van Beijsterveldt CE, van Baal GC. Twin and family studies of the human electroencephalogram: a review and a meta-analysis. Biol Psychol 61: 111-138

ArticleinBiological Psychology 61(1-2):111-38 · November 2002with28 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/S0301-0511(02)00055-8 · Source: PubMed
Electrophysiological measures may be useful markers of the genetic underpinnings of complex behavior and psychopathology. Twin and family studies have been used to estimate the genetic contribution to the individual differences in a variety of electrophysiological measures. These studies are briefly reviewed here and published twin correlations from a number of studies with comparable methodology were selected for structural equation meta-analyses. For electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha power (11 twin groups) the heritability estimates in each of the single studies were high (averaged 79%), but it was not possible to equate the twin correlations across studies in the meta-analysis. In contrast, combining the data on alpha peak frequency (five twin groups) revealed a 'meta'-heritability of 81% (95% CI: 76-84%). Aggregating the twin correlations of five twin studies on the P300, the estimated meta-heritability is 60% (95% CI: 54-65%) for P300 amplitude and 51% (95% CI: 43-58%) for P300 latency. It is concluded that genomic variation contributes significantly to individual differences in all EEG and event related potential (ERP) measures studied to date.
    • "event potentials (VEPs and AEPs) were recorded again from twins and families, showing results similar to those obtained with the resting EEG (Begleiter & Porjesz, 2006; van Beijsterveldt & van Baal, 2002; Vogel, 2000; Yung, Lader, & Fenton, 1972). A result that came to no surprise given the strong relationship described by Vogel between the resting EEG and ERPs. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is, to the best of the authors knowledge, the first complete research on the state of the art on EEG based subject identification. As well as covering the full story of this field (from 1980 to 2013), an overview of the findings made in genetic and neurophysiology areas, from which it is based, is also provided. After a comprehensive search, 109 biometric publications were found and studied, from which 88 were finally included in this document. A categorization of papers is proposed based on the recording paradigm. The most used databases, some of them public, have been identified and named to allow the comparison of results from these and future works. The findings of this work show that, although basic questions remain to be answered, the EEG, and specially its power spectrum in the range of the alpha rhythm, contains subject specific information that can be used for classification. Moreover, approaches such as a multi-day-session training, the fusion of information from different electrodes and bands, and Support Vector Machines are recommended to maximize the system’s performance. All in all, the problem of subject identification by means of their EEG is harder than initially expected, as it relies on information extracted from complex heterogeneous EEG traits which are the results of elaborated models of inheritance, which in turn makes the problem very sensitive to its variables (time, frequency, space, recording paradigm and algorithms).
    Article · Nov 2014
    • "Middle-aged and elderly monozygotic (MZ) twins are good subjects to investigate the environmental and genetic effects on brain function because a middle-aged and elderly MZ pair is identical with regards to genetic factors but different regarding their environmental exposure. Many studies have compared similarities in electrical brain activity between MZ twins and dizygotic (DZ) twins using electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) (van Beijsterveldt and van Baal, 2002; Smit et al., 2005; Begleiter and Porjesz, 2006; van Pelt et al., 2012). For example, using EEG, the genetic effects on amplitudes and waveforms of several evoked potentials were reported by comparing MZ twins with DZ twins or unrelated pairs (Lewis et al., 1972). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of genetic and environmental influences on cerebral motor function, we determined similarities and differences of movement-related cortical fields (MRCFs) in middle-aged and elderly monozygotic (MZ) twins. MRCFs were measured using a 160-channel magnetoencephalogram system when MZ twins were instructed to repeat lifting of the right index finger. We compared latency, amplitude, dipole location, and dipole intensity of movement-evoked field 1 (MEF1) between 16 MZ twins and 16 pairs of genetically unrelated pairs. Differences in latency and dipole location between MZ twins were significantly less than those between unrelated age-matched pairs. However, amplitude and dipole intensity were not significantly different. These results suggest that the latency and dipole location of MEF1 are determined early in life by genetic and early common environmental factors, whereas amplitude and dipole intensity are influenced by long-term environmental factors. Improved understanding of genetic and environmental factors that influence cerebral motor function may contribute to evaluation and improvement for individual motor function.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014
    • "Thus despite relative changes by state variables, a person’s specific P300 morphology is a remarkably stable measure that shows little variation over recording sessions or experiments [24]. In line, P300 morphology has demonstrated a high heritability of approximately 60% [25]. The main aim of the current review is to unravel the P300’s development across the lifespan based on data obtained from both a meta-analysis and systematic review of existing papers and an independent large standardized dataset. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The P300 component of the event-related potential is a large positive waveform that can be extracted from the ongoing electroencephalogram using a two-stimuli oddball paradigm, and has been associated with cognitive information processing (e.g. memory, attention, executive function). This paper reviews the development of the auditory P300 across the lifespan. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the P300 was performed including 75 studies (n = 2,811). Scopus was searched for studies using healthy subjects and that reported means of P300 latency and amplitude measured at Pz and mean age. These findings were validated in an independent, existing cross-sectional dataset including 1,572 participants from ages 6-87. Curve-fitting procedures were applied to obtain a model of P300 development across the lifespan. In both studies logarithmic Gaussian models fitted the latency and amplitude data best. The P300 latency and amplitude follow a maturational path from childhood to adolescence, resulting in a period that marks a plateau, after which degenerative effects begin. We were able to determine ages that mark a maximum (in P300 amplitude) or trough (in P300 latency) segregating maturational from degenerative stages. We found these points of deflection occurred at different ages. It is hypothesized that latency and amplitude index different aspects of brain maturation. The P300 latency possibly indexes neural speed or brain efficiency. The P300 amplitude might index neural power or cognitive resources, which increase with maturation.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014
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