Effects of an afternoon nap on nighttime alertness and performance in long-haul drivers

Cornell University, Итак, New York, United States
Accident Analysis & Prevention (Impact Factor: 1.87). 12/2002; 34(6):825-34. DOI: 10.1016/S0001-4575(01)00089-6
Source: PubMed


The effects of an afternoon nap on alertness and psychomotor performance were assessed during a simulated night shift. After a night of partial sleep restriction, eight professional long-haul drivers either slept (nap condition) or engaged in sedentary activities (no-nap condition) from 14:00 to 17:00 h. Alertness and performance testing sessions were conducted at 12:00 (pre-nap baseline), 24:00, 02:30, 05:00 and 07:30 h, and followed 2-h runs in a driving simulator. In the nap condition, the subjects showed lower subjective sleepiness and fatigue, as measured by visual analog scales, and faster reaction times and less variability on psychomotor performance tasks. Electrophysiological indices of arousal during the driving runs also reflected the beneficial effects of the afternoon nap, with lower spectral activity in the theta (4-7.75 Hz), alpha (8-11.75 Hz) and fast theta-slow alpha (6-9.75 Hz) frequency bands of the electroencephalogram, indicating higher arousal levels. Thus, a 3-h napping opportunity ending at 17:00 h improved significantly several indices of alertness and performance measured 7-14 h later.

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    • "Nap could function in managing sleep deprivation and arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat) due to interfered circadian cycle (Verrier and Josephson 2009). The midday nap could function in recovering negative physical and psychological symptoms due to interfered night sleep (Bonnefond et al. 2001; Macchi et al. 2002) or narcolepsy (Takahashi 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Napping/siesta during the day is a phenomenon, which is widely practised in the world. However, the timing, frequency, and duration may vary. The basis of napping is also diverse, but it is mainly done for improvement in alertness and general well-being. Neuroscience reveals that midday napping improves memory, enhances alertness, boosts wakefulness and performance, and recovers certain qualities of lost night sleep. Interestingly, Islam, the religion of the Muslims, advocates midday napping primarily because it was a practice preferred by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). The objectives of this review were to investigate and compare identical key points on focused topic from both neuroscientific and Islamic perspectives and make recommendations for future researches.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Religion and Health
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    • "Several researchers indicated a relationship between cognitive task length and response time. Firstly, Levitt and Gutin (1971) found a non-monotonic effect on reaction time while Macchi et al. (2002) found a positive relationship between response time and cognitive task length; Furthermore, Boksem et al. (2005) found a mixed relationship based on post error responses which was negative and post correct responses which was positive after either a medium or longhaul physical task performance. "
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    ABSTRACT: Some theoretical control models posit that the fatigue which is developed during physical activity is not always peripheral and it is the brain which causes this feeling of fatigue. This fatigue develops due to a decrease of metabolic resources to and from the brain that modulates physical performance. Therefore, this research was conducted to find out if there was finite level of metabolic energy resources in the brain, by performing both mental and physical activities to exhaustion. It was found that there was an overflow of information during the exercise-involved experiment. The circular relationship between fatigue, cognitive performance and arousal state insinuates that one should apply more effort to maintain performance levels which would require more energy resources that eventually accelerates the development of fatigue. Thus, there appeared to be a limited amount of energy resources in the brain as shown by the cognitive performance of the participants.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
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    • "Napping is an effective tool for managing sleep deprivation and dysrhythmia brought about by chronic or acute circadian disruption, both pervasive concerns that produce serious deficits in performance and health [1] [2] [3]. These negative physical and psychological symptoms are improved by daytime sleep and naps during nightshifts [4] [5] [6] [7]. In healthy, well-rested subjects as well, napping can enhance cognitive performance across a range of memory tasks [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Naps frequently take place during the daytime under some ambient light. People are commonly advised to wear eyeshades, or use black-out curtains while sleeping, as light is thought to inhibit sleep. Little is known, however, about how light during daytime sleep may affect the quality or architecture of that sleep. The present within-subjects design administered green narrowband light via light masks to 17 young adults (23.2 ± 4.7 years) during four 90-minute afternoon naps. Subjects were exposed to each of four light conditions that approximate the intensity of 1) physiological darkness (~0 lx), 2) moonlight (~1 lx), 3) typical indoor lighting (~80 lx) and 4) indirect outdoor light (~6400 lx). All subjects were able to sleep in all lighting conditions, with no differences in sleep quality or architecture. Power analysis revealed sufficient power to detect meaningful differences. Sleep inertia measured upon waking showed a general effect of the nap, independent of condition. Although light has various alerting effects at night, 500 nm LED light presented via light mask does not appear to inhibit daytime sleep. The finding that this light had no effect on the ability of individuals to fall asleep or stay asleep during an afternoon nap may inform decisions regarding the use of the nap as a facilitator of schedule adjustment, and challenges the assumption of light as a barrier to napping.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Physiology & Behavior
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