Meat intake and cooking techniques: Associations with pancreatic cancer

University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis (Impact Factor: 3.68). 10/2002; 506-507:225-31. DOI: 10.1016/S0027-5107(02)00169-0
Source: PubMed


Heterocyclic amines (HCAs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), formed in temperature and time-dependent manners during cooking of meat, may increase the risk of certain cancers. As these compounds could be carcinogenic for the pancreas, we assessed meat intake, preparation methods, and doneness preferences as risk factors for exocrine pancreatic cancer. In a case-control study (cases=193, controls=674), subjects provided information on their usual meat intake and how it was cooked, e.g. fried, grilled or barbecued (BBQ), etc. Meat doneness preferences were measured using photographs that showed internal doneness and external brownness with a numerical scale. Data were analyzed with unconditional logistic regression. Odds ratios (ORs) increased with increased intake of grilled/BBQ red meat in an analysis adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education, race, and diabetes. Based on amount of BBQ meat consumed, the OR and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the fifth quintile relative to the reference group (quintiles 1 and 2) was 2.19 (1.4, 3.4). Findings were not substantively changed by further adjustment for calories, total fat, fruit and vegetables, or alcohol consumption (from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)). Other meat variables did not show statistically significant associations with risk nor did they substantively alter the findings for BBQ. These included total meat, processed meat, total red meat, total white meat, total broiled meat, total fried meat, or total meat cooked by means other than grilling. We conclude that grilled red meat intake is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer and that method of meat preparation in addition to total intake is important in assessing the effects of meat consumption in epidemiologic studies.

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    • "The process of smoking requires the penetration of food products by smoke resulting from thermal destruction of wood . Research has shown that BaP concentration of charcoal fire cooked meat samples was much higher than gas fire cooked meat (Anderson et al., 2002). However, Rivera et al. (1996) detected BaP concentrations of 4 to 19μg/kg in charcoal grilled meat. "
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    ABSTRACT: Smoked fishes such as Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus), Senegal Jack (Caranx senegalus) and barbecued fishes such as BoboCroaker (Psuedotolitu selongatus), Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)sold and consumed in Benin City and obtained in selected markets were screened for the presence BaP. Column chromatography, packed with anhydrous Na2SO4 and silica gel was used for PAH extraction with dichloromethane as the eluting solvent. The identification and concentration of BaP was carried out by liquid chromatography (HPLC) with the aid of 16 standards. Benzo(a)pyrene concentration in smoked Caranx senegalus ranged from 36.23 to 270.48 μg/kg. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the mean level of BaP in smoked fish samples across the sampled markets. There were no significant difference p>0.05 in the mean BaP for all samples of Scomber scombrus from the sampled markets. The difference in BaP concentration in barbecued fish among the sampled markets was statistically significant (p>0.05). The BaP levels of all smoked and barbecued fish samples (24) examined in this study were found to be higher than the acceptable limit (5μg/kg) specified by the European Commission and FAO/WHO limits (10μg/kg).
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Oct 2015
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    • "Oreglia, De Stefani, Boffetta, Brennan, and Deneo Pellegrini (2001) linked laryngeal cancer with consumption of red meat due to the production of HAAs. Anderson et al. (2002) revealed that risk of pancreatic cancer is higher in those people who use highly cooked red meat in their routine diet as compared to others who use fruits and vegetables in their regular diet patterns. HAAs also have the potency of causing some other types of cancers like liver and gastrointestinal tract and their production is highly coupled with the well-done cooked meat (Sugimura, 1986). "
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    ABSTRACT: Heterocyclic aromatic amines are compounds produced in meat subjected to high temperature cooking. Formation of these substances is highly influenced by cooking method, cooking time, cooking temperature, and type of meat. Heterocyclic amines contain heterocyclic rings and nitrogen containing groups within their structure. Risks of colon, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, lung, liver, prostate, skin and breast cancers are decidedly associated with the consumption of heterocyclic amines. These mutagenic compounds can be attenuated by addition of different fruits and vegetable extracts. Several spices and antioxidants can also be used for the reduction of these heterocyclic amines. The level of heterocyclic amines can be reduced by cooking at low temperature and by decreasing the cooking time. Formation of heterocyclic amines can also be prevented by marinating the meat before frying or grilling and by microwave pre-treatments. Objectives of this review are to create awareness about health risks, and to stimulate further research on other suitable ways to reduce the cancer risks associated with the consumption of cooked meat products.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie
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    • "In addition to total intake, the method of meat preparation is also important. Grilled red meat is a risk factor [90]. Effects of mutagenic heterocyclic amines (HCA) formed during cooking of meat on pancreatic carcinogenesis were studied in the BOP-treated hamster model. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is difficult to cure, so its prevention is very important. For this purpose, animal model studies are necessary to develop effective methods. Injection of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) into Syrian golden hamsters is known to induce pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, the histology of which is similar to human tumors. Moreover, K-ras activation by point mutations and p16 inactivation by aberrant methylation of 5' CpG islands or by homozygous deletions have been frequently observed in common in both the hamster and humans. Thus, this chemical carcinogenesis model has an advantage of histopathological and genetic similarity to human pancreatic cancer, and it is useful to study promotive and suppressive factors. Syrian golden hamsters are in a hyperlipidemic state even under normal dietary conditions, and a ligand of peroxizome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was found to improve the hyperlipidemia and suppress pancreatic carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation is a known important risk factor, and selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 also have protective effects against pancreatic cancer development. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipidemic agents can thus be considered candidate chemopreventive agents deserving more attention.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Cancers
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