Defining the cultural milieu for implementing faculty practice in Pakistan
BScN Programme, School of Nursing, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.International Journal of Nursing Practice (Impact Factor: 0.6). 01/2003; 8(6):315-23. DOI: 10.1046/j.1440-172X.2002.00385.x
Faculty practice can promote a collaborative partnership mutually beneficial to both nursing education and service. However, little is known about its implementation in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential for introducing faculty practice within the cultural milieu of Karachi, Pakistan. Focus groups of nursing faculty, staff and students were conducted in various settings: government, semigovernment and private institutions to elicit the data. Data analysis revealed that a more comprehensive definition of faculty practice is needed that will provide the foundation for a culturally acceptable model of faculty practice in Pakistan. Hierarchy dominates the current cultural milieu and must be addressed before faculty practice can be implemented.
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- "The role of nurses in primary care has developed rapidly but the best use of their skills and experience is yet to be defined (Hollis 2005). In Pakistan there is a ratio of four physicians for every nurse (Upvall et al. 2002) but unfortunately there are no data available for pharmacist–nurse ratio in the country. Relatively little is known about nursing in Pakistan, there is no data-base on the registrants and very few published studies are available on the nursing profession (Susan et al. 1994). "
ABSTRACT: This paper is a report of a study of nurses' perception towards the role of pharmacist in Pakistan healthcare setup. Collaborative care by the healthcare professionals has the potential to improve patient care, enhance patient safety and to reduce workload issues that cause burn out among healthcare professionals. A quantitative (cross-sectional) study design was adopted. A sample of 458 nurses was selected from government hospitals of three cities of Punjab, Pakistan. The study took place from 10 January 2009 to 15 March 2009. Two hundred and sixty-six questionnaires were returned, giving the response rate of (58·07%). Three-fifths of the nurses reported that they had once a day interaction with the pharmacist. Seven-tenths of the nurses expected the pharmacist to take personal responsibility for resolving any drug-related problems. Moreover they appear to have high expectations of the pharmacist, almost nine-tenths regarded pharmacists as knowledgeable drug therapy experts, and almost two-thirds of the nurses emphasized on counselling of patient by the pharmacist. Nurses in Pakistan showed negative perception towards the role of pharmacist in healthcare setting. Although nurses considered pharmacist as a drug information expert but their expectation did not match their experience. A possible factor for this behaviour could be due to nurses' belief that incorporating the role of pharmacist in patient care, may decrease their worth and can result in intrusion into their duties.
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- "Reluctance on the part of Pakistani nurses (Upvall et al. 2002) and institutions to embrace faculty practice is therefore not surprising, and reducing this reluctance will entail a shift in current systems, attitudes, values and beliefs. In 2008, advocacy for faculty practice from the academic leadership in the institution studied and reforms in the PNC (e.g. "
ABSTRACT: This paper discusses a case study on implementing faculty practice in a private teaching institution in a developing country where direct 'hands-on' care is undervalued by nurses. In Pakistan, faculty practice is not well known and related to indirect care. In the institution studied, faculty practice has been a major consideration to strengthen relationships between clinical and academic sectors. MEDLINE and CINHAL were searched (1979 to July 2009). A consultative process was used by the faculty practice committee members and involved open discussions with academic and clinical service faculty in the institution studied. There is no empirical evidence to identify effective models for implementing faculty practice. A formalized faculty practice plan was identified as an important organization factor to promote faculty practice. Identifying a definition of faculty practice and scholarship was an important step to ensure conceptual clarity. Consistent with the literature, workload, remuneration and performance appraisal were identified as perceived threats. The hierarchy in nursing is a unique organizational factor that will need to be addressed. Given the lack of research on the effectiveness of faculty practice and its models, evaluation is imperative. Dissonance is an overall theme of the literature and stems from the perceived threats/risks of faculty practice. Faculty practice may fulfil institutional, personal and professional needs of individual faculty members. Faculty practice offers an opportunity to change attitudes, beliefs and values related to direct care in the institution studied and influence other institutions in Pakistan.
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- "Nurses graduating from the private school of nursing were about 4 times more likely to have good knowledge of risk factors of breast cancer compared to nurses graduating from public school of nursing, implying relatively better educational standards of private schools of nursing. This finding is supported by the fact that some private institutions in Pakistan have instituted post-basic nursing education beyond the diploma level while the government sector does not have such programs . However, at the diploma level the length of the educational process is similar in both the private and public institutions indicating a difference in the quality of education. "
ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in both the developed and the developing world. The incidence of breast cancer in Karachi, Pakistan is 69.1 per 100,000 with breast cancer presentation in stages III and IV being common (>or= 50%). The most pragmatic solution to early detection lies in breast cancer education of women. Nurses constitute a special group having characteristics most suited for disseminating breast cancer information to the women. We assessed the level of knowledge of breast cancer risk factors among registered female nurses in teaching hospitals of Karachi. We also identified whether selected factors among nurses were associated with their knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, so that relevant measures to improve knowledge of nurses could be implemented. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in seven teaching hospitals of Karachi using stratified random sampling with proportional allocation. A total of 609 registered female nurses were interviewed using a structured questionnaire adapted from the Stager's Comprehensive Breast Cancer Knowledge Test. Knowledge of breast cancer risk factors was categorized into good, fair and poor categories. Ordinal regression was used to identify factors associated with risk knowledge among nurses. Thirty five percent of nurses had good knowledge of risk factors. Graduates from private nursing schools (aOR = 4.23, 95% CI: 2.93, 6.10), nurses who had cared for breast cancer patients (aOR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.99), those having received a breast examination themselves (aOR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.08, 2.26) or those who ever examined a patient's breast (aOR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.61) were more likely to have good knowledge. A relatively small proportion of the nursing population had good level of knowledge of the breast cancer risk factors. This knowledge is associated with nursing school status, professional breast cancer exposure and self history of clinical breast examination. Since only about one-third of the nurses had good knowledge about risk factors, there is a need to introduce breast cancer education in nursing schools particularly in the public sector. Continuing nursing education at the workplace can be of additional benefit.
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