire avec la radio ou la conversation avec un passager est souvent invoquée pour banaliser son utilisation. Or, les résultats des études recensées nous portent à croire que l’écoute de la radio de même que la conversation avec un passager sont moins nuisibles que la conversation au cellulaire. De plus, le passager adapterait son débit verbal à la difficulté de la tâche de conduite, phénomène absent lors de la conversation téléphonique. Ce dernier a également l’avantage de voir la route et mettra un terme à la conversation si la tâche du conducteur devient plus difficile. En somme, les activités passives, qui ne demandent aucune réaction de la part du conducteur, ne sollicitent pas les ressources cognitives et donc, permettent au conducteur de concentrer toute son attention sur la conduite. Par contre, les actions qui nécessitent une réponse du conducteur et qui font appel à ses ressources cognitives risquent de compromettre sa sécurité. L’utilisation du cellulaire au volant : un comportement à bannir Afin d’encadrer le cellulaire au volant, de nombreuses juridictions ont promulgué des lois. Cinq études ont évalué l’effet des lois, soit sur le taux d’utilisation du téléphone « en main » ou sur les taux de collisions. Certaines évaluations rapportent une réduction des taux d’utilisation du cellulaire « en main » suite à l’introduction de la loi et un retour au taux initial précédant l’entrée en vigueur de la loi. Les évaluations comportent toutefois plusieurs lacunes. Les analyses reposent souvent sur une simple comparaison avant/après et ne tiennent pas compte d’autres facteurs susceptibles d’influer sur les taux d’utilisation ou de collisions. Par exemple, les ventes de cellulaires sont en hausse. Il est plausible que les lois ne fassent pas diminuer le taux d’utilisation, mais qu’elles le stabilisent ou en ralentissent la progression. Or, cette hypothèse n’est pas considérée dans les études. De même, les lois Avis de santé publique sur les effets du cellulaire au volant et recommandations Même avec la pratique, le risque perdure Institut national de santé publique du Québec V Avis de santé publique sur les effets du cellulaire au volant et recommandations sont souvent introduites sans aucune mesure de renforcement, limitant ainsi leur potentiel. La seule étude qui s’est penchée sur l’effet des lois sur les taux de collisions a été réalisée au Japon. Selon cette étude, les collisions associées au cellulaire auraient chuté de plus de 50 % et les collisions mortelles de 20 % suite à l’entrée en vigueur d’une loi interdisant le cellulaire « en main ». Toutefois, les mêmes réserves s’appliquent à cette étude en l’absence de détails permettant de savoir si ces résultats ne sont pas influencés par d’autres mesures mises en place simultanément. Même si plusieurs études suggèrent que l’utilisation du cellulaire au volant représente un facteur de risque, ce comportement n’est pas encore règlementé au Québec. Sujet largement médiatisé, une série de « points de vue » véhiculés laissent croire à une absence de consensus sur les risques associés au cellulaire au volant. Cependant, une enquête réalisée en juin 2006 indique que 93 % des québécois pensent que le cellulaire au volant devrait être interdit dont plus de la moitié d’entre eux sont favorables à une interdiction totale (INSPQ, 2006). À la lumière des résultats observés dans les études empiriques et d’un contexte favorable, l’Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ) considère que l’utilisation du cellulaire au volant représente un important risque pour les usagers du réseau routier et formule trois principales recommandations. Recommandation 1 : interdiction complète du cellulaire au volant À la lumière des principales conclusions de l’avis, l’INSPQ considère que la tâche de conduite est suffisamment complexe et que l’utilisation du cellulaire au volant ne fait qu’augmenter significativement le risque de collision et ce, indépendamment du dispositif. La littérature scientifique est non équivoque : le recours à un dispositif « main libre » ne réduit pas la distraction associée au cellulaire, car cette dernière est principalement de nature cognitive et visuelle. Étant donné que l’utilisation du cellulaire au volant : • n’est pas un dispositif d’aide à la conduite; • détériore la performance du conducteur, particulièrement en ce qui a trait aux tâches cognitives et visuelles; • augmente significativement le risque de collisions et de traumatismes routiers. L’INSPQ recommande que l’utilisation du cellulaire en conduisant soit complètement interdite. Bien que la presque totalité des juridictions ont promulgué des lois interdisant uniquement le dispositif « en main », ces dernières sont incohérentes avec la littérature scientifique et pourrait même avoir un effet pervers. Ce n’est pas le maniement du cellulaire en soi qui distrait le conducteur, mais bien la conversation téléphonique. Les lois qui bannissent uniquement le dispositif « en main » véhiculent le message que l’utilisation du cellulaire est sécuritaire du moment que le conducteur à les mains libres, ce qui est faux. Les études ont non seulement démontré que les distractions visuelles et cognitives sont toujours présentes, mais aussi que la piètre qualité des dispositifs main libre amplifie la distraction (Matthews et coll., 2003). Notre recommandation rejoint également l’opinion des automobilistes canadiens et québécois qui, dans une proportion de 2/3, considèrent VI Institut national de santé publique du Québec Avis de santé publique sur les effets du cellulaire au volant et recommandations l’utilisation du cellulaire au volant comme un problème grave ou très grave de sécurité routière (Beirness et coll., 2002). Un récent sondage de l’INSPQ révèle même que 93 % des Québécois sont en faveur d’une loi qui encadre l’utilisation du cellulaire au volant. Enfin, ces recommandations n’enlèvent rien aux avantages du cellulaire, soit de contacter les services d’urgence en cas de collision ou de rapporter des délits aux policiers. Les automobilistes n’auraient qu’à s’immobiliser en bordure de la route et à effectuer l’appel. Recommandation 2 : règlementer l’installation des télématiques dans les véhicules Bien que le cellulaire soit le dispositif télématique le plus utilisé et répandu, les constructeurs automobiles équipent leurs véhicules de plus en plus d’autres dispositifs de base tels que les systèmes d’aide à la conduite - qui contiennent en fait plusieurs autres télématiques telles que les cartes routières et le système de courriel - et les DVD/télévision. Certains véhicules haut de gamme sont même équipés d’ordinateur portable qui s’insère dans la boîte à gants. Comme le cellulaire est le dispositif le plus populaire, la presque totalité des études portent sur l’effet de ce système sur la performance et les risques de collision. Or, les dispositifs qui requièrent, tout comme le cellulaire, des ressources cognitives et visuelles nécessaires à la réalisation des tâches primaires, sont susceptibles de distraire le conducteur. C’est la conclusion de Lee et coll. (2001) qui démontrent que l’emploi d’un système de courriels à reconnaissance de la voix influe négativement sur la performance des conducteurs. Encore une fois, le fait que le dispositif permette au conducteur de garder les mains sur le volant n’enraye pas l’effet de distraction. L’INSPQ recommande que les dispositifs télématiques qui n’aident pas à la conduite ne puissent pas être installés sur les véhicules à défaut d’une preuve contraire. Ainsi, Transport Canada devrait obliger les constructeurs automobiles à effectuer certains tests pour assurer que les nouveaux dispositifs télématiques ne nuisent pas à la conduite. La preuve incomberait aux constructeurs tel le principe qui s’applique aux compagnies pharmaceutiques qui désirent commercialiser un médicament. L’INSPQ encourage également les chercheurs à s’intéresser davantage à la distraction causée par les autres télématiques et dispositifs dans les véhicules. Recommandation 3 : modifier les rapports de collision Présentement, les rapports de collisions ne prévoient aucune case permettant de rapporter systématiquement la présence du cellulaire. Or, de telles cases sont disponibles pour indiquer la présence de conduite avec facultés affaiblies et des excès de vitesse lors des collisions. L’INSPQ recommande la modification des rapports de collision de manière à mieux mesurer la prévalence du cellulaire comme cause de collision d’une part, et à mieux connaître les circonstances dans lesquelles les collisions associées au cellulaire surviennent.
Article
Passenger collaboration offers a potential compensatory strategy to assist older drivers who have difficulty driving in unfamiliar areas (wayfinding). This article describes a survey of 194 healthy, community-dwelling older drivers and their regular passengers to investigate how passengers assist drivers, and to identify the characteristics of drivers and passengers who regularly collaborate to assist with wayfinding. Three aspects of passenger assistance were investigated: Pre-trip planning, directional guidance and searching for visual cues. Results revealed a high incidence of collaboration amongst drivers and passengers who regularly drive together. Collaboration was dependent on the perceived wayfinding abilities of the driver by both passenger and driver, suggesting that passengers are more likely to help if they think they will be of assistance. This information provides baseline information on which future research can examine the safety benefits of passenger assistance in wayfinding.
Article
Introduction: In an aging society that is more and more information-oriented, being able to replace human passengers' protective effects on vehicle drivers with those of social robots is both essential and promising. However, the effects of a social robot's presence on drivers have not yet been fully explored. Thus, using a driving simulator and a conversation robot, this experimental study had two main goals: (a) to find out whether social robots' anthropomorphic qualities (i.e., not the practical information the robot provides drivers) have protective effects by promoting attentive driving and alleviating crash risks; and (b) by what psychological processes such effects emerge. Method: Participants were recruited from young (n = 38), the middle-aged (n = 39), and the elderly (n = 49) age groups. They were assigned to either the treatment group (simulated driving in a conversation robot's presence) or the control group (simulated driving alone), and their driving performance was measured. Mental states (peaceful, concentrating, and reflective) also were assessed in a post-driving questionnaire using our original scales. Results: Although the group of older participants did not experience protective effects (perhaps due to motion sickness), the young participants drove attentively, with the robot enhancing peace of mind. The protective effect was also observed among the middle-aged participants, and the verbal data analysis ascribed this to the robot's role of expressing sympathy, especially when the middle-aged drivers nearly had not-at-fault crashes, which caused them to be stressed. In conclusion, we discuss the practical implications of the results.
Conference Paper
We present active corners, a novel interaction approach for in-car collaboration that maps the spatial arrangement of a car with up to four people (i.e., driver, front seat passenger, and two rear seat passengers) to the form factor of a tablet (i.e., having 4 corners). We use this mental model to allow the driver and passengers to collaborate with each other. Interaction is done by dragging-and-dropping items into the according corners of individual tablets. We present the basic interaction design concept along with three application scenarios. In order to evaluate active corners, we have implemented a multiplayer card game that exploits the proposed interaction concept and fosters collaboration. We report on four field studies in which we evaluated different aspects of the active corners concept. Results show that the interaction approach is intuitive and provides a high usability even in driving conditions.
Article
Introduction: This study investigated the relation between co-presence and bicyclists' riding behavior. We assumed that the presence of peer riders would either facilitate or inhibit risky behaviors depending on bicyclists' perceptions of three traffic contexts conducive to risk taking (i.e., red-light, go straight, and turn to left). Method: Young bicyclists (N=207)were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions (alone vs.with peers). They filled in a scenario-based questionnaire about their intentions to adopt risky behaviors in three specific traffic situations as well as their risk perception of these situations and their general self-perceived efficacy as a bicyclist. We hypothesized that the presence of peer riders engaged in a risky behavior will facilitate the intention to adopt risky behaviors in situations where group risk is evaluated as lower than individual risk. In opposition, the presence of peer riders engaged in a risky behavior will inhibit the intention to adopt risky behaviors in situations where group risk is evaluated as higher than individual risk. Results: The results confirmed the hypotheses. Practical Applications: The findings offer insights for developing new effective education and intervention programs in order to reduce the frequency of dangerous behavior among bicyclists.
Conference Paper
On the one hand, mobility of elderly people is critical for their quality of lives and welfare. On the other hand, older drivers have higher crash rates per vehicle-mile of travel. In order to achieve the two conflicting goals, driving safety and mobility of the elderly, the present paper aims to discuss the possibility that intelligent artifacts can play a role of reducing crash risk of elderly drivers. A research design for obtaining empirical evidence on the effectiveness of robot presence in vehicles is also discussed.
Article
Researchers have identified various factors that likely affect aberrant driving behaviors and therefore crash risk. However, it remains unclear which of these factors poses the greatest risk for either errors or violations under naturalistic driving conditions. This study investigated important variables contributing to driving errors and traffic violations based on naturalistic driving data from the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2). In addition, this study identified factors determining the drivers’ willingness to perform common secondary tasks while driving, which have been associated with different degrees of crash risk. Results showed that anger, passenger presence, and persistent individual differences in driver behavior were the main factors associated with committed violations; surprise, high-risk visually distracting secondary tasks, and the driving task demand passing through an interchange were the main factors associated with errors. The willingness to engage in risky secondary tasks while driving appeared to be related to an overall tendency to engage in risky driving behaviors. However, drivers considered the driving context particularly when engaging in visually distracting secondary tasks. This study’s comprehensive approach should be a step towards generating a complete model of the variables that contribute to, or mitigate dangers in traffic.
Article
In 2015, traffic crashes involving driver distraction contributed to 3447 deaths and approximately 391,000 injuries in the United States (). Cell phones were involved in 14% of these fatal crashes and 8% of these injury crashes. The purpose of this study was to observe road user, specifically pedestrian and driver, distraction prevalence and patterns (Phase I) and then to examine the potential conflict between these road users (Phase II). Observational data was collected at four intersections in Washington, D.C. Road user data included but was not limited to: distraction type (e.g., cell phone), sex, age, location, and conflict indicators. In Phase I, 4871 road users were observed; 60% were pedestrians and 40% were drivers. Of the total, 49% were distracted by single or multiple distractors. There were 46% of individuals distracted by engaging with other people, and 27% were distracted by cell phones. The main distractor for both pedestrians (44%) and drivers (49%) was engaging with other people. Pedestrians had approximately 1.5 greater odds of being distracted than drivers. Females had 14% greater odds of being distracted than males. The odds of being distracted were almost two times higher for road users ages 16-25 compared to road users 26-35. The high prevalence of distraction, specifically engaging with other people, shows that electronic device use may not be the only important source of distraction. In Phase II, 20 out of 21 interactions between distracted pedestrians and distracted drivers resulted in evasive maneuvers by either road user. In these interactions, drivers altered course more frequently than pedestrians. These results suggest that distraction while driving or walking is related to potential conflicts. Future research could explore different methods of quantifying distraction and should continue to focus on the effect of distraction on road user behavior.
Article
Attributions of fault are often associated with worse injury outcomes; however, the consistency and magnitude of these impacts is not known. This review examined the prognostic role of fault on health, mental health, pain and work outcomes after transport injury. A systematic search of five electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library) yielded 16,324 records published between 2000 and January 2018. Eligibility criteria were: adult transport injury survivors; prospective design; multivariable analysis; fault-related factor analysed; pain, mental health, general health or work-related outcome. Citations (n = 10,558, excluding duplicates) and full text articles (n = 555) were screened manually (Reviewer 1), and using concurrent machine learning and text mining (Reviewer 2; using Abstrackr, WordStat and QDA miner). Data from 55 papers that met all inclusion criteria were extracted, papers were evaluated for risk of bias using the QUIPS tool, and overall level of evidence was assessed using the GRADE tool. There were six main fault-related factors classified as: fault or responsibility, fault-based compensation, lawyer involvement or litigation, blame or guilt, road user or position in vehicle, and impact direction. Overall there were inconsistent associations between fault and transport injury outcomes, and 60% of papers had high risk of bias. There was moderate evidence that fault-based compensation claims were associated with poorer health-related outcomes, and that lawyer involvement was associated with poorer work outcomes beyond 12 months post-injury. However, the evidence of negative associations between fault-based compensation claims and work-related outcomes was limited. Lawyer involvement and fault-based compensation claims were associated with adverse mental health outcomes six months post-injury, but not beyond 12 months. The most consistent associations between fault and negative outcomes were not for fault attributions, per se, but were related to fault-related procedures (e.g., lawyer engagement, fault-based compensation claims).
Chapter
Single-vehicle crashes and rear-end crashes with trucks are two major types of serious crashes in the roads of China, especially in expressways. In order to identify the influences of passenger presence on the injury severity of these crashes, 200 crash samples from Beijing were used to carry out the statistical analysis and comparative study. Chi-squared test was applied to analyze the significance of the main contributing factors related to the passenger presence in vehicles. The results revealed that driving with passengers had lower mortality than driving solo, especially for the drivers older than 25 years. Two passengers in vehicles appeared to have the lowest mortality in crashes. Male drivers with male passenger(s) had more risk to be involved in a crash than other gender groups. Compared with driving solo, when passengers existing in vehicles, speeding and low visibility increased the likelihood of rear-end crash; younger driver, speeding, suburban area increased the likelihood of single-vehicle crash. Speeding was a typical significant factor to influence the two types of crashes, which suggested that drivers with passengers were more liable to drive with over speed. These research findings are hopeful to contribute to crash prevention and injury reduction in future.
Article
While some previous research suggests that conversing with passengers is the most prevalent in-vehicle distraction while driving, others have concluded instead that it is mobile phone use. One possible explanation for these differences is that distraction prevalence varies with road type. To test this proposal the current study investigated the prevalence of in-vehicle driving distraction in road traffic collisions (RTCs) as recorded in national records from the US and New Zealand. Analysis using odds ratios suggested conversing with passengers to be a more prevalent distraction in RTCs on minor roads than on major roads, and mobile phone use to be a more prevalent distraction on major roads than on minor roads. These results show the importance of considering the type of road when investigating the prevalence of driving distractions in RTCs in future research.
Article
Full-text available
Audience effects on individual behaviour have often been interpreted in terms of increased arousal, which in turn enhances the emission of dominant responses. However, such drive-based explanations do not readily fit all of the evidence on audience effects. The present study examined the influence on driver behaviour of the presence of a passenger. The main findings were that the incidence of both signalling and speeding appeared to be reduced by the presence of certain types of passenger. These results seem to support a control theory rather than a drive-based account of social facilitation. In addition, the incidence of close following and speeding differed significantly across type of driver. Taken together, these results suggest ways for improving road safety propaganda based on the specific norms salient for specific categories of road user.
Article
Full-text available
Sumario: The present study was designed to obtain a fuller and more realistic picture of how hands-free mobile telephone and radio communication influences driving performance at different levels of driving task difficulty. In order to be able to assess the effects on skill-and rule-based performance in situations requiring a high degree of control, it was decided to carry out a laboratory simulation rather than a field study
Article
This paper evaluates judgments of driver crash responsibility to estimate alcohol and drug impairment effects when exposure data are unavailable to calculate crash risks. Previous studies using responsibility judgments provided some evidence that responsibility is related to BAC. Other studies, some inferring responsibility, indicated a relation between responsibility and relative crash risk. Data are presented showing that responsibility judgments with a rating scale have high interrater reliability, and systematic relations with BAC suggest some validity in the ratings. A method is demonstrated for estimating relative crash risk from responsibility judgments with accident data, and the limitations of responsibility analysis are discussed. While alcohol and drug impairment effects are best determined with relative crash risks determined from accident and exposure data. responsibility analysis may provide useful indications in the absence of exposure data.
Article
The effects of telephoning while driving were studied in three different traffic conditions, i.e. in light traffic on a quiet motorway, in heavy traffic on a four-lane ring-road, and in city traffic. Twelve subjects, unfamiliar with mobile telephones, drove an instrumented vehicle for one hour each day during three weeks and while in each of the three traffic conditions, had to operate the mobile telephone for a short while. To ensure a fixed "heavy traffic load" in the second condition, the subjects were instructed to follow another instrumented vehicle (at a safe distance). The results showed a significant effect of telephoning while driving as opposed to normal driving (i.e., not involving telephone conversation), on the effort subjectively measured by an effort scale and objectively measured by heartrate indices and on some of the measured parameters of driving performance. One half of the subjects had to operate the telephone manually, the other half performed the telephone task with a handsfree mobile telephone set. The subjects who operated the handsfree telephone showed better control over the test vehicle than the subjects who operated the handheld telephone, as measured by the steering wheel movements. Also, a clear improvement over time in the course of the 15 test days was found for some of the measurements. As a consequence of the results, some advice concerning mobile telephoning can be given to authorities, manufacturers, and users.
Article
224 men were given the task of judging whether to drive through gaps which might be larger or smaller than the car, and a telephoning task of checking the accuracy of short sentences. Interference between the concurrently performed tasks was investigated. Telephoning mainly impaired judgments of "impossible" gaps. The control skills employed in steering through "possible" gaps were not reliably degraded, although speed of driving was reduced. Driving increased errors and prolonged RTs on the sentence-checking task. It is concluded that telephoning has a minimal effect on the more automatized driving skills, but that perception and decision-making may be critically impaired by switching between visual and auditory inputs.
Article
The effects of a mobile telephone task on drivers' reaction time, lane position, speed level, and workload were studied in two driving conditions (an easy or rather straight versus a hard or very curvy route). It was predicted that the mobile telephone task would have a negative effect on drivers' reaction time, lane position, and workload and lead to a reduction of speed. It was also predicted that the effects would be stronger for the hard driving task. The study was conducted in the VTI driving simulator. A total of 40 subjects, experienced drivers aged 23 to 61, were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions (telephone and easy or hard driving task versus control and easy or hard driving task). Contrary to the predictions, the strongest effects were found when the subjects were exposed to the easy driving task. In the condition where drivers had to perform the easy driving task, findings showed that a mobile telephone task had a negative effect on reaction time and led to a reduction of the speed level. In the condition where drivers had to perform the hard driving task, findings showed that a mobile telephone task had an effect only on the drivers' lateral position. Finally, the mobile telephone task led to an increased workload for both the easy and the hard driving task. The results are discussed in terms of which subtask, car driving or telephone task, the subjects gave the highest priority. Some implications for information systems in future cars are discussed.
Article
In order to study the role of drugs in driving, a responsibility analysis was developed to allow an assessment to be made of the driver's culpability or responsibility in an accident. Factors possibly mitigating drivers' responsibility in each accident were identified and scored. Factors considered were: condition of road, condition of vehicle, driving conditions, accident type, witness observations, road law obedience, difficulty of task, and level of fatigue. If a sufficient number of mitigating factors were identified a driver would be found to be either partly or totally exonerated from blameworthiness and scored either as a contributory or nonculpable driver. If drugs present in a driver contributed to accident causation, it would be expected that they would be overrepresented in culpable drivers, i.e. those drivers not exonerated from blame. A total of 341 driver fatalities occurring in Victoria were analysed for blood alcohol content (BAC). Twenty-nine percent had a BAC over .05% (the legal limit in Victoria). Alcohol-positive drivers were statistically overrepresented in the culpable group (p < .001), in single-vehicle accidents (p < .05) and those accidents in which vehicles left the road for no apparent reason (p < .001). Odds-ratio estimation of relative risk of culpable and nonculpable drivers showed that the relative risk rose disproportionately to BAC.
Article
In this study, 150 subjects observed a 25-minute video driving sequence containing 45 highway traffic situations to which they were expected to respond by manipulation of simulated vehicle controls. Each situation occurred under five conditions of distraction: placing a cellular phone call, carrying on a causal cellular phone conversation, carrying on an intense cellular phone conversation, tuning a radio, and no distraction. All of the distractions led to significant increases in the proportion of situations to which subjects failed to respond. However, significant age differences of nonresponse appeared. Among subjects over age 50, nonresponses increased by about one-third under all of the telephone distractions. The response rate of younger subjects increased by a lesser degree except under intense conversation. Results were not influenced by gender or prior experience with cellular phones. The authors conclude that older drivers might reduce their accident risk during attention-demanding traffic conditions by avoiding use of cellular phones and that other drivers might do so by refraining from calls involving intense conversation.
Article
The effects of a mobile telephone task on young and elderly drivers' choice reaction time, headway, lateral position, and workload were studied when the subjects were driving in a car-following situation, in the VTI driving simulator. It was found that a mobile telephone task had a negative effect upon the drivers' choice reaction time, and that the effect was more pronounced for the elderly drivers. Furthermore, the subjects did not compensate for their increased reaction time by increasing their headway during the phone task. The subjects' mental workload, as measured by the NASA-TLX, increased as a function of the mobile telephone task. No effect on the subjects' lateral position could be detected. Taken together, these results indicate that the accident risk can increase when a driver is using the mobile telephone in a car following situation. The reasons for the increased risk, and possible ways to eliminate it, are also discussed.
Article
Using epidemiological case-control design and logistic regression techniques, this study examined the association of cellular phone use in motor vehicles and traffic accident risk. The amount of time per month spent talking on a cellular phone and 18 other driver inattention factors were examined. Data were obtained from: (1) a case group of 100 randomly selected drivers involved in accidents within the past 2 years, and (2) a control group of 100 randomly selected licensed drivers not involved in accidents within the past 10 years. Groups were matched on geographic residence. Approximately 13% (N = 7) of the accident and 9% (N = 7) of the non-accident group reported use of cellular phones while driving. Data was obtained from Department of Motor Vehicles accident reports and survey information from study subjects. We hypothesized that increased use of cellular phones while driving was associated with increased odds of a traffic accident. Results indicated that talking more than 50 minutes per month on cellular phones in a vehicle was associated with a 5.59-fold increased risk in a traffic accident. The combined use of cellular phones and motor and cognitive activities while driving were also associated with increased traffic accident risk. Readers should be cautioned that this study: (1) consists of a small sample, (2) reveals statistical associations and not causal relationships, and (3) does not conclude that talking on cellular phones while driving is inherently dangerous.
Article
Because of a belief that the use of cellular telephones while driving may cause collisions, several countries have restricted their use in motor vehicles, and others are considering such regulations. We used an epidemiologic method, the case-crossover design, to study whether using a cellular telephone while driving increases the risk of a motor vehicle collision. We studied 699 drivers who had cellular telephones and who were involved in motor vehicle collisions resulting in substantial property damage but no personal injury. Each person's cellular-telephone calls on the day of the collision and during the previous week were analyzed through the use of detailed billing records. A total of 26,798 cellular-telephone calls were made during the 14-month study period. The risk of a collision when using a cellular telephone was four times higher than the risk when a cellular telephone was not being used (relative risk, 4.3; 95 percent confidence interval, 3.0 to 6.5). The relative risk was similar for drivers who differed in personal characteristics such as age and driving experience; calls close to the time of the collision were particularly hazardous (relative risk, 4.8 for calls placed within 5 minutes of the accident, as compared with 1.3 for calls placed more than 15 minutes before the accident; P<0.001); and units that allowed the hands to be free (relative risk, 5.9) offered no safety advantage over hand-held units (relative risk, 3.9; P not significant). Thirty-nine percent of the drivers called emergency services after the collision, suggesting that having a cellular telephone may have had advantages in the aftermath of an event. The use of cellular telephones in motor vehicles is associated with a quadrupling of the risk of a collision during the brief time interval involving a call. Decisions about regulation of such telephones, however, need to take into account the benefits of the technology and the role of individual responsibility.
Article
Cellular phone use in motor vehicles is becoming an increasing world-wide phenomenon. Using data obtained from traffic accidents reported between 1992 and 1995 in the state of Oklahoma, USA, this study examined statistical rate-ratios of accident characteristics between drivers with or without cellular phones. Rates were calculated between cellular phone involvement and reported accident causes, types of collision, driver actions immediately prior to the accident, location of the accident, the extent of fatalities, and age and gender of drivers. Results indicated a significant increased rate among drivers with cellular phones for inattention, unsafe speed, driving on wrong side of road, striking a fixed object, overturning their vehicle, swerving prior to the accident, and running off the roadway. People with phones stood an increased risk of being killed in an accident over persons without phones. Males with phones had a significantly higher rate than females for many of accident characteristics mentioned above. Rate-ratios of some accident characteristics and fatalities increased as age increased, with the exception of drivers under age 20 yrs, who had the highest fatality rate. Limitations of the study and possible prevention alternatives are discussed.
Article
A case-control study was conducted to determine statistical associations between traffic fatalities and the use or presence of a cellular phone, given involvement in a collision. The hypothesis of this study does not imply that cellular phones directly affect fatalities, but that phones increase the risk of certain accident characteristics in fatal collisions more than those same characteristics in non-fatal collisions. Analysis employed data from 223,137 traffic accidents occurring between 1992 and 1995. Information on collision characteristics and cellular phone involvement for each fatality was compared with the same information for each non-fatality (controls). Statistically adjusting for other collision variables (age, gender, alcohol use, speed, inattention and driving left of center), an approximate nine-fold increased risk was found for a fatality given the use of a cellular phone. An approximate two-fold increased risk for a fatality was found given the presence of a cellular phone in the vehicle. Combined effects of reported phone use, driving to the left of center and inattention increased the risk of a fatal collision more than phone use did by itself. This analysis implies a statistical, but not necessarily a causal, relationship. A multitude of factors are involved in any traffic collision, and the exact cause of an accident and its severity level is difficult to disentangle.
Driver's complicance with formal traffic regulations related to the presence of passengers
  • C L Black
Black, C.L.,1978. Driver’s complicance with formal traffic regulations related to the presence of passengers. B.A. Thesis. Kingston, Ontario, Canada: Queen’s University
Telefonieren am Steuer Driver's complicance with formal traffic regulations related to the presence of passengers Behavioural effects of mobile tele-phone use during simulated driving
  • S Becker
  • M Brockmann
  • E Bruckmayr
  • O Hofmann
  • R Krause
  • A Mertens
  • R Nin
  • J Sonntag
  • Wirtschaftsverlag Nw
  • Bremerhaven
  • C L Black
Becker, S., Brockmann, M., Bruckmayr, E., Hofmann, O., Krause, R., Mertens, A., Nin, R., Sonntag, J., 1995. Telefonieren am Steuer, vol. M 45. Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Bremerhaven. Black, C.L.,1978. Driver's complicance with formal traffic regulations related to the presence of passengers. B.A. Thesis. Kingston, Ontario, Canada: Queen's University. Briem, V., Hedman, L.R., 1995. Behavioural effects of mobile tele-phone use during simulated driving. Ergonomics 38 (12), 2536 – 2562.
Das Unfallrisiko mit Beifahrern. Shaker Verlag Accident risk modified by passen-gers
  • J Reiß
  • Aachen
  • J Reiß
  • H.-P Ger
Reiß, J., 1998. Das Unfallrisiko mit Beifahrern. Shaker Verlag, Aachen. Reiß, J., and Krü ger, H.-P., 1995. Accident risk modified by passen-gers. In C.N. Kloeden, A.J. McLean (Eds.), Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety-T'95 (213 – 221). Adelaide: NHMRC Road Acci-dent Research Unit.
The incidence and role of drugs in fatally injured drivers
  • K W Terhune
  • C A Ippolito
  • D L Hendricks
  • J G Michalovic
  • S C Bogema
  • P Santinga
  • R Blomberg
  • D F Preussner
Terhune, K.W., Ippolito, C.A., Hendricks, D.L., Michalovic, J.G., Bogema, S.C., Santinga, P., Blomberg, R., Preussner, D.F., 1992. The incidence and role of drugs in fatally injured drivers. Final Report, DOT HS 808 065. Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Further on-the-road tests of driver interfaces: examination of a route guidance system and a car phone (UMTRI-93 – 35) Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute
  • P Green
  • E Hoekstra
  • M Williams
  • Krü
  • H.-P Ger
  • P Braun
  • J Kazenwadel
  • J Reiß
  • M Vollrath
Green, P., Hoekstra, E., and Williams, M., 1993. Further on-the-road tests of driver interfaces: examination of a route guidance system and a car phone (UMTRI-93 – 35). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. Krü ger, H.-P., Braun, P., Kazenwadel, J., Reiß, J., Vollrath, M., 1998. Soziales Umfeld, Alkohol und junge Fahrer. Wirtschaftsver-lag NW, Bremerhaven. Lawshe, C.H., 1940. Studies in Automobile Speed on the Highway. American Journal of Psychology, 297 – 307.
Studies in Automobile Speed on the Highway
  • C H Lawshe
Lawshe, C.H., 1940. Studies in Automobile Speed on the Highway. American Journal of Psychology, 297 – 307.
  • S Becker
  • M Brockmann
  • E Bruckmayr
  • O Hofmann
  • R Krause
  • A Mertens
  • R Nin
  • J Sonntag
Becker, S., Brockmann, M., Bruckmayr, E., Hofmann, O., Krause, R., Mertens, A., Nin, R., Sonntag, J., 1995. Telefonieren am Steuer, vol. M 45. Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Bremerhaven.
Soziales Umfeld, Alkohol und junge Fahrer
  • H.-P Krü Ger
  • P Braun
  • J Kazenwadel
  • J Reiß
  • M Vollrath
Krü ger, H.-P., Braun, P., Kazenwadel, J., Reiß, J., Vollrath, M., 1998. Soziales Umfeld, Alkohol und junge Fahrer. Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Bremerhaven.