The Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI).
The index described supplies a comparison among countries in their progress in extending health, sanitation, education and other benefits to their populations. The formation of the index, its relation to other measures, and some of the results of applying it are presented.- Author
Article: Global modelling 1. The models[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This article reviews selectively the field of global modelling, which has expanded and developed rapidly since 1971. Major issues in modelling include the gap between rich and poor nations, the management and distribution of natural resources, and the role of science and scientists in judging policy issues. The seven global models presented in full to IIASA Symposia plus the two original models by Forrester and Meadows are critically assessed through a description of their origin, objectives, structure, and conclusions. A briefer description is given of ten related projects, most of which are developments from, or refinements of sections of, earlier global models.
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ABSTRACT: Two replication studies test in Canada a field theory of the effect of consciousness on social change. The exogenous variable is the number of participants in the largest North American group practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program, in Iowa. The first study indicated a significant reduction in violent deaths (homicide, suicide, and motor vehicle fatalities), using both time series intervention analysis and transfer function analysis methods, in weeks following change in the exogenous variable during the period 1983 to 1985. The second study, using time series intervention analysis, gave during and after intervention periods a significant improvement in quality of life on an index composed of the behavioral variables available on a monthly basis for Canada from 1972 to 1986-homicide, suicide, motor vehicle fatalities, cigarette consumption, and workers' days lost due to strikes. Implications of the findings for theory and social policy are noted briefly.
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ABSTRACT: Many communities around the world seek tourism to improve their livelihoods. The changes brought by tourism are often reflected in economic and infrastructural growth. Nevertheless, such growth does not always reflect development goals. Framed around interactional theory, this study intends to open the “black box” of community relations by examining the causal factors, processes, and outcomes associated with tourism-led development. A case study methodology was applied in two amenity-rich Costa Rican communities known to present divergent growth and development outcomes after their incursion in tourism. The study findings suggest the critical relevance of open communication, widespread participation, tolerance, and communion among residents and different tourism-related stakeholders for the promotion of processes leading to tourism-led development.
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