Cytogenetic features of multiple myeloma: impact of gender, age, disease phase, culture time, and cytokine stimulation

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Skåne, Sweden
European Journal Of Haematology (Impact Factor: 2.07). 07/2002; 68(6):345-53. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0609.2002.00724.x
Source: PubMed


Relatively little is known about the cytogenetic features of multiple myeloma (MM) when compared to other hematologic malignancies. The reasons for this are most likely manifold, and include a low mitotic index of the malignant cells and the presence of cytogenetically cryptic abnormalities as well as of complex karyotypes with poor chromosome morphology. In the present study, we have investigated whether various culture conditions may influence the yield of abnormal metaphases in MM and, in the related plasma cell dyscrasias, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and plasmacytomas (PC). In addition, the possible impact of age, gender, and disease phase on the cytogenetic features has been analyzed. A total of 95 samples from 74 cases (68 MM, three PC, and three MGUS patients) were obtained for cytogenetic analysis. The samples were cultured either in conventional medium or in medium containing IL-6 and GM-CSF, and the culture times varied from 24 to 120 h. In total, 186 cultures were analyzed. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using probes specific for 14q32, i.e. IGH rearrangements, could be performed in 57 of the 74 cases, and revealed 14q32 aberrations in 10 cases not seen by conventional G-banding. Abnormal karyotypes were detected in 77 (41%) of the 186 cultures, 46 (48%) of the 95 samples, and in 41 (55%) of the 74 patients, revealing a total of 20 chromosomal aberrations previously not reported in plasma cell dyscrasias. We found no evidence that gender, age, disease phase, culture time, or cytokine stimulation significantly influences the karyotypic features of MM.

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    • "ND abnormal 30 3 No 46,XY[24] abnormal failed 31 30e40 No 46,XY[30] normal abnormal 32 4 No, s/p transplant 46,XX[30] normal normal 33 5 Yes 46,XX[20] normal normal 34 4e5 Yes 45,X,ÀY,inv(9)[15]/46,XY,inv(9)[5] normal normal Abbreviations: BM, bone marrow; chemo, chemotherapy; iFISH, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization; ND, not done; ONC, overnight cultures; PC, plasma cells; PCE, plasma cell enriched fractions; s/p, status post. with PCE samples, the overall abnormality rate was 36% for ONC and 89% for PCE (P ! "
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    ABSTRACT: Historically, cytogenetic studies of plasma cell neoplasms have been hampered by the fact that terminally differentiated plasma cells do not proliferate well in vitro. Although the use of interphase FISH (iFISH) has greatly improved the ability to detect cytogenetic abnormalities, cases with low numbers of neoplastic cells often do not demonstrate abnormalities. Using a four-assay, nine-probe iFISH panel, we compared the abnormality detection rate for overnight unstimulated bone marrow cultures (ONC) to that for plasma-cell enriched fractions obtained with use of CD138-coated immunomagnetic beads (PCE). In the ONC, an abnormality was detected in 11 of 29 cases (38%); in the PCE, an abnormality was detected in 30 of 33 cases (91%). For 28 cases in which iFISH results from ONC were compared directly with PCE samples, the overall abnormality rate was 36% for ONC and 89% for PCE (P < 0.01). The conventional GTG-banded chromosome analysis revealed only 2 of 34 cases with an abnormal karyotype (6%); both cases were hyperdiploid. We conclude that the plasma cell enrichment step for iFISH should be incorporated into the routine cytogenetic work-up for all patients with plasma cell neoplasms.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
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    • "The study was based on all cytogenetically abnormal MM analysed in our laboratory between 1978 and 2000; the vast majority were obtained after 1995. Clinical and karyotypic data on all but a few of these patients have been reported previously (Nilsson et al, 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: The cytogenetic features (ploidy, complexity, breakpoints, imbalances) were ascertained in 783 abnormal multiple myeloma (MM) cases to identify frequently involved chromosomal regions as well as a possible impact of age/sex. The series included MM patients from the Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations in Cancer and from our own laboratory. Hyperdiploidy was most common, followed by hypodiploidy, pseudodiploidy and tri-/tetraploidy. Most cases were complex, with a median of eight changes per patient. The distribution of modal numbers differed between younger and older patients, but was not related to sex. No sex- or age-related differences regarding the number of anomalies were found. The most frequent genomic breakpoints were 14q32, 11q13, 1q10, 8q24, 1p11, 1q21, 22q11, 1p13, 1q11, 19q13, 1p22, 6q21 and 17p11. Breaks in 1p13, 6q21 and 11q13 were more common in the younger age group. The most frequent imbalances were + 9, - 13, + 15, + 19, + 11 and - Y. Trisomy 11 and monosomy 16 were more common among men, while -X was more frequent among women. Loss of Y as the sole change and + 5 were more common in elderly patients, and - 14 was more frequent in the younger age group. The present findings strongly suggest that some karyotypic features of MM are influenced by endogenous and/or exogenous factors.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2003 · British Journal of Haematology
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