[Combination of low-dose perindopril/indapamide versus atenolol in the hypertensive patient. Effects on systolic pressure and arterial hemodynamics. REASON Study].
In hypertension, consideration of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP) is now well recognized from epidemiological and therapeutical points of view, after numerous years of interest in only diastolic blood pressure. SBP, and also PP, are tightly linked to mechanical properties of large arteries. It is now possible to investigate precisely, with very good repeatability, these mechanic properties. The REASON study is an international multicenter randomised, controlled, parallel-groups study in essential hypertensives. The very low dose perindopril/indapamide combination (Per/Ind: 2 mg/0.625 mg) was compared with atenolol (50 mg) for a 12-month active treatment period in terms of blood pressure reduction efficiency and change in large artery hemodynamics to attempt to relate changes in pressure and changes in arterial mechanics. 471 patients suffering from hypertension were included, 406 benefitted from the treatment for one year (per-protocol analysis) and 96 benefitted from arterial investigations (pulse wave velocity and aortic wave reflection with applanation tonometry). Changes in brachial and central SBP and PP were higher with Per/ind than with atenolol. The reduction in pulse wave velocity was similar with both drugs, but aortic wave reflections were more reduced with Per/Ind than with atenolol. The very low dose perindopril/indapamide decreases SBP and PP to a larger extent than does a betablocker after a 12-month treatment. Changes in arterial mechanics, non invasively measured, were the same (pulse wave velocity) or in favour of Per/Ind vs atenolol (higher reduction in aortic wave reflection, with higher reductions in central systolic and pulse pressures).
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ABSTRACT: Pulse pressure (PP) is emerging as a major pressure predictor of cardiac disease. The study comprised 10 185 untreated patients with essential hypertension. A total of 5395 men and 4790 women 56+/-13 years old, with uncomplicated essential hypertension, after a 15-day washout period and after 6 months of antihypertensive monotherapy were included. All patients included in the final cohort were responders and had normalized their blood pressure. PP was decreased least with diuretics (-5 mm Hg) and most with angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and calcium antagonists (-15 mm Hg), followed by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) (-12 mm Hg) alpha- and beta-blockers (-10 and -9 mm Hg), differentiating among antihypertensive classes (P<0.001). The magnitude of PP fall was related to the degree of left ventricular (LV) mass reduction (P<0.001), seen best with ARBs (r=0.42) and least with ACEIs (r=0.18). Of the antihypertensive medications used in everyday practice, PP decrease may be achieved best with ARBs and calcium antagonists, whereas diuretics confer poor response. PP was decreased least with diuretics (-5 mm Hg) and most with ARBs and calcium channel blockers (-15 mm Hg), followed by ACEI (-12 mm Hg) alpha- and beta-blockers (-10 and -9 mm Hg), differentiating among antihypertensive classes (P<0.001). Of the antihypertensive medications used in everyday practice, PP decrease may be achieved best with ARBs and calcium antagonists.
Available from: Yangfeng Wu
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ABSTRACT: Reduced-sodium, increased-potassium salt substitutes lower blood pressure but may also have direct effects on vascular structure and arterial function. This study aimed to test the effects of long-term salt substitution on indices of these outcomes. The China Salt Substitute Study was a randomized, controlled trial designed to establish the effects of salt substitute (65% sodium chloride, 25% potassium chloride, 10% magnesium sulfate) compared with regular salt (100% sodium chloride) on blood pressure among 600 high-risk individuals living in six rural areas in northern China over a 12-month intervention period. Data on central aortic blood pressure, aortic pressure augmentation (AUG), augmentation index (AIx), the differences of the peak of first and baseline waves (P(1)-P(0)) and pulse wave reflection time (RT) were collected at randomization and at the completion of follow-up in 187 participants using the Sphygmocor pulse wave analysis system. Mean baseline blood pressure was 150.1/91.4 mm Hg, mean age was 58.4 years, 41% were male and three quarters had a history of vascular disease. After 12 months of intervention, there were significant net reductions in peripheral (7.4 mm Hg, P=0.009) and central (6.9 mm Hg, P=0.011) systolic blood pressure levels and central pulse pressure (4.5 mm Hg, P=0.012) and correspondingly there was a significant net reduction in P(1)-P(0) (3.0 mm Hg, P=0.007), borderline significant net reduction in AUG (1.5 mm Hg, P=0.074) and significant net increase in RT (2.59 ms, P=0.001). There were no detectable reductions in peripheral (2.8 mm Hg, P=0.14) or central (2.4 mm Hg, P=0.13) diastolic blood pressure levels or AIx (0.06%, P=0.96). In conclusion, over the 12-month study period the salt substitute significantly reduced not only peripheral and central systolic blood pressure but also reduced arterial stiffness.
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