[Primary- and revision-reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with allografts: a retrospective study including 325 patients].

  • Perth Orthopaedics &Sportsmed centre
  • ARCUS Sportsclinic Pforzheim, Germany
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At our institution we have used fresh-frozen allografts for the reconstruction of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligament since 1993. In this retrospective study we evaluated the clinical outcome of 325 fresh-frozen allografts (bone-patellar-tendon-bone allografts and Achilles-bone-tendon allografts) for primary and revision ACL-reconstruction. Patients (average age 38 years) were operated between 5/1993 and 2/1998 and mean follow-up was 38 (range 24 to 71) months. Clinical evaluation consisted of a case history, an examination, IKDC, Cincinnati knee score (CKS), KT-1000 testing and standardized X-rays. Overall subjective rating according to the CKS was more than 82 points for both groups. Objective results according to the IKDC were normal or nearly normal in 75.6 % of primary- and 67.0 % of revision-ACL reconstructions. The stability measured with the KT-1000 showed an average maximum side to side difference of 2.1 mm for primary ACL reconstruction and 2.3 mm for revisioners. The total failure-rate (= rerupture-rate + laxity-failures) was 13.7 % for primary and 15.0 % for revision ACL reconstructions. Given the increased failure-rate, autograft tissue remains our graft of first choice for primary ACL-reconstruction. We advise to reserve allografts for revision procedures where suitable autogenous tissues have been previously compromised, where a contraindication for autogenous tissue harvest exists or for multiple ligament surgery. No specific complications were observed with the use of allograft tissue.

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... Other longer-term studies report that 26 weeks after combining the fascia lata with the lateral portion of the canine patellar tendon [48], graft strength and modulus achieve only 13 and 27% of normal ACL, respectively. When autograft reconstruction is not possible (e.g., for narrow patellar tendon or prior injury to the quadriceps mechanism), surgeons often use bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) allografts to reconstruct the ACL [200,214,215]. Allografts offer the advantage that surgeons do not need to create a secondary morbidity site to harvest an autograft. ...
The enthesis is an organ that connects a soft, aligned tissue (tendon/ligament) to a hard, amorphous tissue (bone) via a fibrocartilage interface. Mechanically, the enthesis sustains a dynamic loading environment that includes tensile, compressive, and shear forces. The structural components of the enthesis act to minimize stress concentrations and control stretch at the interface. Current surgical repair of the enthesis, such as in rotator cuff repair and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, aim to bridge the gap between the injured ends via reattachment of soft-to-hard tissues or graft replacement. In this review, we discuss the morphological and mechanical characteristics of the fibrocartilage attachment. Additionally, we review historical and recent clinical approaches to treating enthesis injury. Lastly, we explore new technological advancements in tissue-engineered biomaterials that have shown promise in preclinical studies.
The causes of graft failure after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are multifactorial including the methods of graft fixation. The purpose of this study was to examine the ACL graft failure in three different methods of graft fixations including interference screw fixation, suture-post fixation and combined interference screw and suture-post fixation. We hypothesized that the fixation method after ACL reconstruction can affect the graft healing in tibial tunnel. Eighteen New Zealand white rabbits were categorized into three groups according to the method of fixation in unilateral ACL reconstruction with long digital extensor autograft. Histological examination demonstrated that the combined fixation and suture-post fixation groups showed significantly better integration between tendon and bone (P = 0.04). In immunohistochemical analysis, the combined fixation and suture-post fixation groups showed significantly higher BMP-2 and VEGF expressions than interference screw (P < 0.01). The tendon-bone healing after ACL reconstruction was affected by the method of graft fixation. Combined fixation with interference screw and suture-post reduced graft-tunnel micromotion and improved the graft healing in tibial tunnel.
There are many factors that may be involved in the failure of an ACL reconstruction. These factors include surgical technique and timing, graft material and incorporation, the integrity of the secondary restraints, postoperative rehabilitation, and selection of the patient including patient expectations. The goals of revision ACL surgery are to stabilize the knee, prevent further injury to the articular cartilage and menisci, and maximize the patient's function. Successful revision ACL surgery requires a thorough preoperative evaluation, including a detailed history, physical examination, and radiographic evaluation. This review article describes the reasons for failed ACL reconstructions as well as indications, preoperative evaluation, planning, and considerations of the procedure.
Recurrent instability after primary single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is predominantly caused by technical errors. Delayed biological incorporation and traumatic reinjury represent other factors of ACL graft failure. However, there are patients with an intact single-bundle ACL graft complaining of recurrent instability where imaging studies lack inappropriate positioning of the tunnels and other technical errors. This recurrent instability may be caused by an incomplete restoration of the native ACL because biomechanical studies have shown only partial restoration of normal kinematics in single-bundle ACL reconstruction. We present 2 cases of recurrent instability after primary single-bundle ACL reconstruction that demonstrated an intact ACL graft. We performed an augmentation of the intact ACL graft representing the anteromedial bundle by reconstruction of the posterolateral bundle. This novel technique may address a (partially) recurrent instability after primary ACL reconstruction.
Our study was aimed to advance the currently limited knowledge about differences in the biological remodeling of free soft-tissue tendon allografts and autografts for ACL reconstruction. Allogenic and autologous ACL reconstructions were performed in a sheep model using the flexor digitalis superficialis tendon. After 6, 12 and 52 weeks the animals were sacrificed. We analyzed the collagen crimp formation and its relationship to expression of contractile myofibroblasts in both graft types. Additionally, structural properties and ap-laxity were compared during biomechanical testing. At 6 weeks only descriptive differences were found between autografts and allografts with a more organized crimp pattern and myofibroblast distribution in autografts. Significant differences in myofibroblast density and crimp formation were found after 12 weeks. At these early stages, the progress of remodeling in autografts was more advanced toward the central areas than in allografts. At 1 year, grafts in both study groups returned to an ACL-similar structure. Structural properties and ap-laxity did not vary significantly between auto- and allografts at early healing stages. However, at 52 weeks, failure loads, stiffness and ap-drawer test showed superior values for autograft ACL reconstruction. Extracellular remodeling of allografts develops slower than in autografts. Therefore, rehabilitation procedures will have to be adapted according to graft and patient selection. Postoperative treatment regimens from autograft primary ACL reconstruction should not be directly transferred to allograft ACL reconstructions.
Although techniques and options for suitable graft substitutes for anterior cruciate ligament surgery continue to improve, failures occur because of many reasons. Errors in surgical techniques seem to be important reasons. Inappropriate positioning of the tunnels may be the most important reason for these failures. Anatomical anterior cruciate ligament revision reconstruction, using autografts, may yield acceptable outcomes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. This retrospective study involved 148 anterior cruciate ligament revision reconstructions performed in our hospital using autografts. One hundred and seven patients were followed up at a mean of 72.9 +/- 20.6 months. Clinical evaluation was performed using the Lysholm score, the Tegner rating system, the International Knee Documentation Committee evaluation form, and the KT-1000 arthrometer. Radiographs were evaluated for signs of osteoarthritis according to the Jaeger and Wirth classification. Inappropriate positioning of the tunnels was the most important reason (63.5%) for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction failure. The average Lysholm score improved significantly at the follow-up (88.5 +/- 12.4 vs 51.5 +/- 24.9; P < .001). Moreover, the average Tegner activity score improved significantly compared with the activity score before revision surgery (6.3 +/- 1.8 vs 2.8 +/- 1.8; P < .001). The International Knee Documentation Committee score was A in 17 cases, B in 45, C in 37, and D in 8. Radiographic evaluation revealed that 33 patients had degenerative findings of grade I, 35 of grade II, 16 of grade III, and 2 of grade IV. Anatomical anterior cruciate ligament revision reconstruction provides satisfactory midterm results as far as stability and function of the knee are concerned. In spite of these favorable subjective and objective results, the radiological evaluation revealed a significant progression of osteoarthritis.
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