Broadening the Concept of Marketing

Article (PDF Available)inJournal of Marketing 33(1):10-5 · February 1969with 14,617 Reads 
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DOI: 10.2307/1248740 · Source: PubMed
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Abstract
Marketing in business is the task of finding and stimulating buyers for a firms's output. Product development, pricing, distribution, and communication are the mainstays of marketing, while progressive firms also develop new products and chart the trends and changes in people's needs and desires. Marketing can either apply its knowledge to social problems and organizations or remain in a narrowly defined business activity. Every organization has basically the same functions: personnel management, production, income, and promotion, which are using modern marketing skills in commercial sectors. Suppliers and consumers are needed by all organizations. In Canada a group wished to promote an antismoking campaign but they had little money compared to the tobacco companies. This group used modern marketing techniques to combat their lack of funds and found many ways, e.g., books, articles. A business firm uses a multitude of marketing tools to sell its product. Nonbusiness organizations frequently do not integrate their programs the way the businesses place all activities under one marketing vice president and department. Astute marketing depends on continuous feedback from consumers and suppliers. They are dependent upon up-to-the-minute research that tells them about changes in the environment and moves of competitors. Nonbusiness organizations are often casual about the research upon which they base their vital decisions.
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Broadening the Concept of Marketing
Kotler, Philip
Journal of Marketing (pre-1986); Jan 1969; 33, 000001; ABI/INFORM Global
pg. 10
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • ... Şehir markalaşması da pazarlama disiplini içinde yer alır ve pazarlama biliminin teorilerinden ve stratejilerinden yararlanır. Şehir pazarlamasının kökleri, pazarlama kavramının ticari olmayan işletmelerde de kullanılabilir olması ve sosyal pazarlama kavramının ortaya çıkmasına dayanmaktadır (Kotler & Levy, 1969). Şehri oluşturan elementler arasında ise hem hizmet hem de ürün bulunmaktadır. ...
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    Rekabetin ön planda olduğu günümüz dünyasında uzun vadeli bir yatırım aracı olarak marka haline gelebilmek şehirler için de oldukça önemlidir. Kullanıcı sayısı her geçen gün artan sosyal medya platformları ise farklı coğrafyalardaki geniş kitlelere ulaşmayı ve yürütülen çalışmaların geri dönüşünü ölçümlemeyi kolaylaştırması bakımından markalaşma sürecinde şehirlere bazı fırsatlar sunmaktadır. Araştırmanın amacı, kültür ve turizm müdürlüklerinin sosyal medya kullanım stratejilerini şehir markalaşması bağlamında ortaya koyabilmektir. Bu kapsamda ilk olarak il kültür ve turizm müdürlüklerinde görev yapan uzmanlarla görüşülmüştür. Katılımcıların sosyal medya uygulamalarına ilişkin gerek kişisel görüşleri gerekse yürütülen kurumsal uygulamalar hakkında veri toplanarak nitel bir araştırma yapılmıştır. İkinci aşamada ise müdürlüklerin sosyal medya hesapları ve yaptıkları paylaşımlar içerik analizi yöntemiyle incelenmiş ve elde edilen bulgular yüz yüze görüşmelerden elde edilenler ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Sonuç olarak, sosyal medyanın turizm sektörü için giderek artan önemi hakkında katılımcıların bilinç sahibi oldukları ancak bu bilincin kurumsal uygulamalar ile örtüşmediği, kurumların sosyal medya ile ilgili ortak bir anlayışa ve aksiyon bütünlüğüne sahip olmadıkları ve sosyal medyayı etkin bir biçimde kullanmadıkları görülmüştür. The research aims to reveal the social media usage strategies of cultural and tourism directorates in the context of city branding. Firstly, the experts working in the provincial culture and tourism directorates were interviewed. Qualitative research was conducted by collecting data on both the personal opinions of the participants and corporate practices. Secondly, the social media accounts of the directorates and their posts were analyzed using the content analysis method, and the findings were compared with those obtained from face-to-face interviews. As a result, the participants were aware of the increasing importance of social media for the tourism sector. However, this awareness did not coincide with corporate practices; institutions did not have a shared understanding and action integrity regarding social media and did not use social media effectively. Although a limited number of innovative applications have been carried out to provide interaction, it is possible to say that the directorates do not have social media strategies to support city branding in terms of both content and interaction.
  • ... Por dicha razón, los gobiernos han formulado e implementado diversos planes para contribuir a la protección del ambiente; y los consumidores han comenzado a tener preferencias por la adquisición de bienes o servicios eco amigables, sin importarles pagar un alto precio por ellos (Apaza, 2014;Hamann, 2013;Salas, 2019). El marketing a lo largo de los años ha cumplido un rol fundamental, ayudando a los consumidores en la toma de decisiones de compra; sin embargo, las innovaciones tecnológicas han propiciado que dicha disciplina evolucione, volviéndose útil no solo para las organizaciones; además, para la sociedad en su conjunto (Kotler y Levy, 1969;Salas, 2018c). ...
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    Full-text available
    El marketing es una disciplina que ha experimentado una constante evolución a través de los años; a raíz de la preocupación por la degradación del ambiente, surge el marketing ecológico como una adaptación de las cuatro variables tradicionales del marketing mix (producto, precio, plaza y promoción) aplicadas a la problemática ambiental. El objetivo de la presente investigación es concientizar a la comunidad académica y público en general acerca del actual rol de la publicidad, como un medio para educar a los individuos hacia las causas sociales, específicamente de carácter ambiental. Dentro de este enfoque, destaca el rol de la publicidad ecológica para captar la atención de los consumidores hacia la adquisición de productos eco amigables; es decir, a través de los diversos mensajes ecológicos, permite el desarrollo del comportamiento pro ambiental y se enfrenta al greenwashing o falso marketing ecológico. Para el desarrollo de la investigación se ha efectuado una extensa revisión bibliográfica, luego de la cual, se ha concluido que el consumidor del siglo XXI muestra una mayor preocupación por el cuidado ambiental; y por dicha razón, los publicistas y organizaciones deben ser muy cuidadosos con los mensajes que desean transmitir, dado que se trata de un consumidor sensible y reflexivo.
  • ... Consider 'exchange of values', which many scholars have argued is marketing's core notion (Bagozzi, 1975;cf. Hyman, 2004;Kotler & Levy, 1969). Marketing scholars cannot apply the 'exchange of values' to marketing practice without making assumptions about ownership, rights, values, needs, and the like (Hyman, Skipper, & Tansey, 1991). ...
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    Full-text available
    (Note: For a full copy until 2 June 2020, go to https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1auVAXj-jVZng.) Knowing related empirical facts as precisely as possible is crucial to knowledge development. Does the sampling precision of published consumer research ensure it contributes meaningfully to marketing science? To answer this question, the sampling precision of four consumer-centric journals selected for their relative impact factors—Journal of Consumer Research (JCR), Journal of Consumer Psychology (JCP), Journal of Consumer Marketing (JCM), and International Journal of Consumer Studies (IJCS)—is compared. Based on a recently developed a priori procedure, analyses of articles published between 2000 and 2016 determined the precision of the reported sample means that estimate corresponding population means. Results show studies in all journals lack sufficient precision, with JCR and JCP studies half as precise as JCM and IJCS studies. Sampling precision’s value to scientific advancement partly reflects its connection to replication probabilities. Given low replication rates, the most cited consumer-related studies, which strongly influence subsequent research, may be the most misdirecting.
  • ... The majority of the common definitions focus more or less explicitly on the exchange paradigm, in which goods and services are exchanged for money. However, already 50 years ago, Kotler and Levy (1969) argued that marketing should not only be seen as limited to exchanges in the business context but also can be a helpful concept to analyze, understand, and manage all kinds of exchange situations in societies. Even if monetary profit is not an explicit goal, when an exchange between at least two societal actors is studied, marketing could be a relevant concept. ...
    Chapter
    Over the last decades, closely correlated with the advent of the Internet and associated platforms/environments, digital marketing has become a much talked about topic in academia and among practitioners. This is the case not only in the context of classic marketing that traditionally deals with the exchange of goods and services between business and consumers as well as between different businesses. Digital marketing is also much discussed in fields that are outside the traditional paradigm of commercial marketing, such as in the area of interest groups, lobbying, and public affairs. However, often it is not clearly and unanimously understood what is meant when talking about digital marketing. Furthermore, it is frequently neglected that digital marketing in the context of interest groups, lobbying, and public affairs might differ from its more classic cousin in commercial marketing contexts. This chapter aims to provide a definition of what digital marketing is and to introduce forms in which digital marketing commonly appears. At each step, the specificities of digital marketing and its components in the context of interest groups, lobbying, and public affairs are elucidated.
  • ... Durante mucho tiempo se ha definido al marketing asociándolo solamente con la actividad empresarial (específicamente con la comercialización y buscando atraer la atención del cliente); no obstante, con el paso del tiempo se desarrolló una segunda definición, mediante la cual se plantea que el marketing debe satisfacer necesidades sociales y generar un impacto favorable durante el ciclo de vida de las personas. Además, para ambas definiciones, el marketing siempre debe procurar la utilización eficiente de los recursos (Kotler y Levy, 1969 asimismo, los autores sostuvieron que las empresas hoteleras debían mejorar sus acciones ambientales, con la finalidad de preservar el espacio geográfico. ...
    Thesis
    Full-text available
    La presente investigación tuvo como propósito determinar la relación entre las estrategias de marketing ecológico y el comportamiento proambiental en los estudiantes de un instituto superior tecnológico privado de Lima Metropolitana en el año 2019. Para un mejor análisis, la variable estrategias de marketing ecológico fue desglosada en producto ecológico, precio ecológico, plaza ecológica y promoción ecológica; mientras que la variable comportamiento proambiental fue subdividida en gestión de recursos, gestión de residuos y consumo ecológico. La investigación se realizó bajo el enfoque cuantitativo, fue de alcance correlacional y trabajó con el diseño no experimental transeccional correlacional-causal. La población estuvo constituida por 380 estudiantes de la especialidad de Enfermería Técnica; no obstante, se optó por trabajar con una muestra de 192 estudiantes (167 mujeres y 25 varones con edades entre los 19 y 25 años); de los cuales el 55.73% provenía de los distritos de Villa María del Triunfo, Chorrillos, Villa El Salvador, San Bartolo y San Juan de Miraflores. A dichos participantes se les aplicó un cuestionario estructurado, construido con base en 18 ítems pertenecientes a dos escalas creadas por Izagirre-Olaizola, Fernández-Sainz y Vicente-Molina (2013) y Amérigo, García y Côrtes (2017), con la finalidad de poder abordar las variables de estudio; además para el análisis estadístico se emplearon los programas JASP versión 0.11.1 y FACTOR versión 10.9.02. Con los resultados obtenidos se pudo concluir que existía una correlación fuerte entre las estrategias de marketing ecológico y el comportamiento proambiental (p < 0.05), dado que se obtuvo un coeficiente de correlación de Spearman de 0.815.
  • ... The purview of marketing, however, is broader than selling financial services or consumer packaged goods [9]. The idea underpinning this special issue is that marketing can be used to promote legislative agendas, solicit donations and votes, but more broadly it change the world. ...
  • Chapter
    Social marketing is the application of methods traditionally used for commercial purposes in order to achieve public health goals. In a public health context, social marketing can involve an array of approaches and methods depending on sociodemographic factors, cultural beliefs or values, psychosocial determinants or geographic location. Since the 1960s, such campaigns have tackled issues as diverse as smoking, HIV, alcohol consumption, vaccines and breastfeeding. In the past, social marketing methods have largely comprised of blanket mass media or segmented campaigns with predetermined stages of planning and implementation. In the age of digital communication, and with the emergence of personalised forms of medicine, there is an increasing opportunity for tailored, highly responsive campaigns in primary care involving health promotion and lifestyle modification of individuals. As the Internet and smartphones are becoming ubiquitous and indispensable in people’s daily lives, particularly in highly developed urban areas, behavioural change efforts have increasingly shifted towards these platforms. The technological era allows campaigns to be created with much more creativity than ever, disseminating key messages for improving health-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviour at both the population and personal levels. However modern technology can also exacerbate divides, making it even more important that public health groups consider neglected communities with less access to advanced modern communication methods. Although it remains a challenge to influence behaviour and lifestyle change across demographics, the history of successful campaigns reveals some of the important factors for successful social marketing.
  • Article
    The logistics sector is one of the most important domains in the service sector in understanding the increasing scale of business activities along with globalization. Due to the nature of the service sector, where competition is increasingly concentrated, the main objective of firms is the creation of their strategy on competitive advantage in regard with knowing the level of quality of the services offered and the firm's image from the customers' point of view. Trying to adapt to the changing conditions of the market drives firms to integrate their competing areas into their sustainability dimensions (economic, social, and environmental) with the aim of increasing their perceived quality through differentiating their business to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. The aim of this study is to examine the quality level perceived by logistics service providers in terms of triple bottom line approach and to determine the relationship between them for sustainable competition. In line with exploratory methods, factor analysis was used with the aim of finding out a new scale to the literature about the examination of the relationship between quality perception and corporate sustainability in the frame of competition. In this context, data of 120 logistics service providers were collected and analysed. According to the results, the content of the subject consists of nine factors and 29 interrelated subdimensions. As a result of the research, firms have emphasized on the importance of reaching the competition by expanding their quality perceptions within the scope of corporate sustainability in parallel with the increasing customer demands and expectations.
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