Human adenovirus Ad-36 promotes weight gain in male rhesus and marmoset monkeys

Department of Nutrition and Food Science and the Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 10/2002; 132(10):3155-60.
Source: PubMed


Although obesity has multiple etiologies, an overlooked possibility is an infectious origin. We previously identified two viruses, SMAM-1, an avian adenovirus (Ad), and Ad-36, a human adenovirus, that produce a syndrome of visceral obesity, with paradoxically decreased serum cholesterol and triglycerides in chickens and mice. In the two studies presented in this paper, we used nonhuman primates to investigate the adiposity-promoting potential of Ad-36. In study 1, we observed spontaneously occurring Ad-36 antibodies in 15 male rhesus monkeys, and a significant longitudinal association of positive antibody status with weight gain and plasma cholesterol lowering during the 18 mo after viral antibody appearance. In study 2, which was a randomized controlled experiment, three male marmosets inoculated with Ad-36 had a threefold body weight gain, a greater fat gain and lower serum cholesterol relative to baseline (P <0.05) than three uninfected controls at 28 wk postinoculation. These studies illustrate that the adiposity-promoting effect of Ad-36 occurs in two nonhuman primate species and demonstrates the usefulness of nonhuman primates for further evaluation of Ad-36-induced adiposity.

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Available from: Joseph W Kemnitz
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    • "The detection of significantly higher BMI and leptin, lower adinopectin, and paradoxically insignificantly lower levels of serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the obese group with positive Ad-36 antibodies, as compared to the obese group with negative Ad-36, showed similarity with the animal model studies of Dhurandhar et al. [12] [13] [15] and with the human studies of Atkinson et al. [16] and Jiao et al. [10]. However, in line with the relationship between morbid obesity and Ad-36 level described by Almgren et al. [6], even less number, we detected BMI ! "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity which developes due to multifactorial reasons, was associated recently with human Adenovirus-36 (Ad-36). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Ad-36 antibodies in obese adults and also to investigate the DNA of Ad-36 in their adipose tissue. In this cross-sectional and case-control based study, 49 obese adults, with BMI ≥30 kg/m(2), and 49 non-obese adults, with BMI ≤25 kg/m(2), applied for esthetic purposes and were included in this study as patient and control groups, respectively. Adipose tissue samples, obtained by the lipoaspiration method, were studied by single-step PCR and nested-PCR methods. Simultaneously, the presence of Ad-36 antibodies and serum leptin and adiponectin levels were assessed by serum neutralization assay (SNA) and ELISA, respectively. Serum samples which didn't cause a cytopathic effect at ≥1:8 were accepted as positive. Ad-36 antibody was detected in 6 (12.2%) of 49 patients by SNA and was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Ad-36 DNA was not detected in any of the adipose tissue samples of the patient or control groups. Mean BMI and leptin levels were higher in the Ad-36-positive group, while adiponectin levels were found to be lower in the Ad-36-positive group. Although no statistically significant difference was found in cholesterol and triglyceride levels between the two groups (p > 0.05), lower mean serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were found in the Ad-36-positive patients. In conclusion, we couldn't detect Ad-36 DNA in adipose tissue; however, we detected significantly higher Ad-36 antibody levels in the obese group compared to the non-obese group, according to the both univariant and multivariant analyses, suggesting that Ad-36 may play a role in obesity. There is a need for new and extended serial, particularly cohort and human-based, studies in order to have a clear understanding of the Ad-36-obesity relationship. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Microbial Pathogenesis
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    • "Of the known obesity-inducing pathogens, human Ad36 induces adiposity but paradoxically it improves insulin sensitivity [36-38]. Ad36-infected animals have a higher body weight and fat content, but hypolipidemia compared with control animals. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes are major causes of death and disability throughout the world. Many causes are known to trigger these chronic diseases, and infectious agents such as viruses are also pathological factors. In particular, it is considered that adenovirus 36 infections may be associated with obesity. If this is the case, a vaccine against adenovirus 36 may be a form of prophylaxis to combat obesity. Other types of therapeutic vaccines to combat obesity are also being developed. Recently, hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1, ghrelin, and peptide YY have been studied as treatments to prevent obesity. This review describes the ongoing development of therapeutic vaccines to treat obesity, and the possibility of using inactivated adenovirus 36 as a vaccine and an anti-obesity agent.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
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    • "Studies involving animals confirmed a strong association between adenovirus 36 (AdV36) and increased predisposition to excessive accumulation of visceral fat[14] [19] [20] [21] [22]. However, although experimental infections in animals or model cell lines showed an adipogenic potential of some AdV types, there are only few controversial reports on the role of these viruses in the development of obesity in humans and the knowledge about engagement of other AdV types is still limited[14] [19] [20] [21] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28]. The study including 502 participants from the USA showed a significantly greater prevalence of AdV36 in obese people (30%) than in non-obese (11%). "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
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