Applied Research Applied Research papers synthesize and interpret current research on violence against women, offering a review of the literature and implications for policy and practice. The Applied Research initiative represents a collaboration between the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence, the National Sexual Violence Resource Center, and the Minnesota Center Against Violence and Abuse. VAWnet is a project of the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence. "The research review reported in this paper concludes that IPA is gendered: Men and boys are more likely (than women and girls) to be the perpetrators, and women and girls are more likely (than men and boys) to be the victims of IPA. At the same time, it is necessary to recognize that there are some women and girls who are abusive and violent to their intimate male partners. This is estimated to be in five percent or fewer of the cases. Research indicates that women's and girls' IPA needs to be understood in the context of learn-ing abuse/violence, the opportu-nity to use abuse/violence, and choosing to use abuse/ violence." P erpetration of intimate partner abuse (IPA) by women against men has received widespread attention from both practitioners and researchers. Some research suggests that contrary to popular belief, women are just as likely as men to be perpe-trators of IPA (Brush, 1990; Madgol, Moffit, Caspi, Fagan, & Silva, 1997; Moffit & Caspi, 1999; Morse, 1995; O'Leary, Barling, Arias, Rosenbaum, Malone, & Tyree, 1989; Straus & Gelles, 1990). Others argue that IPA continues to be perpetrated largely by males against their female partners and ex-partners (Dasgupta, 2001; Dobash & Dobash,1984-1988 in References; Dobash, Dobash, Wilson, & Daly, 1992; McLeod, 1984; Melton & Belknap, 2003; Saunders, 1986; Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000; Vivian & Langhinrichsen-Rohling,1994). While the debate continues regarding women's use of violence against intimate and former intimate male partners, several issues have emerged regarding research on woman-perpetrated IPA. The purpose of this essay is to critically review the existing research on the question of gender symmetry in IPA. Gender symmetry is the terminology often used to indicate that men and women are equally likely to be IPA offenders. This paper presents and discusses the varied findings on women's roles as perpetrators of IPA. The reasons for these varied findings are examined and the implications of the research finding gender symmetry in the perpetration of IPA are discussed. This paper documents the importance of the ap-proach taken by the researcher regarding whether IPA is found to be gendered. This overview of scientific research concludes that IPA is indeed gendered, that the perpetrators are more commonly men and the victims are more commonly women. This review also emphasizes the importance of not simply examining types of abuse reported, but the consequences of the abuse. We hope to clarify women's use of violence in IPA as having typically different intentions than men's abuse of intimate partners.