Pathologic quiz case. A 36-year-old woman with muscle pain and weakness. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor (mixed connective tissue variant)/oncogenic osteomalacia.
Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine (Impact Factor: 2.84). 11/2002; 126(10):1245-6. DOI: 10.1043/0003-9985(2002)126<1245:PQCAYO>2.0.CO;2
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ABSTRACT: Oncogenic osteomalacia (OO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome of osteomalacia due to phosphate wasting. The phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor (mixed connective tissue variant) (PMTMCT) is an extremely rare, distinctive tumor that is frequently associated with OO. Despite its association with OO, many PMTMCTs go unrecognized because they are erroneously diagnosed as other mesenchymal tumors. Expression of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), a recently described protein putatively implicated in renal tubular phosphate loss, has been shown in a small number of mesenchymal tumors with known OO. The clinicopathological features of 32 mesenchymal tumors either with known OO (29) or with features suggestive of PMTMCT (3) were studied. Immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin, S-100, actin, desmin, CD34, and FGF-23 was performed. The patients (13 male, 19 female) ranged from 9 to 80 years in age (median 53 years). A long history of OO was common. The cases had been originally diagnosed as PMTMCT (15), hemangiopericytoma (HPC) (3), osteosarcoma (3), giant cell tumor (2), and other (9). The tumors occurred in a variety of soft tissue (21) and bone sites (11) and ranged from 1.7 to 14 cm. Twenty-four cases were classic PMTMCT with low cellularity, myxoid change, bland spindled cells, distinctive "grungy" calcified matrix, fat, HPC-like vessels, microcysts, hemorrhage, osteoclasts, and an incomplete rim of membranous ossification. Four of these benign-appearing PMTMCTs contained osteoid-like matrix. Three other PMTMCTs were hypercellular and cytologically atypical and were considered malignant. The 3 cases without known OO were histologically identical to the typical PMTMCT. Four cases did not resemble PMTMCT: 2 sinonasal HPC, 1 conventional HPC, and 1 sclerosing osteosarcoma. Three cases expressed actin; all other markers were negative. Expression of FGF-23 was seen in 17 of 21 cases by immunohistochemistry and in 2 of 2 cases by RT-PCR. Follow-up (25 cases, 6-348 months) indicated the following: 21 alive with no evidence of disease and with normal serum chemistry, 4 alive with disease (1 malignant PMTMCT with lung metastases). We conclude that most cases of mesenchymal tumor-associated OO, both in the present series and in the reported literature, are due to PMTMCT. Improved recognition of their histologic spectrum, including the presence of bone or osteoid-like matrix in otherwise typical cases and the existence of malignant forms, should allow distinction from other mesenchymal tumors. Recognition of PMTMCT is critical, as complete resection cures intractable OO. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR for FGF-23 confirm the role of this protein in PMTMCT-associated OO.
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ABSTRACT: Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome that results in renal phosphate wasting with hypophosphatemia. In most cases, the underlying cause of TIO is a small mesenchymal neoplasm that is often difficult to detect, resulting in delayed diagnosis. One such neoplasm is the phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue variant (PMTMCT), an unusual entity with unique morphologic and biochemical features. Most of these tumors are found at appendicular sites with only rare cases reported in the jaws. We describe a PMTMCT involving the mandible in a patient with a protracted history of osteomalacia. A review of the current literature is provided with emphasis on the clinical and histologic features, etiopathogenesis, and management of PMTMCT in the setting of TIO.
Article: Tumor-induced osteomalacia[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare and fascinating paraneoplastic syndrome in which patients present with bone pain, fractures, and muscle weakness. The cause is high blood levels of the recently identified phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In TIO, FGF23 is secreted by mesenchymal tumors that are usually benign, but are typically very small and difficult to locate. FGF23 acts primarily at the renal tubule and impairs phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, leading to hypophosphatemia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. A step-wise approach utilizing functional imaging (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and octreotide scintigraphy) followed by anatomical imaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and, if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23 is usually successful in locating the tumors. For tumors that cannot be located, medical treatment with phosphate supplements and active vitamin D (calcitriol or alphacalcidiol) is usually successful; however, the medical regimen can be cumbersome and associated with complications. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and provides guidance in evaluating and treating these patients. Novel imaging modalities and medical treatments, which hold promise for the future, are also reviewed.
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