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Available from: Nicolas R Robles, Apr 03, 2015

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2003 · Medicine - Programa de Formación Médica Continuada Acreditado
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    ABSTRACT: Late nephrologist referral may adversely affect outcome in patients initiating maintenance hemodialysis therapy, mostly with temporary catheters that may further increase morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of 2 variables on mortality: presentation mode (planned versus unplanned) and type of access (arteriovenous fistula [AVF] versus temporary catheter) at entry. This was a 3-center, 5-year, prospective, observational, cohort study of 538 incident patients. Measurements included presentation mode, type of access, renal function and biochemical test results at entry, and stratification of risk groups. Main outcome measures were mortality and hospitalization. Of 281 planned patients (52%), 73% initiated therapy with an AVF. Of 257 unplanned patients (48%), 70% initiated therapy with a catheter (P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox analysis showed that unplanned presentation (hazard ratio [HR], 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 2.44) and initiation of therapy with catheter (HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.46) were independently associated with greater mortality and similar HRs after adjusting for confounders. At 12 months, the number of deaths was 3 times higher in both the unplanned versus planned groups and catheter versus AVF groups. The joint effect of unplanned dialysis initiation and catheter use had an additive impact on mortality (HR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.97 to 4.22). Greater hematocrit (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.09) and albumin level (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.37 to 2.33) showed an independent association with survival, underscoring the benefits of predialysis care. Using Poisson regression, all-cause hospitalization (incidence rate ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.36 to 1.79; P < 0.001) and infection-related (incidence rate ratio, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.91 to 3.59; P < 0.001) and vascular access-related (incidence rate ratio, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.94; P < 0.003) admissions were higher in unplanned patients initiating therapy with a catheter than in planned patients initiating therapy with an AVF, after adjusting for confounders. Unplanned dialysis initiation and temporary catheter were independently associated with greater mortality rates in incident patients. The combined influence of both variables was associated with greater morbidity and mortality than either variable alone.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · American Journal of Kidney Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovacular disease is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, there are no reliable data neither on the prevalence of cardiovacular disease nor its risk factors in Spain. The Morbidity and mortality Anemia Renal study (MAR) is a two-year multicenter, open-label, prospective cohorts study. Its main objective is to assess the general morbidity and mortality, particularly of a cardiovascular cause, and its relationship with the degree of anemia. Secondary objectives are: a/ the description of current clinical practices in anemia, dialysis, vascular access, and CV risk factor management; and b/ the description of hospitalization and mortality causes. This paper describes the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and risk factors of the HD population in Spain. A total of 1.710 patients were included (60% male, aged 64.4 years, 16.2 months on HD). The mean co-morbidity Charlson index was 6.5 +/- 2.3. Cardiovascular disease was the most prevalent comorbidity, 16.7% had a coronary disease, and 13.9% had different degrees of heart failure, while 11.6% had arrhythmia, 1.7% stroke and 5.5% peripheral artery disease. The prevalence of hypertension was 75.8%, 74.4% of patients received antihypertensive drugs, and still 40% of patients had an inadequate blood pressure control. The investigators considered as dyslipidemic 34.1% of patients, and prescribed treatment to 69.5% of them, while the remaining 30.5% (10.4% of the total) had hyperlipidemia with no drug therapy. Eleven percent was active smoker, and 26.6% former smoker. There was 47.4% of patients with a corporal mass index above 25. Secondary hyperparathyroidism with PTH above of 300 pg/ml was present in 22.2% of patients. Despite the EBPG and K-DOQI recommendations, only 68.8% of prevalent hemodialysis patients attained a hemoglobin (Hb) above 11 g/dl, 89.4% ferritin levels above 100 ng/ml, 66.5 degrees/a a transferrin saturation index (TSI) above 20%, and 61.1% met all three objectives. In summary, this first cross-sectional analysis has allowed us to know in detail the standard practice in multiple aspects of management of HD population in Spain. It has also established clear differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and risk factors from the US registries. Last but not least we have identified therapeutic opportunities to improve the course and prognosis of our patients.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Nefrologia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia
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